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Popular Names 

OF 

Flowers, Fruits, &c., 



As used in the County of Somerset and the 
adjacent parts of Devon, 'Dorset and Wilts. 



Compiled) bp B» S- /IDacmillan* 



Reprinted from the Somerset County Herald. 



jr^TT ':.^Y 



YEovHi : 

Western Gazette &c. Co., Ltd. 

1922. 



' ^3i_ 



PREFACE. 



A few months ago the following question 
appeared in the Notes and Queries Column of 
the Somerset County Herald : — • 

Local Flower Names are often very apt 
and expressive. I recently heard the Michael- 
mas Daisy called " Farewell Summer." Can 
any reader of the Notes and Queries Column 
kindly tell me whether a collection of local 
flower nam.es has been published in Somerset ? 
—L.N. 

I hope it is no breach of confidence to say that 
the gentleman who made this enquiry is one who 
takes very great interest in all matters relating 
to the county of Somerset. I do not pretend to 
know what was his purpose in asking this question, 
but I have a suspicion that one of his objects, at 
any rate, was to elicit and to emphasise the fact 
that no such list of flower names has ever been 
published for this county, and possibly he had 
a faint hope that by thus calling attention to 
the matter in the columns of this paper, some- 
body might be stimulated to take up the work. 
If he had any such hope the querist can con- 
gratulate himself upon having attained his object, 
in so far as the list of local names of flowers which 
I have compiled and of which I print the first 
instalment to-day can be regarded as carrying 
out his ideas. In spite of its many shortcomings 
(of Which I am only too conscious), I believe this 
list is by far the most complete of its kind that 
has ever been attempted in this part of England, 
and its compilation is a direct result of the inser- 
tion of the question quoted above. 

It is only fair to myself and to others that I 
should confess at once that my own knowledge 
of these local names as well as of botany, 
etymology, and every other subject that is 
necessary for the intelligent compiling of such a 
list is very limited, and in undertaking this work 
I have been almost entirely dependent upon the 
help of others, the total number of persons who 
have assisted in compiling this list amounting 
to many hundreds, both old and young. The 
foundation of the list was a very fine collection 
of replies to popular competitions received at 
different times over a period of 12 or 15 years 



from readers of the four pajx'rs owned by the^ 
proprietor:, of the Somerset County Herald, in 
which priz'^s were oflered for tae b^st lists 
of the mo t interesting local nam."S of flowers 
used in the district in which the competitor 
resided. All the lists received in each of these 
competitions were carefully pigeon-holed, but no 
attempt was made to use them in any way until 
the question quoted above induced met o start get- 
ting the many hundreds of names they contained 
into something like order. An appeal for help and 
the offer of further prizes through the columins of 
the Company's four newspapers in November 
last brought in some hundreds of new names 
to be added to the list, and at the same time 
made it very evident that there Were hundreds 
of other local names still to be obta.i led if one 
could only find the means of getting them. I 
thereupon approached a large number of school- 
masters and mistresses in different parts of the 
county with a view to securing their interest and 
help in collecting such local names from their 
scholai-s, and although by far the greater part of 
those to wiiom I appealed ignored my letters 
entirely, a num.ber of masters and mistresses 
were kind enough to bring my request before 
their boys and girls, from many of Whom I 
received exceedingly interesting and useful lists 
of names. Unfortunately my helpers, both old 
and young alike, were not always absolutely 
reliable in the information they gave, and my 
own knowledge of the plants and of their local 
names — -particularly those in distant parts of 
the county to which I Was a stranger — has in 
many cases not been sufficient for me to be quite 
sure of my ground in inckiding some of these 
local names in my list and in attaching to them 
the scientific names of the plants which I believe 
were intended by the senders. I have thought 
it well, however, after exercising every possible 
care, to include for the present a number of 
names which I cannot myself guarantee, but 
which are given upon the authority of corres- 
pondents in the districts which I have named ; 
and I hope that many readers of this paper who 
are interested in the subject may be able to con- 
firm — or, if necessary, to correct — -some of these 
names, with regard to which my present informa- 
tion is not as complete or as satisfactory as I 
would wish. Several of the best botanists in 
the county have very kindly promised to look 
throagh proofs of my 1 st liei; u' it .■=pi)i'ars inthe 
paper, and I have no doubt that their greater 
knowledge of the subject and the fact that they 
are familiar with the local names used in the 
different pacts of the county in which they reside 
will not only add considerably to the length of 
my oj'iginal list, but will save me from making 
any serious mi: takes into which without their 
assistance I might possibly have fallen. 



Some c:ilics may complain th;.t my list iKcIud«'i> 
many nam.es wiiich are of a geuerpJ rather than 
of a local Ciiaracter. My answer is that in com- 
piling this li t 1 have tried lo serve a double 
pxirpose — not simply to colhct and to preserve 
some of the rno-t interesting of our purely 
Somerset folk-names, hut al^o to assist as far 
as I am able the proverbial " man in the street 
and the boys and givls in our village schools to 
learn the coirtct nam-s of many of the flowers 
in which they are int^-rested, but which at present 
are only known to them under som • popular 
name either local or general. As a rule I have 
included in tJiis list only names Waich have 
acquired a certain local interest through having 
been sent me by correspondents liviiig in the 
district 1 am attempting to cover, or wiiich I 
have obtain- d from local glossaries. I know that 
our larger dictionaiies and botanical works con- 
tain many iiundreds of poptUar names of flowers 
which are in more or less general use, and of old 
English name's which are now more oi less 
obsolete, which would have enormously increased 
the length of my list if I had thought fit to include 
th m, but broadly speaking I have left all such 
names alone, except in those cases in which local 
readers have apparently been familiar with— and 
sufficiently interested in— any such namo to insert 
it in the lists they have sent me. 

1 had several reasons for including a number 
of names from the adjacent parts of Devon, 
Dorset, and Wilts. In the first p'ace I had 
collected some hundreds of names from readers 
living in those border districts, and thought it 
a pity not to make any use of them, especially 
having regard to the fact that some of them 
had never before been published, and in many 
cases they supplement or throw additional light 
upon the names used in Somerset. Further, the 
best and most useful li^-ts of local flower names 
that I could trace as having been published in 
this part of England were tjje Rev. Ettlderic 
Friend's " Devonshire Plant Names " and those 
given in the " Glossary of Wiltshire vVox'ds " 
by Itlr. G. E. Dartnell and the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 
Both these works have been a great help to me 
in preparing my own list. Mr. Edward Vivian, 
of Trowbridge, who lives within two or three 
miles of the Somerset border, kindly sent me a 
carefully-compiled list of about 500 names used 
in that district, a Large percentage of them being 
in use over a fairly wide area extending well into 
the county of Somerset. Residents in the i\eL^- 
bourhood of Frome and throughout East Somerset 
generally would probably find that they had 
far more names in common with Mr. Vivian than 
with any list of equal length which might be com- 
piled at, say, Wellington or Dulverton, which, 
although in this county, would have much 
more in common with the names of East Devon. 



T have myself lived for over 35 years within a 
mile of the Dorset border, but more than 50 
miles away from Minehead or Portishead in my 
own county, and the names given by the Rev. 
Wm. Barnes and Mr. J. C. Mansell-Pleydell and 
others in Dorset lists are much more familiar 
to me and to many other people in South and 
East Somerset than many of the names given by 
Mr. P. T. Elworthy in his masterly " Word-book 
of West Somerset." 

Readers who are in any way interested in these 
local flower names are strongly rd vised to cut 
out the columns week by week as they appear 
in the paper and to preserve them for future 
reference. The Glossary which commences this 
week will extend over several months, and as 
soon as it is complete I hope to publish an Index 
to it in which all the scientific names quoted in 
the Glossary will be arranged in alphabetical 
order. Opposite each scientific name will be given 
the whole of the local names for that particular 
plant which have appeared in the Glossary, and 
this arrangement should prove both interesting 
and helpful to the learner and the expert alike. 
For instance, a reader knows a flower by no other 
name than " Adam and Eve." A reference to 
the Glossary will show him that this nam.e is 
given to five different plants, amongst them being 
Arum, macidatum and Orchis mascula. If he turns 
to the Index he will find under the heading Arum 
maculatum probably at least 50 or 60 other local 
names for this one plant, and by going back to 
as many as he pleases of these other local names 
in the Glossary he will learn much more about 
the plant to which they are applied. Similarly 
under the heading Orchis mascula he would pro- 
bably find a dozen local names given for this 
plant, and by referring to these names in the 
Glossary he would acquire additional information. 

Acting upon the advice of several of the best 
known botanists in the county, I have adopted 
as my standard for the scientific names of our 
British wild flowers the latest (10th) edition of 
the London Catalogue of British Plants (1908), 
which I have followed as closely as possible. 

Before the type is distributed a limited number 
of reprints will be made, and as soon as publica- 
tion is complete in the columns of the newspaper, 
the Proprietors, I hope, will issue the full Glossary 
and Index in book form at a price not exceeding 
5s, and possibly less. May I add that in any case 
I myself shall not profit by it in any way. The 
work I have done in this connection has been a 
labour of love for which I have not received ana 
do not wish to receive any reward whatever 
beyond the satisfaction of having done this little 
for my native county in the hope of interesting 
other Somerset people in its beautiful flowers 
and in its folk-names for thera. So far as the 
Company are concerned, the cost of collecting 
and publishing this vast am.ount of material 



will greatly exceed any sum they may hope to 
receive from the sale of the book, and I trust, 
therefore, that any reader who is able to add 
in any way to the com.pleteness or correctness 
of this list will not refrain from doing so through 
fear that by so doing he may be contributing to 
the Proprietors' or to my own gain. 

" For Somerset's sake " I appeal to readers who 
are interested in this subject to be good enough to 
send m.e from time to time additions, corrections, 
or suggestions which may occur to them. The 
list I am hoping to print will be very far from 
being a perfect list, and I claim for it nothing 
more than that it is a contribution towards a 
m.ore worthy Glossary for our county, which 
I hope miay some day be comipiled by an abler 
man, with a wider knowledge of the subject and 
other sources of information besides those upon 
which I have been able to draw. But Somerset 
is a large county, and (as my list shows) these 
local nam.es differ very widely in ditterent parts 
of it, and it is impossible for any one man to com.- 
pile a complete list without generous help from 
correspondents in every corner in the county. 
I claim to have miade my contribution towards 
the form.ation of a Somerset Glossary of plant 
names, and I hope that many of our readers who 
take any interest in the subject — ^nd who amongst 
them.does not ? — -will assist in the work by making 
such additions as they may be able. 
May 21?t, 1921. 

A. S. Macmillan. 



r.OTANICAL- 



POPULAR NAMES 



OF 



FLOWERS, FRUITS, &c., 

yJs used in the County of Somenet and the 
adjacent parts of Devon, Dorssf and Wilts. 



^ Aaron's Be^^rd. (1) Tlie largo flowered St. 
John's Wort, Hypericum calycinum ; so named 
from the bundles of stamens, which have a very 
beard-like appearance. Commonly calle 1 " Ro e 
of Shar n." 

(2) A white-flowered plant of Chinese origin, 
Saxijraga tarmentosa, largely grown in the West 
of England in pots, and known by a variety of 
namea, including Spidtr-plant and Strawberry 
plant, from the way in which the young plants 
hang On their runners over the sides of the flower 
pot. Othe'- Iccal n' mes are Moth' r ( f T h' u^ands, 
Creeping Sailo , Old Ma x's B ard, and Wandering 
Jhw 

(3) In N.W. Wilts the heads of the Crow 
Garlic Alliinn rineale, with the stiff young leaves 
growing out of the bulbils. 

(4) A cori'espondent at Compton (between 
Yeo-vil and Sherborne) informs me that the name 
is given in that district to the Monkshood, Aconi- 
tum Napellus. 

Aabon's Flannel. Great Mullei?% Verbascum 
Thapsus (Melj^lash, Dorset). 

Aaron's Pride. London Pride, Saxifraga 
umbrosa. I have this name only from the Head- 
miaster o' Sexey's Sch o' , \Aho received it from a 
Clevedon !ad. 

Aaron's Rod. Fairly general name for (1) 
Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus 

(2) Common Golden Rod, Solidago Virgaurea. 

(3) The various garden varieties of Tritoma 
or Kniphofia. more commoxily known as Red Hot 
Poker or Flame flower. 

(4) Several coi-respondents give the name as 
being applied to Common Agrimony, Agrimonia 
Eupaioria. 

Abbey. A Somerset name for the Great White 
Poplar, Populus alba. A corruption of the Dutch 
name Abeel, which was introduced with the tree 
from Holland in Evelyn's time. 

Abele 01 Able Tree. The White Poplar as 
above. 



Abbicock. a vevy comniou Som ^rset form 
of Apiicot, Armeniaca vulgaris. Gerard (1636) 
said " The fjuit is naniecl in Eagland Abrecoke, 
Aprecock, and Api-ecox." Miller in his Kalendar 
1733, calls it Apbicock. 

Acorn Tree. A numbor of correspoidents 
at Paulton give nn this as the local name for the 
Oak, QuercHS Bobiir. 

Adam and Eve. A fairly general namo for 
(1) One of o\ir commonest English orchises, the 
Early Puiple, Orchis mascula ; and 

(2) al'oo for the Spotted Orchis, Orchis maculata. 
Accoi'ding to Craven the name is given to the 
two tubers of the plant, which to the fanciful 
were held, singlj, to resemble the human figure, 
and, together, to suggest the first parents of our 
race. 

(3) The name is also frequently applied to 
the Wild Arimi Oi" Cuckoo pint, Arum maculatum 

(4) Mr. Edward Vivian, of Tiowbridge, and 
a correspondent at lit on inform me that in those 
districts the name is given to the Monkshood, 
Aconilum Napellus. 

(5) My Iltoa covrespondeat says the name 
is also given to the Common Lu'igwort, Pul- 
monaria officinalis. 

Adam and Eve in the Bower. A corres- 
pondent at Winsham gives me this as one of the 
local names for the Dead Nettle. 

Adam's Flannel. Great Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus. 

Adam's Needle. (I) The popular name of the 
genus Yucca, paiticalacly Y. filamentosa, which 
is sometimes called Adam's Needle and Thread 
on account of the lea\es bearing threadlike 
fibres on tneir margins. 

(2) Shei)herd's Needle or Venus' Comb, 
Scandix Pecten-Veneris. 

Adder's Flowers. Several corresxjondents, 
mostly in the Chard and East Devon districts, 
give this as a local name for 

(1) Tiie Early Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(2) Spotted Orchis, Orchis maculata. 

(3) Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta, 

(4) Red Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

Adder's Food. A name given to the red 
berries of a number of pHnts, which aie poisonous 
or sui)posed to be so, i^arti mlai'ly to those of 
the Wild Arum, the Iris, Biyoiy, &c. The 
word Adder in this and most of the following 
names has iiothiig to oo with snakes ""nd reptiles 
at all. It is neither more nor less th^ii the Anglo- 
Saxon Word attor, which me ns " poison." Attor- 
berries, meaning Poison-beiries (the very name 
is still used in Sussex) was changed fitst to Adder 
Berries, then to Adder's Food or Adder's Meat, 
and finally in many cases to Snake's Food. 



Adder's Grass. Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mascida. 

Adder's Meat. In addition to being com- 
monly applied to th(? red berries mentioned 
Under Adder's Food, thii is a very general 
name for 

(1) The Greater Slitchwoit, Stellaria Eolostea ; 
Dr. Dowiies informs me that in Cornwall children 
think they are sure to be bitten by an adder if 
they gather the Stitchwoi-t. 

(2) Also for the Wild Armii, Arinn maculatum ; 

(3) Mr. Wevell, of .Stogmsey, tells me in 
that disirict the name is a])})lied to the Wild 
Parsley. (Probably Anthriscus sylvestHs or 
Caucalis Anihri^nvs.) 

Adder's Mouths. (1) Several correspondent^ 
give this as a local name for the Wild Blue (or 
Stinking) Iris, Iris Jaiidissima. 

(2) A correspondent at Chard gives this as 
a local name for the Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mascula. 

Adder's Tongue. (1) The general E.iglish 
name for the fern Ophioglossum vulgatum, so called 
" Because out of every leaf it sendeth forth a 
kind of pestal, like unto an adder's tongue ; it 
cureth [on the doctrine of signatures] the biting 
of serpents." Coles, Ada77i hi Edeyi, p. 558. 
The scientific name Ophioglossvm is a compound 
of two Greek words meaning " Serpent's tongue." 

(2) In West Somerset the name is frequently 
applied to the Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatum. I also have this n^.mo fi om a corres- 
pondent at Uplyme 

(3) In Devon and parts of Dorset the Early 
Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(4) The common Hart's Tongue f^rn, Phyllitis 
Scolopendrium. 

{5) In South-West Wilts the Twayblade, 
Listera ovata. 

(6) The Rev. Hilderic Friend says in Devon- 
shire the name is given to the Arrowhead, Sagit- 
taria sagittifolia, and that the old people say that 
a cupful of tea every day made of nine leaves of 
this plant to a pint of water boiled together ia 
a good strengthening medicine if taken in spring 
and autumn. 

Adderwort. The Snakeweed or Bistort, 
Polygonum Bistorta, from its writhed roots. 

Aeroplanes. The winged fruit of the 
Sycamore, Acer Pseudo-platanus. I have had 
this name sent me by school boys from a great 
many different parts of Somerset, and I regard it 
as a rather remarkable illustration of the ready 
way in which they apply up-to-date and appro- 
priate names to natural objects. 

After Grass. The grass which grows after 
the hay is gone. It is not a second crop to be 
mown, but to be fed. — F. T. Elworthy. 

Commonly called Ee-gbass in East Somerset 
and Wilts. 



9 

Aggermony. a West Somerset conuption of 
" Agrimony," Agrimonia Ewpatoria. 

Agleaf. Great Mullein, Verhascum Thapsus. 

Aglet. The haw or fruit of the Hawthorn 
Cratnegus. monogyna. 

The catkins of the Hazel, Corylus Avellana, 
are called Aglets in Gerard's Herbal. 

Ails. The beard of barley when l)roken off 
from the grain. The individual husks of any 
corn are also called Ails. The terni is only 
applied to the separated spear or husk — never 
when still attached to the grain. — F. T, 
Elworthy. Hollyband has " the eiles or beard 
upon the eare of corne." 

Aldbrdraught or Alderdrots. Corres- 
pondents at Horton and South Petherton give 
this as local name of the Cow-i)arsniii, Heracleum. 
Sphondylium, more commonly called Eltrot or 
Hogweed. 

Ale-Cost or Alecoast. An old English name 
for the common Costmary, Tanacetum viilgare 
or Balsamita. The name was given because the 
j)lant was formerly put into ale. 

Ale-Hoop. A fairly general name for the 
Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea, given to the plajit 
because it was formerly used in making ale. 

Alexanders or Alisanders. The Horse 
Parsley, Smyrnimn Oh'scdrum. It has been sug- 
gested that the name " Alexanders " is probably 
due to the fact that one of the earlier names of 
the plant was " Parsley of ]Macedon," which 
was Alexander's country. Another suggestion 
is that it is a corruption of its scientific name 
Olusatrum, which is Latin for " black pot herb." 
The plant was formerly cultivated i'lstead of 
celery. 

Alison or Alysson. An English form of 
Alyssurn. The na.me is said to be derived from 
two Greek words meaning " no dog madness," 
because the ancieats used the plant as a remedy 
for the bite )f a mad dog. 

All-Bones. Greater Stitch wort, Stellaria 
Holostea. " All-bones " is a free and easy transla- 
tion of the scientific nanae Holostea, which is taken 
from the Greek. The name is given to the 
Stitchwort on account of the brittleness of its 
stalks. In Cheshire it is called Break-bones, 
from their snapping off at the joints. 

Alleluia. The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 

Acetosella. From its blossoming between Easter 
and Whitsuntide, the season at which the Psalms 
were sung which end with that word, viz 
those from the 113th to the 117th inclusive. 
It bears the same name in German, French, 
Italian, and Spanish for the same reason. The 
name is met with in 15th century manuscripts 
in the Bodleian. 



Alleb. The Alder tree, Alnus rotimdijolia, is 
nearly always so called in West Somerset. Dr. 
Prior" says this local form is the original and more 
proper form of the nanio, which comes froixi the 
Anglo-Saxon ; the " d " has been inserted for 
euphony. 

All-Good. Meiciuy Goosefoot, Chenopodiron 
Bonus-Henrictis. An old name given to the 
" GooA King Henry " Goosefoot (sometimes called 
" English Meicmy") on account of its excellent 
qualit ies as a remedy and an esc tdent. Its Dutch, 
GeTmin, and French names have the sanxe 
meaning Soe Good King Henry. 

All-Heaj:.. (1) Great Wild (or Cat's) Valerian, 
Valeriana officinalis. It owes its popvdar name 
to the fact that until comparatively recent years 
country people commonly used the leaves as an 
application to wounds. 

(2) Perhaps the name All-heal or Clown's 
All-heal is more generally given to the Marsh 
Woundwort, Stachtjs palustris, which Gerarde 
praised as healing " grievous and mortal wounds." 
He says he derived his knowledge of its powers 
from a clown, who coied a wound ^^'ith it ia a 
week, which wo aid have x-equired forty days with 
balsam itself ; hence he called the plant " Clown's 
All-heal " or " Clown's Woundwort." 

(3) An old name for the Mistletoe, VisGum 
album. Dr. Downes informs me that in the 
neighbourhood of Ilmin.ster the Mistletoe is some- 
times called " Chmchman's Greeting," and he 
raises the question whether the old name for the 
Mistletoe was not therefore All Hail rather than 
All Heal. 

(4) The name is sometimes given to the 
Common S3lf-heal, Prunella vulgaris, which is 
still known also by some (f its old names of 
Carpenter's Hevb, Sicklewort, Hookweed, &c., 
which allude to its uses as a viilnerary ; and 
many cases are recorded ])y old herbalists in 
which wounds inflicted by sickles, iicythes, and 
other sharp instruments were healed by its use. 

(5) A correspondent at Stokc-under-Ham 
gives me this as a local name for the Dead Nettle, 
Lamium. 

All Rot. Mr. H. A. Bending, of Shoscombe 
(piear Bath) informs me that this is one of the 
names given in that dist ict to the Cow Parsnip, 
Heracleum Sphondylium, in other parts of 
Somerset called Eltrot (of which the above nr.me 
is a corrtiption) or Limperscrimj). 

All Seed. A name given to a -variety of small 
weeds beaiing a large number of seeds. Probably 
most commonly given to 

(1) The Pour leaved All-seed, Polycarpon 
tetraphylluDi, <>i which the scientific name comes 
from the Grt^ek and means " Four-leaved many- 
fruit." 



(2) The Thyme-leavetl Flax-seed, Radiola 
Linoides. 

(3) A plant that formerly bore this name was 
the Common Knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare. 

(4) The Mxny -seeded Gooseloot, Chenopodium 
folyspermum. 

Alsike Clover. Swedish Clover, Trifolium 
hybridum. So called from its growirg abundantly 
in the jDarish of Alsike, near Upsala, ia Sweden. 

Altrot. Cow-parsnip, or Hogweed, Heracleuvi 
SphoJidyliuni. Perhaps more commonly called 
Eltrot in East Somerset, and Limperscrimp in 
West Somerset. 

American Creeper. Tropceolum peregrinum. 
In his Devonshire Plant Names the Rev. Hilderic 
Friend says ♦' There is some confasion in the use 
of the trivial name of this plant. In Somerset- 
shire this handsome climber is called Canary 
Creeper, as though it belonged to the Canary 
Isles." But the teim " Canary " surely refers to 
the bright yellow colour of the flowers and not to 
any supposed origin of the plant ! Mr. T. W. 
Cowan informs me that it is also called Canary 
Bird Flower, and that it comes from Peiu and 
Mexico. 

American Lilac. The Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus ruber, is so called in Devon. In 
many parts of Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts it is 
known by no ether name than Kiss-me-Quick. 

Angel Flower. A correspondent at Sxoke- 
under-Ham gives me this as a local name for the 
Common Yarrow, Achillea Millefolium. 

Angel Gabriel. Several correspondents at 
Sovith Petherton inform me that this name is 
there given to the Tiger Lily, Lilium tigrinum. 

Angels. (1) Corresi)ondents at Symondsbury 
and Monkton Wyld, near Chaim'-uth, infoim me 
that this name is there given to the Herb Rob?rt, 
Geranium Robertianum. 

(2) Winged seeds of the Sycamore, Acer 
Pseudo-platanus (Mello). 

Angels and Devils. A ger^eral name in this 
part of England for the Wild Aium or Cuckoo- 
pint, Arum maculatum. Mrs. Day, of North 
Petherton, tells me the light parts of the flowers 
are the Angels and the dark part the Devils. 

Angels' Eyes. A name given in some parts 
of this district to the Germander Speedwell, 
Veronica Chamoedrys, more commonly called 
Birds' Eybs. 

Angler's Flower. A correspondent at Ilmin- 
ster gives me this as a local name for the Water 
Figwort, Scrophvlaria aquatica. 

Ass's Foot. Several correspondents send me 
this old name for the Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara. 
Its popular name in France has the same meaning. 



Angel's Tears. A South Petheiton coites- 
pondent gives this as a local name for the Star of 
Bethlehem, hy which I presume she means 
Ornithogalion mnhellatum, although in Somerset 
the name " Star of Bethlehem " is applied to 
several othei' flowers. 

Angel's Tpumpet. (1) The Common Thorn- 
apple, Datura Stramonium. 

(2) Also to the flowers of Brugniansia sua- 
veolens — ^a cultivated ]jla>it (jf the ^sightshade 
family. 

Anise. (1) The real Anise is PimjyineUa 
anisnm. The fruits (aniseed) are used fo • 
flavouring, «S:c. 

(2) This is one of several names given in this 
part of England to the favourite rockery plants 
Alyssmn maritimiim, frequently called Sweet 
Alice. The change fronr "1" to "n" and 
vice-versa is not uncommon in Somerset, where we 
say " chimley " for " chimney " and " snag " for 
" slag " (a sioe). 

(3) The name is also given to the Myrih^ 
MyrrMs odorata, an aronrantic garden iilant. 

Apostles. Several corresijondents at Thorne 
St. Margaret give me this as a local name for the 
Star of Bethlehem. I presume they refer to 
Ornithogalinn umbellatmn, although the name 
" Star of Bethlehenr " is given' in Somerset to 
several other flowers, particularly to the Greater 
Stitch woit. 

Apple Blossom. See " Apple Shrub." 

Apple Pie. A very common name for the 
flowers of the Willow Herb, both the Great Hairy, 
Epilobium hirsidum, and the Rose Bay, E. 
angustifolium. 

Apple Shrub. The Weigelia rosea, no doubt 
so called from ohe likeness of its flowers to ajiple 
blossom. The plant has soon become naturalised, 
for Dr. Prioi- says it Avas only introduced from. 
China in 1855. It is now one of our commonest 
flowering shrubs. F. T. Elworthy (written in 
1888). Mr. T. W. Cowan kindly informs me that 
the geneiic name has since been changed to 
Diervilla, and that the plant was intioduced into 
England in the year 1844. 

Apse. A name general throughout the South 
and West rf England for the Aspen, Popidus 
tremida. The late Mr. F. T. Elworthy says 
" Here is a good example of corruption by the 
literary dialect, while the much-abused Hodge 
has retained the true form." There is a tradition 
that the Cr^ss was made of the wood of this tree, 
but the same story is attached to naany other 
plants. 

Arbale. Mr. F. T. Elworthy says this is the 
only name in West Somerset for the White 
Poplar, Popi'hts alba. See ABBEY. 



13 

Arb Rabbits or Arbrobert. A corrupt iou 
of the name Herb Robert, the common Wild 
Geranium, Geranium Robertianiirn. The late Mr. 
F. T. Ehvorthy quotes a man as saying " We 
calls em sparrow-birds, but the pro^jer name's 
Arb Rabbits." 

Archangel. (1) The Yellow Dead Nettle or 
Weasel Snout, Lami urn Galeobdolon. Also applied 
to 

(2) The White Dead Nettle, Lamium album ; 
and 

(3) The Red Dead Nettle, Lamium puriwremn. 

(4) The garden Ang?lica, Archangclica 
officinalis. 

Arrish. a stubble of any kind after the crop 
is gone. 

Arrow Rot. Mr, H. A. Bending, of Shoscombe 

(near Bath) gives this as one of the names apj^lied 
in that district to the Cow-parsnip or Eltrot, 
Heraclenm Sphondylium. It is obviously a 
corruption of Aldertrot, Avhich see. 

Arrow Root. The Wild Arum or Cuckoo-ijint, 
Arum macvlatum. So called from the fact that 
Portland sago or arrowroot was made from the 
tubers of this plant. 

Arse-Smart. Water Pepper, Polygonum hydro- 
piper. The plant owes its local name to the 
irritating effect of its leaves. 

Arts. A name used in South-West Wilts and 
some parts of East Somerset for the Whortle- 
berry, Vaccinium Myrtilli's, known in West 
Somerset as " Worts." A corresj)ondent at 
Donhead writes : " The Semley end of Donhead 
Cliff grows ' arts ' in abundance, and is called 
' A^t Hill.' The ■Ordnance Sarvey map has 
corrected (?) this into ' Hart Hill,' but ' Art Hill ' 
is its proper name. A locar industry is to go 
' arting ' iu the projjer season of the year." 

Ass-smart. Se'e Arse-smart. 

Ash Candles or Ash Keys. The seed vessels 
of the Ash Tree, Fraxhvas excelsior. 

Ash-weed or Ach-wbed. An old, but still fairly 
general namef or th e common Go at weed,^gropodiMm 
Podagaria, of which Culpepper says " Neither is 
it to be supposed Goutweed hath its name for 
nothing ; but upon expejiment to heal the gout 
and sciatica ; as also joint-aches and other cold 
griefs. The very bearing of which about one 
easeth the paio of the gout, and defends him that 
bears it from the disease." 

ASHT PoKBB, A Tisbury correspondent gives 
this as a local name for the Hoary Plantain, 
Plantago media. 

Aunt Betsy. A Watchet correspondent tells 
me that the " Crane's bill" — ^he does not say 
which of the Crane's bills — is called by this name 



14 

in that district. Mr. T. W. Cowan kindly 
siiggests probably Geranium coluvihinvm, whicli is 
plentiful at Watchot. 

Auntie Polly. A play upon the name 
Polyanthus. Used by young i)eople in many parts 
cf the county. 

Australian Grass. A Somersetshire name 
for Pampas Grass, Gynerinm argentenm. 

AUTUMN Crocus. The Meadow Saffron, 
Colchi cnm autumn ale. 

Av En Av (= Half-and-Half). A coi'respondent 

at Stoke-under-Ham gives me this as a local 

name for HaAVs or fiiiit of the HaAvthorn^ 
Cratcegus monogyna 

Baa Lambs. (1) SL-veral young people at 
Evershot tell m^ that in that distiict this name ' 
is giveji to the White Clover, Trifolhnn repens. 

(2) The name is more generally given to the 
catkins of the haz'l, Corylus Avellana. 

Baa Lambs' Tails. Same as " Baa Lambs." (2) 

Babe and Candle. A corresi^ondent at 
Dunstez gives this as a local name for the Fumitory 
Fumaria ojflcxyialis, but I think there is possibly 
some confu-^ion between this name and " Babe 
in the Cra-dhs" by which the flower is known in 
other districts. 

Babe IN THE Cradle. (1) Common Fumitory, 
Fumaria officinalis. 

(2) Wild Arum or Cuckoo - pint, Arum 
maculatum. 

Babes in the Cradle. Water Figwort, 
Scrophularia aqiiatica. 

Babes in the Wood. A correspondent at 
Hawkchurch (Devon) gives me this as a local 
name for 1h"' Le.sser Stitchwt rt, Stellaria 
graminea. 

Babies in the Oradi.e. Snapdragon, Antir- 
rhinum majus — -from oie correspondent only at 
Monkton Wyld. 

Baby Cakes. Ck)rresj)ondents in the Ottery 
St. Mary district give me this a.s a, Icca,! name for 
the Shiiving Crane's-hill, Geranium lucidnm. 

Baby in the Cradle. See Babe in the Cr \dle 
(2). 

Baby's Bonnet. The Sweet Pea, Lathyrus 
odoratus (Alter). 

Baby's Breath. The Gauze flower, Gypso- 
phila paniculaia. 

Baby's Cradles. Sainfoin, Onobrychis sativa 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Baby's Pet. Common Daisy, BeUia perennis 

(Muchelney and Alter districts). 

Baby's Pinafore. A correspondent near 
Axminster gives this as a local name for the Herb 



Robert, Geranium Rohertranum. 'A number of 
correspondents in the Chard and S.E. Devon 
districts give the somewhat similar name Dolly's 
Apron for the same jjlant. 

Baby's Rattle. (1) Yellow Rsittle, Rhin- 
anfhus Crista-galli. 

(2) Common Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

('6) A corresijonuent av Axminster gives this 
as a local name for the crested Cow-wheat, 
Melampyrum cristatum, but I think it possible 
there is some confusion in that district between 
this plant and the Yellow Rattle (see 1 above), as 
I gather both names are given rather freely to 
either of the two plants. 

Baby's Shoes. (1) Common Bugle, Ajuqa 
reptatis (S.W. Wilts). 

(2) Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (Muchelney). 

Baccy. V\a,i\t A\n, Plantago. The stringy leaves 
are supposed to bear soine resemblance to tobacco 
(Keinton Mandeville). 

Baccy Lambs. The catkins of the Hazel, 
Corylus A vellana (Mells) . S 'e B v a Lambs' Tails . 

Baccy Plant. Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farjara. 
This aame has been sent me by one South Pether- 
ton correspondent only, but the name is pro- 
bably not Uncommon in viesr of the facts that 
for nearly 2,000 years the plant has been smoked 
through a reed to relieve pain, and the leaves 
are said to form the basis of the British herb 
tobacco. 

Bachelor's Buttons. A name which has 
been applied to a large number of flowers chiefly 
on account of their button-like shaj)e and appear- 
ance. Dr. Prior says the name is given to several 
flowers " from their similitude to the jagged 
cloathe buttons, antiently worne in this king- 
dom " according to Johnson's Gerarde, p. 472, 
but ascribed by other Wiiters to "a habit of 
country fellows to carry them in their pockets 
to divine their success with their sweethearts." 
Britten gave a list of 17 plants so named, 
but he did not by any means exhaust their 
number. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives eight plants 
to which the name is applied in Devon, bat he 
does not include either of the two plants to which 
I have found it most frequently given in Somer- 
set, viz : — • 

(1) Greo,tcr Stitchwort, Stellariu Holostea. 

(2) Marsh Maingold, Caltha palustris. 

(3) Mr. Friend includes Field Scabious, 
Scabiosa arvensis, in his Devon list, but says the 
name is given more frequently to this plant in 
Somerset than in Devon. 

(4) Perhaps the plant to which the name is 
most frequently applied in the West of England 
is the Common Feverfew, Chrysanthemum 
Parthenium. 



i6 

(5) From several parts of Somerset corres- 
pondents tell me the name is given to the Red 
Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

(6) From several districts in North Somerset 
I hear the name is given to the Ragged Robin, 
Lychnis Flos-cuciili ; and the Rev. Hilderic Friend 
says the name is given to this flower in Devon, 
although not commonly so ; but it is the only 
name for the plant in some parts of Sussex. 

(7) Several young people at Thorne St. 
Margaret tell me that in that district the Peri- 
winkle, Vinca major or T'. minor, is known by this 
name. 

(8) Tiie Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon Umbilicus- 
Vcncris. 

(9) Meadow Crowfoot, Ranunculus acris, 
and other Buttercups. 

(10) The burrs of the Burdock, Arctiimi 
oiiajus. 

(11) Tiie Corn Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

(12) Several correspondents at Bradford-on- 
Tone tell me the name is in that district applied 
to the common Tansy, Tanacetum rulgare. 

(18) Tiie Japenese shrub Kerria (or Cor- 
chorus), japonica, popularly known in the West 
of Enaland as the Yellow Rose. 

(1-1). The Chrysanthemum. The old-fashioned 
variety (now seldom seen), bearing bunches of 
small button-shaped, dark red or yellow flowers. 
Namie in general use in neighbourhood of Wel- 
lington. 

Bachelor's Pillar, given me by a young 
person at Otterhampton as a local name for the 
Ice plant Mesemhryanthemum, but probably there 
is some confusion between this a,nd the following 
name : — 

Bachelor's Pillow, given me by a corres- 
pondent at Wambrook as the local name for the 
prickly Cactus. 

Bacon. A correspondent at Leigh-on-Mendip 
informs me that this name is given m that di: trict 
to the young shoots of the Wild Rose, Rosa 
canina. 

Bacon and Eggs. (1) The Jonquil, Nar- 
cissus Jonquilla, and also other kinds of 
Narcissus. 

(2) The Water Crowfoot, Ranunculus aquatilis. 

(3) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (N.W. 
and S.W. Wilts). 

Bacon-Weed. White Goosefoot, Cheiiopodium 
album (Dorset). 

Back to Back. Several young people at 
Axbridge give m.e this name for the Pansy, Viola 
tricolor. 

Bad Luck Berries. Elder Berries, Sambucus 
nigra. I have this name only from one young 
person at Draycott. I know no reason for the 
name except possibly the tradition that it was 
uptto an Elder tree that Judas hanged himself. 



17 

Badger's Flower. Broad-leaved Garlic, 
Allium ursinum (N.W. Wilts). 

Baldmoney, Bawdmoney, or Badmoney. The 
Spignel Mew, Meum Athamanticum, one of the 
umbelliferous plants. Dr. Prior gives the 
derivation of the name as a corruption of the 
Latin valde bona — " exceedingly good " ; but Sir 
Wm. Hooker considers it a corruption of Balder, 
the Apollo of the North, to whom the plant was 
dedicated. 

Ball\ms. Correspondents at Bridgwater give 
me this as a local name for the Sloe or fruit ot 
Prutius insititia. 

Balm op Gilead. Wild Balm, Melittis MeliS" 
sophyllum (Wilts). 

Balm op the Warrior's Wound. Perforated 
St. John's Woit, Hypericum perforatum. The 
aame is due to the fact that the flowers of this 
plant were very extensively used for many years 
in the preparation of an ointment remarkable 
for its healing properties. 

Bame. The West Somerset pronunciation of 
Balm, Melissa officinalis. 

Banewort. The Deadly Nightshade, Airopa 
Belladonna. 

Banjo Leaves. Leaves of Plantaii, Plantago 
(Yeovil). 

Ban-nut. The AValnut, Juglans regia. I 
believe this word is more particularly used in the 
North of Somerset and in Gloucester, but the 
Rev. W. P. Williams, of Bishop's Hull, included it 
without comment in his glossary in 1873, and 
added the couplet : — ■ 

A woman, a spaunel, and a bannut tree. 

The mooar you bate 'em the better they be. 

Barbed Arrows and Fish-hooks. A Taunton 
lady gives me this name for (presumably the seeds 
of) the Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. 

Barber's Brush. A fairly common name in 
Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts for the Wild Teasel, 
Dipsacus sylvestris. 

Barren Strawberry. The Strawberry-leaved 
Cinquefoil, Potentilla sterilis, of which the leaf 
and flower are almost exactly like those of the 
Woodland Strawberry, but which is not a straw- 
berry, and bears no fruit in the popular sense. 
Children in some parts of Somerset give its 
blossoms the appropriate name of Story-tellers , 

Base Rocket. Wild Mignonette, Reseda Luieola, 
so called from its rocket -like leaves, and its being 
used as a base in dyeing woollen cloths. Also 
called Dyer's Weed and Weld. 

Bassinet {i.e., " little basin "). An old name 
for the Meadow Crowfoot, Ranunculus acris. 

Baskets. Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceo- 
lata (Little Langford, Wilts). 



Bastard Balm. A number of coiiespondents 
send me this name, which is the usual English 
name for the Wild Balm, Melittis Melissophylluni, 
and is given to mark the distinction between this 
and the true Balm, Melissa officinalis, which 
belongs to another genus. 

Bastard Killer. The plant S-Bivin' Jimiperus 
Sahina (F. T. Elworthy). Dr. Downes tells me it 
should be J. communis. 

Bath Asparagus. The Spiked Star of Beth- 
lehem, Ornithogalum pyrenaicum. Rev. R. P. 
Murray says " The young spikes are sold in Bath 
as a substitute for asioaragus, and are said by 
some to be little inferior in flavour." 

Bayzure. a correspondent at Babcary gives 
me this as a local name for the Primula Auricula, 
which Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me is also called 
Baziers. Both forms are probably a corruption 
of Bear's Ears, which see. 

Beacon Weed. White Goosef oot, Cheno- 
podium album. A Dorset pronuncia.tion of 
Bacon Weed. 

Beads. Procumbent Pearlwort, Sagina pro- 
cumbens (N.W. Wilts). 

Beam Tree. A si5ecies of wild Service, of 
which the general English name is White Beam 
Tree, Pyrus Aria. Closely allied to the Mountain 
Ash. 

Bear Bind. Field Convolvulus, Convolvulus 
arvensis ; so called from its binding together the 
stalks of bear or barley. 

Bearded Pink. Sweet William, Dianth'-s 
barbatus. 

Bear's Breech. (1) The English name of 
the genu-5 Acanthus. 

(2) The Cow Parsnip, Heracleum Sphondylium. 
Dr. Prior says the name has been transferred by 
som.e mistake from the Acanthus to the Cow 
Parsnip, and that it is given owing to the rough- 
ness of the plant. 

Bear's Ears. The Auricula, Primula Auricula. 
The name " Bear's ears " is from the former 
Latin name of the plant, ursi auricula, in allusion 
to the shape of its leaf. 

Bear's Mouth. Snapdragon, Antirrhinirm 
ma jus. 

Bear's Foot. (1) The Foetid or Stinking 
Hellebore, Hellebores foetidvs, from the shape of 
its leaf. Also Ihe Green Hellebore, H. viridis. 

(2) Monk's-hood, Aconitnm Napellus, because 
its much divided leaves are supposed to bear some 
resemblance to the paw of a bear. 

Beaty Eyes. The Pansy, either cultivated, 
Viola tricolor or wild V. arvensis. See Biddy's 

Eyes. 



19 

Bedstbaws. — A coiTeh.pondent at Stockland 
(Devoji) gives me this as a local name for the 
Tufted Vetch, ViHa Cracca. 

Bedwind or Bedwine. Traveller's Joy, 
Clematis Vitalba (Dorset and Wilts), 

Bee Bread. A name given to several flowers 
which piovide honey, particularly 

(1) White Clover, Trifoliinn repcns, and 

(2) Common Borage, Borago officinalis, which 
is frequently grown for the purpose. 

Bee Catchers. Common Foxglove, Digitalis 
'purj)urea. I am indebted for this name to Mr. 
A. Stenning, of Batcombe, who tells me that 
When the bee is in the flower boys close the 
entrance to be amused by the insect's struggles. 

Beedy's Eyes. See Beaty Eyes and Biddy's 
Eyes. 

Bee Flower. The Bee Orchis, Ophrys apifera. 
Also any flowers i)iu'poseiy grown near an ajDiary 
as sourcs-; ot h i i.-y. A coi^e.ipondent at Chard 
mientions Arabis alpina. Mis. .Lar-sdowae, of 
Over S' owey, gives Anch-sn. 

Bee Hives. Mr. A. Matthews, of Camerton, 
gives me this as a local name for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis piirpttrea. 

Bee Nettle. (I) \\'hite Dead Xeitl^, ionii"w< 
alb nil. 

(2) \ c uTPsp .ndeut at 2North Pethevton gives 
the Hed Dead Nettle, L. p rp' revrn. 

Bee's Nest. (1) The Wild Carrot, Dancus 
Carota ; from the nest -like compact growth of its 
inflo.ei-cei.c.^ : called also Bird's Nest for the 
sam • r( a'-on. 

(2) A Queen Camel correspondent gives this 
name for the Cow Parship, Heracleum Sphondy- 
lium, commonly known in East Somerset as 
Eltrot. 

Bee's Rest. S.-veral correspondents at South 
Petherton gives this as a local nam.e for the Water 
Lily. I presume they mean the Common Yellow 
Water Lily, Ny) phva lidea. 

Beggar's Basket. Common Lungwo.-t, Pul- 
monaria officinalis. 

Beggar's Blanket. Great Mullein, Verbas- 
cum 'i hapsiis. 

Beggars' Buttons; The flowerheads or burrs 
of the Burdock, Arctium majus. 

Beggars' Lice. (1) A vulgar name given 
on the Gloucester border of Wilts to common 
grass seeds, p rticul v y Gastiidi m lendigiriun. 

(2) Given m^ore generally to the seed burrs 
of the Goosegrass or Cleavers, Galium Aparine. 
Also to other plants having burrs with hooked 
prickles. 

Beggar's Needle. Shepherd's Needle, 
Scandix Pecten- \ eneris. 



Beggab Weed. (1) The over Dodder, 
Cuscuta Trijolii, from its destiuctiveness to Clover, 
&c. Also 

(2) Greater Dodder, Cuscuta europoea. 

Bella Donna. The Deadly Nightshade, 
Atropa Belladonna. This name is Italian, and 
means " fair lady " ; it is said to have been given 
to this plant owing to its berries being used by 
the Italian ladies as a cosmetic. 

Bell-Bind. (1) Field Bindweed. Convolvulus 
<irven8i8. 

(2) Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

Bell- Flower. (1) A common name for the 
Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- Narcissus, from its 
shape. 

(2) For the same reason any plant of the 
genus Campanula, including the popular Harebell, 
C. rotundifolia, which is known as the Belltlower 
in many parts of Somierset, Dorset, and Devon. 

Bell Heather. The large flowering pink or 
white Heather, Erica Tetralix. 

Bellows Flower. Dicentra spectabilis, which 
has a great variety of popular naraes, including 
Bleeding Heart, Lady's Lockets, Lyre Flower, 
Dutchman's Breeches, &c. 

Bell Rope. Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcissus. I ha\e only heard this name from 
Mr. W. C. Baker (a gardener). 1 asked him if 
he was not confusing it with " Bell Rose," but he 
was Aery emphatic that he had heard the flowers 
called Bell Ropes. 

Bell-Rose. One of the commonest nanies for 
the Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. 

Bellums. a Watchet correspondent gives me 
this as the local name for the Bullace, the fruit 
of Prunus insititia. 

Bennets. Long Coarse Grass : long stems of 
various Grasses, particularly Agrostis ; used both 
of withered stalks of coarse grasses and of growing 
heade of Cat's Tail, &c. Also long Plantain 
Stalks and Seedheads. I am indebted to Mr. T. 
W. Cowan for the couplet 

Pigeons never know no woe 
Till they a-Bennetting do go. 

Bent-Grass. Any wiry grass, such as usually 
grows upon a common or other neglected broken 
ground. 

Bents. See Bennets. 

Bergamers. Mr. Edward Vivia-i, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as the local name of a small, 
sweet, green pear ; probibly a corruption of 
Bergamot. 

Berry Hollt. Holly with berries, Ilex 
Aquijolium (East Somerset, and Wilts). Mr. 
Vivian tells me that in the Trowbridge dis- 
trict this is the usual name for Holly. 



Berry Holm. Holly with berries (Wivelis- 
combe). 

Besom. Th':* Broom plant, often called Green 
Besom, Cytisi s scoparius. An infusion of 
the leaves tf this plant is held to be the great 
si)ecific in droi)sical cases. 

Bethlehem Star. (1) Correspondents in 
various parts of Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts 
give me this as a local name for the Cineraria. 

(2) A correspondent at Brompton Regis gives 
it as a local name for the St. John's Wort,. 
Hypericum. 

Bible Leaf. (1) A correspondent at Stockland 
(Devon) gives this as a local name f o.- the St. John's 
Wort, Hypericum. 

(2) Another Devonshire correspondent at 
Buckerell, near Honiton, gives it as a local name 
for the Wood Spurge, Euphorbia amygdaloides. 

Biddys-Eyes. A very general na me in Somer- 
set for the small Wild Pansy or Heartsease, Viola 
arvensis. " Biddy " means a chick. 

BiGGOTY Lady. A coirespondent at Ever- 
cretch gives me this as a local name for the 
B•^ls6m or Touch-me-not, Impatiens Noli-me- 
tangere. Both the popular and the scientific 
names of the plant have reference to the rcmark- 
al)le way in which its ripe seed pods bxirst with 
great violence on the slightest touch and scatter 
the seeds to quite a long distar.ce. 

Bigold. a correspondent at Watchet gives 
me this as a local name for the Corn Marigold, 
Chrysanthemum segetum. The name is an old 
English one, and generally obsolete. It is very 
interesting if it still survives to any extent in 
West Somerset. 

Bilberry. Quite a general name for the 
Whortleberry, Vaccinium Myrtillus. 

Bill Buttox. The Water Avens, Geum 
rivale (S.W. Wilts). 

Billers. a name given in Devonshire to the 
flowers of any large umbelliferous plant, such as 
Cow-parsnip, Chervil, &c. Known as Bullers 
in West Somerset. 

Billy Busters. Mr. H. A. Bending, of Shos- 
combe (near Bath) gives me this as a local name 
for the Bladder Campion, Silene Cucubalna. 

Billy Buttons. This name is given to a 
variety of plants in different districts. 

(1) In Devon it is applied to the flower-heads 
of the Burdock, Arctium majus, from the way in 
which they adhere to the clothing, and boys often 
stick them down the front of their coat or throw 
them lightly against the clothing of other persons, 
to wh'ch they oling. 



(2) In S<unei"Sot and Wilts the n?nie is fre- 
quently given to the common Daisy, Bellis 
perennis. 

(3) A coiTespondent at Bridgwater tells me 
that in that district the Field Scabious, Scabiosa 
arvensis, is known by this name as well as 
Bachelor's Buttons. 

(4) Several correspondents at Wembdon tell 
me the name is in that district given to the 
Hollyhock. Althea rosea. 

5)" Correspondents at Bridgwater and Ax- 
miristei- give it as a local name for the Mallow, 
Malva sylvestris. 

(6) The Headmaster of Pensford Schools tells 
me it is applifd in that district to the Marsh 
Ma,ngolr, Caltha palustris. 

(7) A cov.c i>o ,dent at Bishopswood gives it 
as a local i.aane for the White Campion, Lychnis 
alba. 

(8) Buttercup, Ranunculus acris (North Cad- 
bury). 

(9) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Iwerne Minster). 

Belly-o'-Buttons. a correspondent at Leigh- 
on-Mendi]) gives this as a local name for the 
Marsh ?.Ir.rig' hi. Caltha palustris. 

Billy's Button. The Water Avens, Geum 
rivale (Dunington, Wilts). 

Bine Lilies. A name given in some parts of 
Dorset 1<> Ihe flowers of the Hedge Bindweed, 
Calystegia .sepium, and of the Field Bindweed, 
Convolvul s arvensis. See Bell-Bind. 

Bird Caches. A name given by young people 
to Capsicums, because it is possible to strip off 
the red skin rov^'ing of the seed vessel and leave 
a net-work < f (ii>re stnrounding the seed. Dr. 
Downes suggest-; this name and practice apply 
rather to the Chinese Lantern Plant, Physalis. 

Bird Knot Crass. Common Knot Grass, 
Polygon>nn aviculare. 

Birds. The winged seeds of the Sycamore, 
Acer Pseudo-platanus, from the way in which they 
fly through the air. 

Birds' Bread. Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 
The reason for the name is unknown. Dr. Prior 
says " Apparently from no better reason than its 
appearance in blossom when young birds are 
hatched." The popular name in France has 
precisely the same meaning. 

Birds' Bread and Cheese. Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella (Devon). 

Birds' Cherries. A correspondent at Queen 
Camel tells me the Haws or fruits of the Hawthorn. 
Cratcegus monogyna, are so called in that district. 

Birds' Claws. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus (Axminster). 



23 

Birdseed. (1) The heads of th- Greater 
Plantain, Plantago major, which are gathered 
when ripe and dried for jjutting 'u\ the cages of 
tame birds as A^dnter food. 

(2) Common Groandsel, Senecio vulgaris, for 
the same reason. 

Birds' Eye. A name given to a large number 
of different flowers. 

(1) Most generally to the Germander Speed- 
well, Veronica Chamcedrys. Children frequently 
say that if you pick Birds' Eyes the birds will 
come and pick voor eyes out. 

(2) In several parts cf Scme.rset the r-mall 
Wild Pansy or Heartsease, Viola arvensis, is kiiOA\-n 
as the Birds' Eye. Also the cultivated Pansy, 
V. tricolor. Rev. Hilderic Friend says " In 
Somersetshire .... a large yellow Pansy, 
for example, will be pointed out by the expres- 
sion, ' Look at this yellow Bird's Eye I ' " 

(3) In West Somerset the name is sometimes 
given to the Eve: green Alkanet, Anchusa semper- 
virens, which is also known in that part of the 
county as the Water Forget-]vie-Not. 

(4) Correspondents at Thurlbear and Wins- 
combe give it" as a local name for the Chickweed, 
Stellaria media. 

(5) The Rev. R. P. Murray gives it as l)eing 
applied in the neighbovirhood of Wells to the 
Birds'-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculat' s, more 
generally known as Fingers and Thumbs. 

(6) Several correspondents at Aller ir.form me 
that the name is there given to the Forget-me-not, 
Myosotis scorpioides. 

(7) Several correspondents at Chew 3Iagna 
tell me the name is there given to the Eyebright, 
Euphrasia. 

(8) In some parts of Somerset and Dorset the 
name is given to the Brooklime, Veronica Becca- 
bunga. 

(9) In South-West Wilts the Scarlet Pimpernel, 
Anagallis arvensis, is often called the Birds' Eye. 
This flov%-er is genei'ally known in Som-^rset as the 
Poor Man's Weather-Glass. 

In Devonshire the name Bird's Eye is given 
(amongst other flowers) to 

(10) The Herb Robert. Geranium Rohertianuyn. 

(11) The Red Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

(12) London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa. 

Birds' Meat. Berries, either of Thorn, Holly, 
or Ivy. The name is often applied to Hips and 
Haws. 

Birds' Nest. (1) The Wild Carrot, Daucus 
Carota, from the nest-like shape of its inflores- 
cence. 

(2) The Yellow Birds' Nest, Monotropa Hypo- 
pitys, from its leafless stalks resembling a nest 
of sticks, such as crows make. This is a very 
rare plant in Somerset. 



24 

(3) A Dunster correspondent gives the name 
as being applied in that district to the Tway- 
blade, Listera ovata. 

(4) The Bird's -nest Orchis, Neottia Nidus- 
avis, so called from the shape of its roots. 

Birds of Pajbadise. A correspondent at 
South Petherton gives me this as a local nam.e 
for the Monkshood, Aconitum Napellus. 

Birds' Pears. A name commonly given to 
both Hips and Haws, the fruits of the Wild Rose, 
Boaa canina, and the Hawthorn, Cratcegus mono- 
gyna, respectively. Mr. W. S. Price, of Wel- 
lington, says : — ^" In West Somierset applied to 
fruit of Hawthorn only. The fruits of the Wild 
Bose are called Tom Tickleis." 

Birds' Peas. A name applied to most of 
our Vetches, Vicia, whose seeds, contained in 
pea-like pods, furnish food for various wild birds. 

Bird's Tongue. Common (or Bird's) Knot- 
grass, Polygonum aviculare. 

Birds' Wings. Winged Seeds of the Sycamore. 
See Birds. 

BiRRY-HoLLY. See Berry-Holly. 

Biscuit Flower. A correspondent at Samp- 
ford Brett tells me this name is given in that 
district to the Herb Robert, Geranium RobeV' 
Uanum. 

Biscuit Leaves. A correspondent at Staple 
Fitzpaine says the leaves of the Beech, Fagiia 
sylvatica, are so called in that district. 

Bishop's Leaves. Water Figwort, Scrophu- 
laria aquatica. Dr. Prior says " from being 
known in French as Vherbe du siege, in reference 
to its remedial i^owtrs in hem.orrhoidal affections, 
and this word siige being understood as of a 
Bishop's see." 

Bishop's Thumb. A well-known variety of 
pear. (F. T. Elworthy.) 

Bishop's Tongues. Mr. Edward Vivian, of 
Trowbridge, gives me this as a common corrup- 
tion of Bishop's Thumb. 

Bishop's Weed. Commou Gout weed, ^gopo- 
diiim Podagraria. 

Bishopwort. (1) Mr. T. W. Cowan gives 
me this as a name for the Wovmdwort, Stachys 
Betonica. 

(2) Hairy Mint, Mentha aquatica {S.W. Wilts J 
Hants border). 

BissoM. (1) In West Somerset, the Common 
Broom, Cytisus scoparius, from its use in making 
brooms or besoms. 

(2) Common Ling or Heather, Calluna vulgaris. 
Largely used in the manufacture of besoms in 
various parts of the country. 



25 

Bistort. The general English name for 
Polygonum Bistorta, from its writhed roots, Latin 
bis, twice, torta, twisted. Often known as Snake- 
weed. 

Bitter Flower. Elder, Sambitcus nigra 
(Axminster). 

BrrTER Medicine. A Bridgwater school- 
master gives me this as a local name for the 
flower of the Elder, Sambucus nigra. 

BiTTERSGALL. The Crab Apple, Pyrus Malua 
var. acerba, m.eaning, of course, " as bitter as gall." 
Pulman says "It is often said of a soft, silly 
person : — ' He was born where th' bittersgalls 
da grow, and one o'm vall'd upon his head and 
made a zaate (soft) place there.' " 

BiTTER-SWBBT. (1) A general name for the 
Woody Nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara, because 
the rind of its stalk when it is first tasted is bitter 
and afterwards sweet. 

(2) A very common and prolific apple ; uneat- 
able, but excellent for cider. 

Black Aller. The late Mr. F. T. Elworthy, 
in his " West Somerset Word Book," says " The 
usual name for Buck-thorn, Rhamnus Frangula, 
' Buckthorn ' is never used." The name Black 
Aller or Alder is given to the shrub from its 
supposed resemblance to the Alder. 

Blackamore. Great Reed-mace, Typha lati- 
folia, miore commonly known as the Bulrush or 

Oat-tails. 

Black-a-Moor's Beauty. (1) A favourite 
name in Som.erset for several varieties of Scabious, 
particularly the cultivated Sweet Scabious, 
Scabiosa atropurpurea, and the Field Scabious 
(or Knautia), S. arvensis. Another popular name 
for both flowers is Mournful Widow. See also 
Black Soap. 

(2) According to Jennings the name is also 
given to the Musk-flower. 

Black-beetle Poisox. A Taunton lady gives 
me this as a local name for the White Dead 
Nettle, Lami'Dn album. 

Black Bent. The Slender Fox-tail Grass, 
Alopecurus agrestis. Dr. Watson tells me the 
Black Bent is really Agrostis nigra. 

Black Bindweed. The Black Bryony, Tamut 
communis. 

Black Boys. (1) A Wiltshire name for the 
Great Reed-mace, Typha latijolia, more commonly 
known as the Bulrush. 

(2) In North West Wilts, the flower-heads 
of the Plantain, Plantago. 

Black Cap. A Queen Camel correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Great Reed- 



26 

mace, Typha latijolia, more commonly called 
Bulrush. 

Slackers. A West Somerset term for Oats 
infested with " smuts." 

Black Eyed Susan. (1) (Correspondents at 
Over Stowey, Wells, and Muchehiey give this 
as a local name for the Hibiscus — of which 
several species are cultivated in this country, 
perhaps the best known being H. Syriacus. 

(2) Several young people at Aller inform me 
that the name is there applied to the Michaelmas 
Daisy, which is the pojjuiar nam^ for several 
species of Aster, jmrticularly A. Tradescanti. 

Black Gipsies. Plantain, Plantago (Ubley). 

Blackheaded Pins. Miss Shute, late of 
Oare, gives me this a,s the local name for a 
Liver-wort. Several of our county botanists 
have been good enough to give me the names 
of particular species to wxiich the name is api^lied : 

(1) Mr. T. A. Cowan gives the Brook or 
Common Liver-wort, MarcJiantia j)olymorj)h,a. 

(2) Dr. Watson gives Co7iocephahim conicum. 

(3) Dr. Downes gives Pellia epiphylla, whose 
capsules strongly resemble the black heads of 
pins. 

Blackheads. Spikes of the Great Reed- 
mace, Typha latifoUa, more commonly called 
Bulrushes. 

Blackie Toppers. Same as Black-heads 
(Bridgwater). 

Blackie Tops. Plantains generally (East 
Somerset). 

Blacklead Brush. A correspondent at Thurl- 
beare gives me this as a local name for the seed 
of the Periwinkle, Vinca. 

Black Man. Hoary Plantain, Plantago media, 
often called Lamb's Tongue. 

Black Pot-Herb. Horse Parsley, Smyrnium 
Olusatrum. The last of these names is Latin for 
" black pot-herb." See Alexanders. 

Black Puddings. Great Reed-mace, Typha 
latifolia ; more commonly called Bulrush. 

Black Sally. The Great Round-leaved 
Sallow, Salix caprea, from its dark bark (North- 
West Wilts). 

Blacksmiths. Plantain, Plantago (Batcombe). 
Black Soap. The Rev. Hilderic Friend says 
that in South Devon this name is given to 

(1) The Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis ; 
and 

(2) Tiie Knapweed, Centaurea nigra. 

Black Sticks. Gr^at Reed-m.ice, Typha lati- 
jolia, more commonly known as Bulrush (Mells). 



27 

Black Thistle. Marsh Thistle, Carduu8 
palustris. 

Blacktops. The Rev. R. P. Muiiay, in his 
" Flora of Somerset," gives this name as being 
applied, but very seldom, to the Privet, Ligus- 
trum vulgare, in the neighbourhood of Wells. 

Blacky-More. Great Reed-mace, Typha 
latifolia, more commonly called Bulrush. 

Bladder Bottle. Bladder ('ampion, Silene 
Ciicubalus (Evercreech). 

Bladders of Lard, (l) Bladder Campion, 
Silene Cucubalus (East Somerset). 

(2) Wax Myrtle, Myrica cerifera (Over 
Stowey). 

Blanket Flower. The general English name 
for the Gaillarclia. 

Blanket Leaf. (1) Great Mullein, Verbas- 
cumThapsus, so called on account cf the woolly 
texture of the leaf. The common name in 
Somerset. 

(2) A sm-i 11 garden plant, the Woolly Wound- 
wort, Stack ys lanata, commonly known in 
Somerset as Mouse's Ear or Donkey's Ear. It 
has woolly leaves, and is somewhat similar to the 
Midlein, but smaller. 

Blarntise. a correspondent at Camerton 
gives me this as a local name for the Wild Cress. 
T have endeavoured to obtain farther information, 
but without success, and shall be glad to hear 
from an7>7 reader who knows the name. 

Blazing St.ars. Several correspondents send 
this as the popular name of the genus Liatris — 
tropical and sub-tropical plants of American 
origin belonging to the Composite order — 'known 
also by the name of Button Snake-Root. 

Bleeding Heart. (1) Dicentra spectabilis 
known also as Dutchman's Breeches, Lyre* 
flower, Lady's Lockets, Duck's Bill, Locks and 
Kevs, and by many other names. 

(2) Also the 'Common Red Wallflower, 
Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

(3) A correspondent at Wambrook gives the 
name to the Fuchsia. 

Bleeding Warrior. — A number of young 
people at Bradford-on-Tone send me this as a 
local name for the Wallflower, which is known 
throughout the greater part of the district as 
Bloody Warrior. 

Bleed Y Warrior. S.^veral corresponds its in 
East Devon give me this as the local nam? for the 
Wallflower. See ' Bleeding and Bloody 
Warrior. 

Blessed Herb. The Common Avens or 
Herb Bennett, Geitrn urbawm. " Bennett " is 
said to be a contiaction (f the Latin benedictus. 



28 

meaning " blessed," and the plant owes this 
name to the fact that Platearius tells us that 
" where the root is in the house the devil can do 
nothing, and flies from it : wherefore it is blessed 
above all other herbs." He also says that if a 
man carries this root about him no venomous 
beast can harm him. 

Blessed Thistle. Carduvs benedictus. It 1 
said to owe its name " Blessed " to its supposed 
power of counteracting the effect of poison. The 
name is also given to Carduus marianus. 

Blether Weed. The Bladder Campion, Silene 
Cucubalus (Dorset). 

Bliddy WniEs. A corruption of Bloody 
Warriors. A very general name in Somerset for 
all varieties of Wallflower, Cheiranthvs Cheirir 
but particularly the dark red ones. 

Blind Man. xV name given in South-West 
Wilts to the common Red Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas, which, is locally supposed to cause blindness 
if looked at too long. 

Blind Man's Buff. A corre.spondent at 
Axbridge gives me this as a local name for the 
Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba, more commonly 
known as Old 'Man's Beard. 

Blind Nettle. A name given to most of the 
Dead Nettles and Hemp Nettles, but perhaps 
m.ore particularly to 

(1) The White Dead-nettle, Lamium album. 
Dr. Prior says that in consequence of the leaves 
of the White Dead-nettle not harming or seeming 
to notice anybody, the plant bears in most 
languages a name that implies that it is dead, 
deaf, or blind. 

(2) The Common Hemp-iiettle, Galeopsis 
Tetrahit. 

Blinks or Water-Blinks. Montia fontana. 
So called from its half -closed little white flowers 
peering from the axils of the uj>per leaves, as 
if afraid of the light. 

Blister Plant. The Meadow Crowfoot ot- 
Buttercup, Rammc dus acns, which, as its nam e 
suggests, is very acrid. It blisters the mouths of 
cattle if they eat it, and the hands of children 
who gather it. It is stated that tramps some- 
times rub its juice on their hands to raise blisters 
as evidence of their having done hard work. 

Blobs. (1) A fairly general name in Somerset 
and the adjacent counties for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea. 

(2) In Wilts the name is given to the Yellow 
Water Lily, Nymphcea lutea. 

Blood Cup. (1) A corre.spondent at Chelborough 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Woodruff, Asperula odorata. 

(2) The Scarlet Elf-cup Fungus, Peziza 
coccinea, commonly known in Somerset as 
Soldier's Caps. 



29 

Blood Flower. Any i ed-floweiing plant of 
the genus Hcemanthus, of the Amaryllis family. 

Blood Heabt. A corresx)ondent at Staple 
Fitzpaine gives me this as a local naxae for the 
Pentstemon. 

Blood Walls. Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as a local name for the 
Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri, which is also 
known in that district, as well as throughout the 
greater part of Somerset, as Bloody Warriors. 

Blood W^ort. (1) The Bloody -veined Dock, 
Buniex sanguineus. One of our old writers 
remarks " All Docks being boiled ^^dth meat 
make it boil the sooner " ; and with regard to 
this j>articular species, he says that it is " ex- 
ceediiig strengthening to the liver, and procures 
good blood, being as wholesome a pot-herb as 
any grows in a garden ; yet such is the nicety 
of our times (forsooth) that women will not put 
it into a pot, because it makes the pottage black ; 
pride and ignorance (a couple of monsters in the 
creation) preferring nicety before health ! " 

(2) The name is sometimes given to the Herb 
Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

Bloody Bones. (1) The Early Purple Orchis, 
Orchis mascvla. 

(2) The Wild Hyacinth, Scilla non-scripta 
(Dorset). 

This is only one instance out of several m which 
I find a striking name given to one of these 
flowers being applied also to the other — in fact 
in many districts the Early Purple Orchis is 
known as the Wild Hyacinth, and a corres- 
pondent at Symondsbury (Dorset) tells me that 
in that district it is called Bluebell. 

Bloody Butcher. (1) The Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus ruber. 

(2) The name of a .small red Apple. 

Bloody Dock. The Bloody-veined Dock, 
Rumex sanguineus, from its red veins and stems 
Bee Bloodwort. 

Bloody Fingers. A very common name in 
Somerset for the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

Bloody Man's Finger. The Wild Arum or 
€uckoo-pint, Arum maculatum, from its lurid 
purple spadix. 

Bloody Triumph. Miss Ella Ford, of Mel- 
plash (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the Crim«on Clover, Trifolium incarnattm, and 
informs me that the name is due to a tradition 
which says that a battle was once fought in 
that neighbourhood in which the victors decked 
themselves with these flowers. It was a great 
massacre, and hence the name " bloody." 

Bloody Warriors. The usual name through- 
out Somerset for all kinds of Wallflower, Cheir- 



anthus Cheiri, but more particularly for the dark 
flowered variety. " Warrior " is said to be a 
coiraption of Wall-yer, lod Mr. T. W. Cowm 
te l-i me that the plant is sometimes called 
Bloody- Wallier. 

Bloody Wires. The latter portion of the 
namj i; simply a corruption of " Warriors." 
Sse above. 

Bloomy-Down. A fairly genera.1 nam.e in 
Somerset for the Sweet-William, Dianthus 
barbatus. 

Blossom. The flower of the Hawthorn, 
Cratcegus monogyna — a very usual name in West 
Somerset. Mr. P. T. E.worthy qiiotes a question 
asked by a School Inspector in May, 1883 : — • 
" What do you mean by May ? " (Several 
hands up)—" Blossom." 

Blow Ball. The head of the Dandelion* 
Taraxacum officinale, in seed, from children 
trying to tell the time or read their fortunes by 
bloA'ing away the seeds. 

Blow-Flower. A correspondent at Rodaey 
Stoke gives this as a local name for the Corn 
Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. Query, a corrup- 
tion of " Blue-flower." 

Blow Me Down. The Sweet William. See 
Bloomy-Down. 

Blow-Puffs. The seed head of the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Blue Basins. The Meadow Orane's-biil, 
Geranium pratense (Strati on-on-the-Fosse). 

Blue Beard. (1) Correspondents at Over 
Stowey, Machelney, and Camerton give me this 
as a local name for the Clary or Wild Sage, Salvia 
Verbenaca. 

(2) A correspondeat at West Buckland applies 
the name to Nigella damascena, comm.only known 
as Love in a Mist or Devil in the Bush. 

Bluebell. In Somerset this name is most 
generally given to 

(1) The Wild Hyacinth, Scilla non-scriptu, but 
in Devonshire and in the parts of Somerset 
bordering on that county it is given to 

(2) The Harebell, Campanula rotundifoliay 
whicli is also the " Blue-be lis of Scotland." 

(3) In several parts of Somerset and also in 
Devon, the Periwinkle, both Vinca major and 
V. minor, is known as the " Blui-bell." 

(4) A toi respondent at .Symoiu'sbuiy (I.'oisct) 
give ; m ■ this as a locai namefcr the Kary Purple 
Orchis, Crchis mascula. See Bloody Bones. 

Blue-bells op Scotland. (1) The Hare- 
bell, Campanula rotundifolia. 

(2) A. correspondent at Sampford Arundel 
gives this as a local name for Love in a Mist or 
Devil in the Bush, Nigella damascena. 



3i 

Blue Betsy. Tne P.-riv^-iukle, both Vinca 
major and I . minor (Duuster). 

Blue Blow. A correspondent at Wimborne 
gives this as a local name for the Covi> Blue- 
bottli-, Centaurea Cyanus. 

Blue Bonnets. (1) The Cornflower or Coi-n 
Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

(2) The Devil's-bit Scabious, Scabiosa Succisa. 

(3) A convspondent at Hatch Beauchamp 
gives it as one of the local names io: the Wild 
Hyacinth, Scilla no7i-scripta. 

_ (4) Several correspondents at Chew Mogia 
gi\e this as the loca.1 name for the Sar Thistle, 
but theie would appear to be some confusion here' 
as Mr. W. D. Miller informs me that the plant 
generally known as the Star Thistle, Centaurea 
Calcitrapa, is not recorded from anywhere near 
Ohew Magna, and is extremely unlikely ever to 
have occurred there. 

Blue Bottle. (1) This is the general English 
name for the Corn Bluebottle, more commonlv 
known m Somerset as the Cornflower, Centaurea 
Cyanus, from the bottle shapa of the involucre 
and its brilliant blue flower. 

(2) Often given to the Knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra. 

■ ^?.^xT^"4.°!?*^ P^''*^ °^ Som^-set and Dorset and 
in S.W. Wilts the Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, 
Scilla no7i-sc)ipt:i. 

(4) Miss Eila Ford, of Meiplash (Dorset) 
informs me that in her district the name is given 
to the Monkshood, Aconitum Xapelhis. 

(5) Tne Periwinkle, Vinca (Dowiish Wak-?). 
Blue Butcher. (1) The Earlv Pm-ple 

Orchis, Orchis mascula (Yeovil, South Peth^r- 
ton, &c.). 

(2) A number of correspondents at Aller 
give this as a local name for the Bee Orchis 
Ophrys apifera. ' 

Blue Butterfly. A correspondent at Muchel- 
ney gives this as a local name for the Larkspur 
Delphinium Aj cis. ' 

Blue Buttons. A name which is given to 
various blue flowers which have round heads. 

(1) In Somerset perhaps most commonly to 
the Cornflower or Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

(2) Field Scabious or Knautia, Scabiosa 
arvensis. 

(3) The Devil's-bit Scabious, Scabiosa Succisa. 

(4) Sheep's-bit Scabious, Jasione montana. 

(5) Small Scabious, Scabiosa Columbaria. 

(6) In some parts of Somerset, but more 
generally in Devon, the Periwinkle, both Vinca 
major and V. minor. 

(7) A correspondent at Camerton tells me 
in that district the name is given to the Meadow 
Crane's-bill, Geranium pratense. 



32 

Blue Caps. (1) Devil's-bit Scabious, *Sca6fosa 
Succisa. 

(2) Field Scabious or Knautia, Scabioaa 
arvensis. 

(3) Cornflower or Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus, 
from their tufts of blue flowers. 

Blub Chains. The Common Wistaria, Wis- 
taria sinensis. 

Blue Cubls. Common Self-heal, Prunella 
vulgaris (Shute, Devon, and Stalbridge, Dorset). 

Blue Devil. (1) The Blue (or Stinking) 
Iris, Iris Jcetidissima (Stoke-under-Ham). 

(2) Viper's Bugloss, Echium mdgare (Aller- 
ford). 

Blue Endive. Wild Succory, Cichorimi* 
Intybus. 

Blue-eyed Beauty. The Periwinkle, Vinca 
(Aller). 

Blue-Eyed Mary. The Periwinkle, Vinca 
(Combe St. Nicholas). 

Blue Eyes. Germander Speedwell, Veronica 
Chamcedrys, more commonly known as Bird's- 
eye ; but I have had the nam.e Blue-Eyes sent 
me from each of the four counties. 

Blub Goggles. A South-West Wilts name 
for the Wild Hyacinth or BlueheU.,Scil1u non-scripta. 
A correspondent at Donhead writes " When 
viewed from a distance Bluebells, growing in 
sufficient quantitias, resemble a blue haze. The 
flower gets this name from its effect in bulk, 
the mass of blue giving an idea of looking through 
blue glass." 

Blub Golden Chain. The common Wistaria, 
Wistaria sinensis. 

Blue Gba>ifeb Griggles. The Wild Hyacinth 
or Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. The adjective 
" Blue " is used to mark the distinction between 
this flower and the Early Purple Orchis, which is 
also known as Gramifer Griggles over a great part 
of the area covered by this list. 

Blue Jack. (1) The Periwinkle, Vinca 
major and V. minor. 

(2) A name given in the Over Stowey district 
to one or ruore species of Centaurea, which I 
cannot definitely determine ; probably C. 
Scabiosa, or either of the plants given under 
Blue-Bottle 1 and 2. 

Blue Jackets. A correspondent at Camerton 
giveo this as a local name for the Violet, Viola. 

Blub Jacob's Laddeb. Greek Valerian, Pole- 
monium cceruleum. 

Blub Mice. The Dog Violet, Viola canina 
(Curry Mallet). 

Blue on the Mountain. A correspondent at 
Stratton on the Fosse informs me that this is a 
name given by the children in that district to a 



33 

flower which she believos 1o be tho Verbena. 
Dr. Watson tells me that " Snow on the Moun- 
tain " has a blue form as \^ell as a white, and he 
ljelie\es he has heard this called Blue Snow- 
ON-THE-MoUNTAix in Somerset. 

Blue Poison. A corresi^ondent at Watchet 
gives m-* this as a local nami for the Privet^ 
Ligustrum viilgare. 

Blue Poppy. Correspoudents at Martock and 
North Petherton give this as a local nam^ for the 
Coriiflow'v or Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

Blue Robins. Borag'-, Borago officinalis 
(Evercveech). 

Blub Rocket. MonkVnood, Aconitum Xapellus. 
Blue Shirts. Periwinkle, Vinca (Over 

StoWfV). 

Blue Smock. Periwinkle, Vinca (Martock, 
Wiveliscombe, and High Ham). 

Blue Star. Periwinkle, Vinca (Winsham and 
Ea^t Devon). 

Blue Thistle. Viper's Biglo^s, Echium vul- 
gare (AUeifovd). 

Blue Trumpets. Wild Hyacinth o^ Bluobell 
Scilla non-script I (Hatch B.-auchamp). 

Blue Warrior. Meadow Crane's-bill, Ger- 
anium pratense (Dunkerton). 

Blue Weed. Viper's Bugloss, Echium vulgare 

Biunder-buss. Double Pink, Dianthus Gary- 
GpTiyllus (Sampford Arundel). 

Boar DiSTLE (or Thistle). Spear Pium? 
Thi-=tie, Cnicus lanceolatus. Mr. El.vorthy says 
" Probably this is a corruption of Bur-thistle, 
induced by the coarse rank growth of this variety 
— hence no doubt having become boar, it has 
deveioioed into bull-thistle." Hoiloway says the 
plant owes its popular nauii to the fact that it 
has very strong prickles, and is so called in opposi- 
tion to the Sow-thistle, Sonchus arvensis, which 
has weaker i^rick^es. 

Boats. (1) Sweet Pea, Lathyrus odoratus 
(Taunton). 

(2) Seeds of the Majjle, Acer campestre (Stal- 
b.'idge). 

Bobbies. (1) Ribwort Pia.itain, Plantago 
lanceolata (Paddietown, Dorset). 

(2) Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum (Stal- 
bddge). 

Bobbins. Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lance- 
olata (Milborne St. Andrew, Dorset). 

Bobby Buttons. A correspondent at Watchet 
gives me this as the local name for 

(1) Goosegrass or Cleavers, Galium Aparine. 

(2) Tho Burdock, Arctium ma jus. 



34 

Bobby Hood. Red Campion, Lychnis dioica 
more commonly called Robin Hood in Somerset | 

Bobby's Buttons. (1) Marsh Marigold, 
Caltha palustris (Chard and East Devon). 

(2) Coriiflowei' or Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus 
<Chiirchstanton). 

(3) A correspondent at Buckland St. Mavy 
gives it as a local name for the Knapweed, 
Ijentaiirea nigra. 

(4) Fraits of the Bm-dock, Arctium niujns 
(Bridgwater). 

Bobby's Byes. Germander Speedwell, Feronica 
Chamsedrys, more commonly called Bird's-eyes. 

Bob-Grass. Soft Brome-grass, Bromus hordacens 
(Dorset and S.W. Wilts). 

Bob-Robert. Herb Robert or Wild Goraniura, 
Geranium Robertianum (Melplash, Dorset). 

Bob Robin. The Red Ca^iipioa, Lychnis 
dioica (South Petherton a i(l Ilminster district 
and West Wilts), 

Bog-Bean. The Buck-bf.an or Mirsh Trefoil, 
Menyanthes trijoliata. 

Bog Bell. The Marsh Andvometli, Andro- 
meda Polifolia, a very rare plant foanr] on the 
Somerset peat moors. 

Bog Rhubarb. A Martock correspondent 
gives this as a local nam,^ for the Butterbur 
JPetasites ovatus. 

Bog Violet. The Butterwort, Pinguicula 
vulgaris, a rare plant found on the peat moors. 

BoLLOMS. Blackthorn blossom, Prunus spinosa 
(Kimmeridge, Dorset). 

Bonnet. The long grass which always api)ears 
in pasture fields when not mown for hay. The 
cattle do not eat it unless it is mown. The 
seed-stems of the blade grasses which the cattle 
-will not eat. Called Bent, Bennet, in other 
places. — P. T. Elworthy. 

Bonnets. A correspondent at Bradford-on- 
Tone gives me this as a local name for the Colum- 
bine, Aquilcgia vulgaris. See Granny's 
Bonnets. 

Bonnet Strings. Long Grass or Bents. S'-e 
Bonnet. 

Book-Leap. (1) Tuti^R.n, Hyjyericutn AndrosK- 
f)ium. I have this name from several correspondents 
in South and West Dorset. Mr. F. W. Mathews 
tells me that in the Western Blackdowns it is 
called Tipsy-Leaf (" Tipsy, ' like "Titsum," is 
no doubt a corruption of " Tutsan ") or Bible- 
Leap for the reason that the leaves are often 
placed in Bibles, on account of the pleasant 
perfume given off by the dried sprays. 



35 

(2) Correspondents at Wambrook give this 
as a local name for the St. John's Wort, by which 
may be intended the Tutsaa as mentioned above, 
or one of the other species of Hypericum. 

(3) A correspondent at Furley gives it as a 
local name for the Hare's-ear or Tnorow-wax, 
Bupleurum rotundijolium. 

Boot Buttons. Berries of the Privet, Ligus- 
trum vulgare (Over Stowey). 

Bootes. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives rue this as 
an old name for the Marsh Marigold. CaUha 
palustris. 

Boot Polish. Cherry Blossom, Priimis avium, 
an interesting instance of school-boy humour 
and of the value of advertising (Evercreech). 

Boots and Shoes. A name given to several 
different flowers, but apparently in Somerset most 
generally to 

(1) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

(2) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus (also 
in Devon). 

(3) A Bridgwater correspondent gives it as a 
local name for the Vetch, Vicia, but does not 
indicate the species. Mr. T. W. Cov.'an suggests 
possibly Lathy rus Aphaca, which is found near 
Bridgwater. 

(4) In East Somerset the winged seeds of 
the Ash, Fraxinus excelsior, and of the 

(5) Sycamore, Acer campestre. 

(6) The Rev. Hilderic Friend gives it as a 
Devonshire name for the Lady's Slipper, 
Cypripcdium Calceolus, but Mr. W. D. Miller 
points cut that this plant is excessively rare, and 
is not fovnid nearer than Yorkshire, and suggests 
there has been some confusion with another 
plant. 

(7) A correspondent at Broadwindsor (Dorset) 
gives this as a local name for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum majiis. 

(8) A correspondent at Membui-y (Devon) 
gives it as a local name for the Monkshood, 
Aconitum Napelliis ; and also for the 

(9) Double Polyanthus. 

Boots and Stockings. Hoary Plantain, Plan- 
tago media (Ilminster). 

BossELL. The Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum 
segetum (West Wilts). 

BoTHEBUM. Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum 
segetum (Dorset). 

Bottles of Wine. Dicentra spectabilis, known 
by a variety of names, amongst others Bleeding 
Heart, Lady's Locket, Lyre Flower, Dutchman's 
Breeches. 

Bouncing Bess. Tnis is one of the names 
:given in North Devon, and also in Dorset, to the 
Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus ruber, known 



36 

throughout a great part of Somerset as " Kiss- 
me-quick." 

Bouncing Betsy. Another Dorset form of 
Bouncing Bess. 

Bouncing Bett. (1) The Femsj, Viola tricolor 
(lit on and North Petherton). 

(2) Common Soapwort, Saponaria officinalis 
(Dorset). 

BoUR. x\ Martock correspondent gives this 
as a local name for the Elder, Sambucus nigra. 

Boxing Gloves. Mr. J. Wood^vard,^f Bridg- 
water, gives me this as .i. local nam^ for the 
Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotxs cornic^datis. 

Box OF Matches. The leaf of the Maple, 
Acer camjoestre (Shoscombe). 

Box Thorn. Lyclum chinense (White's Bri.sto 
Flora). 

Boys. (l)The long pistilled or 'pin-eyed" flowers 
of the Primrose, Primula vulgaris. The short- 
X>istilif(l i-v " thium-eyed " or " rose-eyed " 
flowc] s are called Girls. 

(2) Dr. R. G. Knight informs meth-t in Dorset 
the nam-^ is ftlso given to th^ long-pistilled flowers 
of th ' Gc'W.-ilip, Prinvtla vc-ris. 

Boys and Girls. Primroses, and (ia Dorset) 
Cowslips. See Boys. 

Boy's Love. Southernwood, Artemesia Abro- 
tanum. Mr. Elworthy says :— " A very great 
favourite with the village belles. In the summer 
nearly all carry a sj^ray of it half wrapped in the 
white handkerchief in their hand to church. In 
fact a village church on a hot Sunday afternoon 
quite reeks with it." It is said that the plant 
owes this name to the fact that its ashes were 
formerly made into an ointment and used by 
young men to promote the growth of the beard, 

Boy's Love and Maiden's Ruin. Sam? as 
Boy's Love. The Southernwood is also known 
in Devon as Maiden's Ruin, and in som^ parts 
of the countv the above combined name is given 
to it. 

BozzELL. Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum 
segetum (West Wilts). 

Brandy Bottle. A very common nam ^ for 
the Yellow Water-lily, Nymphcea lutea, probably 
from the shape of the seed-vessel, although it 
is frequently said to be due to the odour of the 
flower. 

Brandy Bottles. (1) Hips ; fruit of the 
Dog Rose, Rosa canina (Shoscombe). 

(2) Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium ursinum 
(Dorset). 

Brank. Common Buckwheat, Polygonum 
Fagopyrum. 



37 

Bread and Bacon. S3veral young people at 
Allci' give me this as a local nam 3 for the Nar- 
cissus. 

Bread and Butter. (I) A coiTespondent 
at Staj)le Fitzpaine gives this as a local name for 
the Silvervveed, Potentilla Anserina. 

(2) A correspondent at Lottisham gives it 
as a local name for the Yellow Toadtiax, Linaria 
vulgaris. 

Bread and Cheese. Another name which 
is ai^plied to a number of different ijla.its, the 
mo it common in this part of the coimti'V bsing 

(1) Tne young leaves of the Ha^vtl: oi'n, 
Cratagus monogyna, which children aie very 
fond of eating. Tnis name is common nearly all 
over England. 

(2) The Common Mallow, Malta sylvestriSt 
frequently called (erroneously) Marsh Mallow. 
The round flat seeds of this i^lant ire eaten by 
children all over England, and are called 
" Cheeses." 

(3) The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, of 
which the leaves and flowers are freely eaten, 
and are j>leasant and refreshing. 

(4) In South-West Wilts the Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris. 

(5) A correspondent at Chilton Polden gives 
this -is a local name fo;* the Valerian (? Kentranthus 
ruber). 

(6) A corre-poiident at Wallow gives this as 
a local name for the Silverweed, Potentilla 
A nserina. 

(7) Bird's-foo': Tr.ifoil, Lotus corniculatus 
(Wiasham). 

Bread and Cheese and Cider. Same as 
*' Bread and Cheese, 1, 2, a.id 3. 

(4) Correspondents at Fort on and Stoke Ab .ot 
(Dorset) give this as a local nanae for the Wood 
Anemone, Aiiemone nemorosa. 

Bread and Cheese x\.nd Kisses. Common 
Mallovv, Malva sylvestris (Stockland, B;'idgw\ter), 

Bread and Cheese-Cakes. A variation of 
the last name sent me from Wincaato,i, Common 
Ma!lo-v\, Malva sylvestris. 

Bread and Cheese Tree. Tiie Hiwchom, 
Cratcegus monogyna. 

Bread and Cider. The young leaves of the 
Hvw.ho'n, Cratccgus monogyna (Mells). Sej 
Br:t:\.d and Cheese (1). 

Bread and Marmalade. Mr. P. K. Summer-, 
hayes, of Mi'boriie Port, giv^s mo this is a local 
name fo/ the Charlock o.* Wild Miistard, -B^flssjca 
arvensis. 

Bread and Milk. A Taunton correspondent 
gives this as a local name for the Wood Sotrel, 
Oxalis A cetosella. 



38 



Break Basin. A number of cori-espondents 
in the (hard and Ea t Devon dii^tricts give this 
as a local name for Ihe Geimandej- Speedwell, 
Veronica Chamcedrys, more generally known as 
Bird's-eyes. The name is probably due to the 
petals all filling olf together very quickly after 
tlie flower is picked, thus breaking the )»asiii. 
See Speedwell. 

Break Jack. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives me this is a local name for the 
Lesser Stilchwort. Siellariu gramhiea. Compare 
Snap- Jack. 

Breakstone. Any plant of the Saxifrage 
family, Saxifraga. An old Latin name used by 
Pliny, derived from saxnm. a rock, and /ra>f^o. to 
braak, so called bccxuse it was supp'sed to break 
stor.es in Ih"^ bladder. 

Bridal Wreath. (1) Francoa ramosa, a 
plant beariag long lac^mes of small white flowers. 

(2) The name is sometimes given in South 
Somerset to Campanula j^yramidalis. 

Bride Cake. A corresi^onaent at Stratton- 
on-the-Fosse sends me this as the local name for 
a flower which she believes to be an Arabis. 

Bright Eye. Gfermander Speedwell, Veronica 
Chamcedrys. more commonly c illed Bird's-eyb 
(Mel's and Eiompton Regis). 

Brimble or Briivoile. Bramble, Rubus fruticosus. 
Here again the despised dialect remains true, while 
the literary dialect is the corrupt (from Anglo- 
Saxon, Bremel). 

Bristol Rock Cress. The usual English 
name of the rare plant Arabis stricta, only found 
near Bristol, but Mj-. W. D. Miller tells me it has 
been introduced at Wfmbdon and elsewhere. A 
correspondent at Leigh-on-Menciip tells me this 
name is applied in that district to the common 
rcckery plant, generally known as " Snow on the 
Mountain " — liy which is probably meant Arabis 
scabra or A. albida, or Kwniga (formerly Alyssnm) 
niarUima. IT 

Broad Grass. Common Red Clover, TriJoUum 
pratense (Dorset). 

Broad Weed. The Cow-parsnip, Heracleum 
Spkondylium (Dorset). 

Brocklo, a very common i^ronunciation of 
Broccoli in East and West Somerset and West 
Wilt.^. 

Brook Liime. This is the general English 
name for Veronica Beccabunga. Mr. T. W. Cc-wan 
tells m" it is a corruption of the older names, 
BroJdembe. Brohlemp, Broclempe, as if it was so 
called from growing in the lime or mud (Ljxt. 
linv's) of brooks. Markham (1G37) spells the word 
Brocl-elhempe, as if it equalled " l)iittle-homp." 



39 

Th^' uaine Brook Lime is frequently given in 
Somerset (in errcr) to 

(1) The Water Pimpernel or Brookweed, 
Samolus V alerandi. 

(2) The Rev. R. P. Murray says that in the 
Wiucanton district the name is given to the 
Procumbent Marshwort, Apium nodiflorum, often 
called Fool's Watercress or Cow-cress. I am 
in<leJ)ted to Dr. Watson for the following note : — 
" Some of the names are undoubted misnon\ers, 
which one nvast be careful not to perpetuate, e.g , 
Brook Lime for Brook Weed is a local error 
almost certainly due to similarity of sound, and 
I shoxild expect that the name when given to 
Marshwort is due to a mistake. Brook Lime, 
Marsh wort, and Water-cress are almost invariable 
asscciates in ditches, and I have often heard the 
Marshwort miscalled Brook Lime, but when the 
mistake was pointed out the observer realised 
the mistake. The mistake was probably origin- 
ally dvxe to the real plant being pointed out as 
Brttok Lime, but as the other was mixed with it 
the observer confused the two." 

Broom. (1) The real Broom, with its masses 
of golden pea-.shaped floAvers, is Cytisus scoparius.. 
but a correspondeat at Axminster gives " Broom " 
as a local name for the Heather, Calluna vulgaris. 
The explanation of the name is no doubt that 
given under BiSSOM. 

(2) Ms. Day, of North Petherton. and 
correspondents at Brompton Regis tell me that 
this nanxe is given in those distiicts to the comnio 
Fxirze or Gorse, Ulex europfci's. Dr. Watson 
writes, " The application of Broom to Ling and 
Furze is a,lso due to confusion, and to far as I 
kn« w is very local." 

Brooms and Brushes. A correspondent at 
Evershot (Dorset) gives me this as a local name 
for the Wild Cornflower (? Centaurea nigra, or 
Centaiirea Cyaniis). 

Brooze. or Brousse. Brushwood. (Bradford- 
on-Tone). 

Brown Back. The Common Ceterach or 
Scaly Spleenwort (fern) of our walls, Ceterach 
officinaruni ; moie often called Rustyback in 
Somerset from the brown scales on the under 
sui'face of its fronds. 

Brownet. a contraction of Browx-wort, 
which see. 

Brown Sugar. Given me by a correspondent 
at Chew Migna as a local name for the common 
S-n-rel or Sour-dock, Rumex Acetosa. 

Brown-wort. (1) Water Figwort, i<cro- 
phularia aquatica. 

(2) Knotted Figwort, Scrophularia nodosa. 

(.3) The name is often given to the Selfbeai, 
Prunella vulgaris. Dr. P ior says " trom its 



40 

being supposed to cure the disease calletl ip 
Oermiu die braune, a kind of qainsy." 

Browse. Mr. W. S. Price, of Wellington, gives 
me this as a local name for under-growth in a 
ooppice or plantation. See Brooze. 

Bruisewort. (1) Common Daisy, Bell is 
■pe.rennis 

(2) Common Soapwort, Saponaria officinaUs, 
from their supposed efficacy in hiiiises. 

Brummie. Bramble, R ,bus fniicosi'S. — l'<-v. 
W. P. Williams. 

Brusous. The Biilchei's Broom. R-isci's 
ac'ileat'is. 

Brushes. (1) A c^.mmon name for the Wiid 
Teasel, Dipsacits sylvestris. 

(2) Mi^5 Ella Ford, of Melplash (Dorset), gives 
it as a Ice il nam^^ for the Broom, Cytis'ts scopari'S ; 
and also for 

(3) The Conim')n Mare's Tail, Hipp'ris 
vidgaris. 

(4) A correspondent at Leigh (Dt>rse') gives 
it as a local name for the Small Knajivveed, 
Centaurea nigra. 

Brushes and Combs. (I) A iiami- f; irly 
geneval throughout the district for the Vs'ild 
Tense], Dipsaats sylvestris. 

(2) A correspondent at East Harptree gives 
it as a local najue for green twigs of lir (i y<rang 
leaves of Laich). 

Brushwood. A corre:-;pondent at Bradf'ird- 
on-Tone gives this as a lecil name fi r Fine- 
needles. 

Bryony. A corresi)ondent at Hawkehiuch 
(Devon) gives this as a 1 'cil nam^ fo]- the Greater 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

Buck-bean. Marsh Trefoil, MenyanUus 
trifoliata. 

Buc'KsiiORN. ('('nimni Buckthtr!!. Rhamtvis 
catharticus (Wincanton). Dr. Prior thinks the 
popular name originated in a blunder, the German 
Bux-dorn being mistaken for Bocksdorn, i.e., 
" Box-thorn " for " Buck's-thorn." 

Bugle Blooms. A corresi^ondent at Shaftes- 
bury (Dorset) gives this as a local name for the 
Common Honeysuckle or Woodbine, Lonicera 
Peridymcn'im. 

Bugloss. (1) This name is ])ropei'ly applied 
to the Small Bugloss, Lycopsis ari'ensis, and to 
the Viper's Bugloss, Echimn vulgare, but it is 
sometimes given to the Comra'ni and th'^ Ever- 
green Alkanet, Anchusa officinalis and A. 
sempervirens : In France th i latter is called 
La Buglosse. 

The name Bugloss is derived from two Greek 
W»^rds, mea.ning " Ox-tongtie," and is given to the 



41 

plant on account of the shape and the rough 
surface of its leaves. 

(2) The Rev. Hilderic Friend says that in 
Devon the Forget-me-not, Myosotis scorpioides, is 
called Bug-loss. 

Bugs axD Fleas. A correspondent at Brad- 
ford -on -Tone gives this as a local name for the 
Wild Dock. 

BuLLACB. A ^Vild Plum, the fruit of Prunus 
insititia, very akin to the Sloe, but botanists 
make slight distinctions between the two. In 
Turner's Herball (1562) we read " I never saw 
in all my \yie more plenty of . . . . bulles trees 
than in Sonimersetshyre." See Christians. Mr. 
F. W. Mathews, of Bradford-on-Tone, writes 
" The Bullace, or Kestin, is twice as large as a 
Sloe, and makes good eating, which a wild Sloe 
most decidedly never does." 

Bull Cup. The Marsh Marigold, CaltJia 
palustris (Thorne St. Margaret). 

BuLL-DiSTLE. The Spear Plume Thistle, 
Cnicis lanceolatus (West Somerset). 

Bull Dogs. Mrs. H. Day, of North Petherton, 
gives me this as a name for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum ma jus. 

Bullex. Large Black Sloes ; Ballace-}3lum, 
Prunus insititia. — Rev. W. P. Williams. 

BuLLERS. The flowers of any umbelliferous 
plants, such as Chervil, Cow Parsnii^, &c. Pro- 
nounced BiLLERS in Devonshire. 

Bull-flower. The Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. It has been suggested that the name is 
a coriui)tion of " Pool-flower." 

Bull Heads. A Taunton correspondent gives 
this as a local name for the Knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra. 

BuLLixs. A kind of Wild Plum (Holloway) ; 
Large Black Sloes (Jennings). The fiuit of 
Prunus insititia. A'so called Bullies. 

BULLISON. Miss Audrey Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives this as a common local name for the 
Bullace, Prunus insititia, or Sloe, P. spijiosa. 

Bullocks. The Wild Arum or Ciickoo-pint, 
Arum maculatum (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Bullock's Eye. A correspondent at Dunster 
gives this as a local name for the Ilouseleek, 
Sempervivum tcctorum. 1 know this name is given 
to the ])lant in the North of England, but I am 
not aware that it is used in Somerset. 

Bull Rush. (1) A number of young people 
at Muchelney tell me this name is given in that 
district to the Reed {? Phragmites communis). 
S-^e Bulrush. 

(2) A corres))ondent a,t East Harptree gives 
this as a local name for the Teasel, Dipsacus 
sylvcstris. 



42 

Bulls and Cows. The Wild Arum or Cuckoo 
Pint, Arum macidatum (Farley. Wells, and MeiLs). 

Bull's Eyes. (1) Throughovit a large j)art of 
Somerset, Dorset, and Devon this is a very 
general iiame for the Majsh Marigold, Caltha 
pahistris. 

(2) In some x)arts of Somerset and South 
Devon this name is given to the Red Campion, 
Lychnis dioica, but it is not so often used in the 
latter cormty as " Pocr Robin " or " Bird's-eye." 

(3) Yellow W^ater Lily, Nympha'o htea (Wells 
and Leigh, Dorset). 

(4) Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum Leucanihe- 
nium (Castle Cary). 

(5) Mr. W. C. Baker (late of Maunsel) give.s 
this as a local name for the St. John's Wort,. 
Hypericum. 

(6) Several young people at AUer give it as a 
local name for the Comnion Poppy, Papaver 
Rhceas. 

(7) A correspondent at Shute (Devon) gives 
it as a Icc^l name for the Mallow, Malva sylvestris. 

Bull's Foot. Correspondents at North 
Peth 'rtou and Hawkchurch (Devon) give me this 
as a locil nam^ for th'' Colt's foot, Tussilago 
Farfara. R 'v. Hilderio Friend quotes the name, 
but implies it is not commonly used. 

Bull's Parsley. A conespondent at Ccmbe 
St. Nicholas give^^ ni'^ this as a local name for the 
" Wild Parsley." (Probably Cawca^/s Anthriscvs). 

Bull Thistle. (1) This name is apparently 
applied to differcTit thistles in different parts of 
thi county, bxit most generally to th^^ Spear 
Plum? Thistle, Ctiicis lanceolairs. See Boar- 
distle. 

(2) The Marsh Plume Thistle, Cnicus jmlustris. 

(3) Mrs. Day, of North Petherton, gives me- 
this as a local' name for the Black Knapweed,. 
Centaurea nigra. 

BULLUM. Wild Plum or Bullace, fruit of 
Prunus insititia (Devon). 

Bully Heads. Common Knai^weed, Centaurea 
nigra (Stogursey). 

BuLROSB. Britten and Holland say that J. 
R. Pulman gives this as the i)ronur.ciati<-^n of 
Bell-rose, which see. 

Bulrush. The Bulrush of th- botanist is 
Scirpus lacustris, but the name is probably not 
often applied to that plant by the ordinary 
inhabitarits (^f Somerset. Th-i' name is far more 
generally given to : — • 

(1) The Great Reed-mace, Typha latifoUa, 
which owes its English name to the fact th^t it is 
this reed which appears in the " Ecce h' mo " 
pictures and familiar statues of Je.-,us asHism^ce 
or sceptre. 



43 

(2) In som^ parts of Som?rset and De\'un th<^ 
name " Buliiish " is givT?n to the Common Rush, 
J uncus conglomeratus ; and it has been suggested 
thnt in this latter case the name is probably a 
corruption f f poo^rush, whilst ii\ the former 
case the nanre would x^robably be more correctly 
Avritten " Bull-rush," in the sense that the Tyj)ha 
is large, and the descriptive prefix, " Bull " (like 
thit (f " H< Vie "), implies something larger than 
the ordinary. 

(3) A correspondent at C'ulmhead gives 
" Buliush " as a local name for the Marsh Mari- 
gold, Caltha pahistris. I learn from the Wilts 
Glossary that the Maish Marigold is occasionally 
called Bulrushes in 8.W. Wilts from some 
nursery legend that Moses was hidden among its 
large leaves. 

Bumble-bee Flower. A conespondent at 
Luxl)orough gives this as a local name for the 
Ked Dead Nettle, Lamium purpureiim. See Bee 
Nettle (2). 

Bl'mble-bees. The Bee Orchis, Oj^hrys apifera 
(North Somerset and East Devon). 

Bumble-Berry. (1) In North-West Wilts 
the Hip or fruit of the Dog-rose, Rosa canina. 

(2) More generally the Blackberry, the fruit 
of Rubus fruticosus. 

A corruption of Bramble-berry. 

Bumble-Kites. A pojiular name in som'^ 
])arts of England for the Blackberry, Rubus 
Jritticosus ; mentioned by the Rev. Hilderic 
Friend, but I am not aware that it is used in 
S >ni Mset. although it is sent m-^ hv a correspondent 
at North Peth-n-ton. 

BuxcH o' Daisies. Yarrow or Milfoil, Achillea 
Millejolium (Leigh, Dorset). 

BuxcH OF Grapes. (1) A coirespondent at 
Ilminster gives this as a local name for the F(»x- 
glove. Digitalis j^'irpurea. 

(2) Dr. R. C. Knight tells m» th*- name is also 
applied to the unojiened inflorescence of 
A mpelopsis Veitchii . 

Bunch op Keys. (1) The Cowslip, Primula 
veris (Ilminster district). In East Devon some- 
times called Keys of Heaven. An old name 
for the Cowslip is " Herb of St. Peter," and this 
latter i.r.me w.i ; probably suggested by the re- 
semblance of its flower-heads to a bunch of ke^s. 

(2) Furze or Gorse, Ulex europaus (Shos- 
combe). 

(3) The Ash, Fraxinus excelsior (Bradford- 
on-Tone), doubtless on account of its clusters 
of winged seeds, which are connnonly called 
Keys. a 

Bunchy. The Banksia Rose — ^always.— F. T. 
Elworthy. 



44 

Bunny Rabbits. (1) A very geiK.-ial naino 
throughout the district for the Snapdragon, 
Aniirrhinuni niajus. Used much less irequentiy 
for _ 

(2) Yellow Toad-flax, Linarla vulgaris. 

(3) Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria 
(East Somerset). 

(4) Foxglove, DigitGlis jyurpurea {Msrtocli and 
Stoke-under-Ham). 

Bunny Rabbit's Ears. BirdV-foot Trefoil, 
Lotus corniculatus (Bridgwater). 

Bunny Rabbits' Mouths. (1) Foxglov.-, 
Digitalis purpurea (Ilminster). 

(2) Snapdragon, Aniirrhinuni majus (Ihuiu- 
ster). 

(3) Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria 
(Ilminstt-r). 

Bunny's Ears. Greater Mullein, Verbascuju 
Thapsus (Iw^-rue Minster, Dorset). 

Bunny's Mouths. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum 
niajus. 

Bur, Thy little round seed-pod of Galium 
Aparine. .Vlso the seed of the Burdock, Arctium 
majus, and of the Boar Thistle, Cnicus lance-, 
olatus. 

Burnet Rose. A veiy general lu me I'oi- the 
Burnet -lof.ved Rose, Rosa s2)inosissima. Cor- 
lespoiidents at ^Vambrook give it as a kca! lu me 
for th^ Sweet -hriar, Rosa Eglanteria — pfs?.ihly 
through s< me conf vision of the two sijeciis. 

Burning Bush. A name given to several 
garden plants, but more particularly to 

(1) Dictamnus Fraxinella, which * is said to 
give off so much esseiitial oil that in warm 
weather if a light bo brought near it it will ignite. 

(2) S veral correspondents give Kochia 
trichophylla or K. scoparia. 

Burning Fire. H' ad of Dandelion, Taraxa- 
cum officinale (B.itlgw.vter). 

Burst Bellies ov Burst-Belly Pinks. 
Double Pinks or C ruatious, Dianthus j^lnmarius 
or D.Caryophijllus (Hatch B-auchamp and Mark). 

Bushy-Beard. Traveler's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba (Axminstor). 

Busters. Double Piuk'^ (Cainn-ton). Soe 
Burst Bellies. 

Butcher Boys. (1) Early Purple O.chis, 
Orchis mascula (Thorncombe). 

(2) Mi'. F. R. Sumnvrhayes, of Milborne 
Port, gives it as being applied in that district 
to the Pyramid Orchi-!, Orchis pyramidalis, the 
local name for the Early Pui-ple Orchis being 
Granfer Grigoles. 

Butcher Flowers. Early Purple Orcliis, 
Orchis mascula (Axbridge). 



45 

Butchers. (1) Early Purple Orel's, Orchis 
mascula (South Petherton). 

(2) Spotted Oi'chis, Orchis maculata (\Viv.;lis- 
combv?). 

Butcher's Blood. Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica. The Headmaster of Soxey's School gives 
me this name from a Saeptoa Mallet boy. 

Butcher's Knives. Leaves of the Iris (Bridg- 
water). 

Butter. Lesser Cv^laudiue, Ranunculus Ficaria 
(8;?xey's School). 

Butter and Cheese. (1) The Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella (from several correspondents 
at Bradfoid-on-Toue, Winsham, and Hawk- 
church). 

(2) Lesser C'landine, Ranunculus Ficaria 
(Winsham and Hatch Beauchamj)). 

(0) Commoa Mallow, Malva sylvestris (Stogur- 
sey and Loigh, Dorset). 

(4) Creeping Buttercup, Ranunculus repens 
(South Petherton). i 

Butter and Eggs. A nam3 given to a variety 
of flower.-, but perhaps mo <t generally throughout 
the district to 

(1) Yellow To.id-flax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(2) The garden Narcissus of almojt every 
variety, including Jonquils and Daffodils, but 
particularly th se be ri ig white flowers with 
yellow ce-.tres. 

(3) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

(4) Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella (Bradford- 
on-Tone). 

(5) A variety of the Primrose {Primula vulgaris) 
having a double calyx growing one out of the 
other. Not uncommon in the Hill district. — 'F. 
T. Elworthy. 

(6) Rev. Hilderic Fi-iend gives it as a name 
for the Ivy -leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria. 

(7) Mr'. J. C. Mansell-Pleydell gives it as a 
West Dorset name for the rare Spring Snowflake, 
Lcucojmn vernum. 

Butter and Sugar. A Tisbuvy correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the YelJow Toad- 
flax, Liymria vulgaris. 

Butter Chops. Losser Celandine, Rayiunculus 
Ficaria (Evercreech). 

Buttercup. In addition to the various kinds 
of Ranunculus which usually bear this name it 
is frequently applied to 

(1) The Lesser Celandine {Ranunculus Ficaria, 
and 

(2) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 
sometimes called " Water Bxittercup." 

Dr. Pri(n' thinks that the name Buttercup is a 
corrviption of Button-cop, i.e., Button-head. 

Butter Daisy. Ox-eye, Chrysanthemum Leu- 
canthemum (Dorset and Devon). 



46 

Buttered Eggs. (1) Double Narcissus 
(Stoke-under-Ham) . 

(2) A Tisbiiry correspondent gives me this 
as a local name for the Golden Saxifrage, 
Chrysosplen ium op2)ositiJolium. 

Butter Fingers. Kidney -Vetch, Anthyllis 
Vu Ineraria ( Al ler ) . 

Butterflies. (1) Swjet Peas, Lathy r us 
odoratus (Ciiard and Camerton). 

(2) Sieds of the Sycamore, Acer Pseudo- 
platanus (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Butter Flowers. A name given, but less 
frequently, to all the flowers named under the 
heading of Buttercup. 

Butterfly Flower. A common name for 
the Schizanthus family from the shape of the 
flowers. 

Butterfly Ladies. A correspondent at Cerne 
Abbas gives m^^ this as a local name for the Popi^y, 
Papaver Rhceas. 

Butter- Jags. —Tne bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus. Dr. Prior describes it as "an 
obscure name, perhaps in the first place Bottle- 
Jacks or Butter' D Eggs." 

Butter Pumps. The seed vessels of tlie 
Yellow Water Lily, Nymphcea lutea (Dorset). 

Butter Eose. (1) The Primrose, Primula 
vulgaris (North D-'von). 

(2) The Rev. Hilderic Friend says Buttercup:* 
are so called in South Devon. 

Buttery Eggs. Tne Jonquil, Narcissus Jon- 
quilla (Breamore, Wilts). 

Buttons. (1) Tiie flowers of the Feverfew, 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium (West Somerset). 

(2) Mrs. H. Day, of North Petherton, gives 
it as a local name for the Musk Mallow, Malva 
7noschata. 

(3) A correspondent at Thorncombe gives it 
as a local name for the Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris. 

(4) The Burdock, Arctium majus (Evercreech). 

(5) The burrs of various plants such as 
Goocegrass, Burdock, Thistles, &c. 

(6) Young Mushrooms. 

Button Snake-Root. See Blazing Stars. 
By-the-Wind. Traveller's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba (Farley, Wilts). 

Cabbage Flowers or Cabbage Seed. Several 
correspondents at South Petherton give me this 
as a local name for the Charlock, Brassica arvensis. 

Cabbage Rose. Several young people at 
Dunster tell me that this name (which is generally 
given to the Hundred-leaved or Provins Rose, 
Mosa centifolia) is in that district applied to the 
Peony, Paeonia officinalis ; I presume in reference 
to the size and shape of its flowers. 



47 

(^'addell. Cow-parsnip or Hog weed, Hera- 
clcitm Sphondylium (Devon). 

Cadley Wobbles. A corresi)ondent at East 
Ilarptree gives me this as local name foj- Fir cones. 

Cadweed. Same as Caddell. 

Cains and Abels. (1) Columbine. Aquilegia 
vulgaris (S.W. Wilts). 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in other 
parts of the country the name Cain and Abel is 
applied to the tubers of Orchis httifolia. 

Cakers. Cow-parsniii or Hogweed, Hera- 
deum Sphondylium (Luxboroiigh). 

Cake Seed (1) Cow-parsnip, Heracleum 
Sphondylium (Charniouth, Upottery, and Oolyton 
districts). 

(2) Hemlock, Conium maculatum (Uiiotterv). 
See Kex. 

Cakezie Hemlock. Conium maculatum (Brad- 
ford-on-Tone). Often called Kex or Kexie in 
other parts of the county. 

Call Me to You. Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis. 

Caltrop. Several corresi^ondents at Horton 
give this as a local name for the Crowfoot, 
Banunciilus (? acris). Mr. T. W. Cowan writes 
me, "I do not know what Ranunculus this can 
be, but the Jiame is ap]>lied to Ccntaurea Calciirapa 
in other pirls of the ecuntry. The specific iiame 
Calcitrupa sxxggests it to be a coriuption of this." 

Calvary. False Hoj), called Calvary from the 
spots of blood on the leaf (Wilts). " Diogenes' 
Sandals," \i. S."}. 

Calves-foot. (1) Wild Arum or Cuckoo 
Pint, Arum maculatum, from the shape of the leaf. 
It bears a simila)' name in France and Flanders. 

(2) Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farjara. 

Calves' Snout. Suapdi-agon, Antirrhinum 
niajus. 

Cammick or Cammock. (1) A common name 
for the Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 

(2) Also applied in Devon to the Common 
YaiTow, Achillea Millefolium. 

Campanelle. Hedge Convolvulus, Calystegia 
scpium. 

Can-\ry Bird Flower. See American 
Creeper. 

Canary Creeper. Tropceolum peregrinimi, 
frequently called " Canariensis." See American 
Creeper. 

Canary Flower. Greater Plantain, Plantago 
major, of which Anne Pratt says "Its tall spikes 
of greenish flowers, or the bro^vu ripened seeds 
which succeed them, invite the possessor of the 
captive bird to carry the plant away for the meal 
of the songster." 



48 

Canary Food. A common name throughoiit 
the district for (1) the Plantain, as above. 
(2) Common Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris. 

Canary Grass. Phalaris Canariensis, a grass 
of the Cana^'y Islands cultivated for its seeds. 

Canary Seed. Plantain and Groundsel, as 
above. 

Candle Berries. (1) Wax Myi-tie, or Com- 
mon Candleberry Myi'tle, Myrica cerifera, a 
native of Canada, introduced in 1699, and since 
grown in English gardens. Its round bo y nuts 
are covered with white wax, and are often 
gathered and used for making candles. 

(2) Sweet Gale or Bog M;>Ttle, Myrica Gale, 
which grows freely on our Somerset peat moors ; 
its catkins produce ?^ quantity of wax, though 
not nearly so much as the sjDecies mentioned 
above. 

Candlemas Bells. S lowdrop, Galantlius 
nivalis (N.W. Wilts and Gios.). 

Candlemas Caps. The Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nemorosa. 

Candle Plant. A corresi)ondent gives mo 
this as a local name for "a variety cf cactus, 
having long cylindrical leaves, resembling small 
candles in shape, formerly often grown in cottage 
windows in West Somerset." I fancy he must 
mean the succulent plant, Kleinia articulaia.^ 
which I have grown myself, and have frequently 
heard called the Candle Plant. It has cylindrical 
stalks, Avhich very easily break off at the curious 
joints, to which it owes its specific '^an^e. The 
leaves are not unlike small ivy leaves in shaiDO. 

Candles. (1) Biting Stonecroj), Sedum acre. 

(2) Flowers of Horse Chestnut, ^sc.dus 
Hippocastanum. See Chrlstmas Candles. 

(3) A coi'respoadent at Melbury Osmond gives 
me this as a local nam? for the Meadow Sage, 
Salvia pratensis, which is a very rare plant, not 
found in this part of England. It is i)robable 
the plant she really meant was the Wild Sage, 
S. Verbenaca. 

Candle-sticks. (1) A name frequently given 
in Dorset to the Early Pxirple Orchis, Orchis 
viascula. 

(2) Biting Stone-crop, Seduyyt acre (Leigh-on- 
Mendip). 

(3) The Iris (Pawlett). 

(4) Herb Robert, Geranium RohertianAim 
(Kimmeridge, Dorset). 

Candlewick. Great Mullein, Verhascum 
Thapsus (Wimborne). 

Candock. (1) INIiss Audrey Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, tells me this is a common name in that 
district for the Dog-grass. Exactly what is 



49 

meant by " Dog-grass " is doubtful, but pro- 
bably Cynosurus cristatus. 

(2) Th? nain=' is soni'^times applied to the 
Watot-Uly, l)oth white, Castalia alba, and yellow, 
Xifinphcca lute a. 

Canker. The Dog-rose, Rosa canina. Alsa 
the galls which grow upon it. See below. 

Canker-ball. The mossy or hairy gall or 
" l)edeguar," often of a bright scarlet colour, found 
upon the Wild Rose, caused by an attack on a 
leaf Inid in spring by the gall insect, Rhodites (or 
Cynips) Rosw. The growth is popularly known as 
RobiJi's Pincushion, and is often carried in the 
})ocket as a charm against rheuniatisni. 

Canker Berries. Hips, fruit of the Wild 
Hose, Rosa canina. 

Canker Rose. (1) Same as Canker. 

(2) Sam" as Canker-ball. 

(3) Dr. Prior gives it also as a name for the 
Field Poppy, Papaver Rhceas, in consequence of its 
red colour and its detriment to arable land. 
Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that this name for the 
Poppy is quite common in the Eastern counties. 

Capripoy. Several corresi^ondents at Shute 
(Devon) give me this as a local name for the 
Woodbine or Honeysuckle, Lonicera Caprifolmm. 
One of the old names of the plant was Oaprifoly 
or Caprifole (derived from two Latin words 
meaning Goat's leaf), of which the Shute name 
is a variation. 

Caravaun-beg. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives me 
this as a Somerset name for the Common Self-heal ,^ 
Prunella vulgaris. 

Cardinal Flower. A garden ijerennial of 
North American origin, having large deep red 
flowers. Lobelia cardinalis. 

Carlicups. Marsh Marigold, Caltha jialvstris 
(Frome). 

Carlies. Fircones (Sexey's School, Bruton). 

Carline Thistle. The usual English name 
for Garlina vulgaris from Carolinus — pertain- 
to Charles. So named after Charlemagne, 
of whom the legend relates " A horrible 
pestilence broke out in his aixny and carried off 
many thousand men, which greatly troubled the 
pious Emperor. Wherefore he prayed earnestly 
to God, and in his sleep there appeared to him an 
angel, who shot an arrow from a cross-bow, telling 
him to mark the j)lant upon which it fell, for that 
■v\ath that plant he might cure his army of the 
pestilence. And so it really haj^pened." The 
herb thtis miraculously indicated was this thistle. 

Carnation Grass. (1) Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
says this name is given in West Somerset to the 
Hairy Sedge, a common dwarf sedge found in 



50 

xmdrained meadow land, which is by some 
believed to be the cause of the coe in sheej). 
Carex hirta. Dr. Watson tells me the species 
can scarcely be called " dwarf," as he recently 
picked some nearly a foot in height. 

(2) The name is also given to certain other 
sedges, from the resemblance ct their leaves to 
those of the C irnation, more especially to Carer 
flacca and less commonly to C. panicea. 

(3) In Gloucestershire the 'iufted Hair-grass, 
Deschampsia cccsjjUosa (Holloway). 

Carpenter's Grass. Self-heal, as below. 

Carpenter's Herb. (1) Self-heal, Prunella 
vulgaris. Dr. Prior says " from its corolla seen 
in profile being shaped like a bill-hook, and on 
the doctrine of signatures, supposed to heal 
wounds from edged tools." 

(2) Common Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

Carrot Plant. A correspondent at Wells 
gives me this as a local name for the Eschscholtzia. 

Cart-wheel. A correspondent at Sheijton 
Mallet gives me this as a local name for the 
Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

Case-weed. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa- 
pastoris, so called from its lit-le purse-like 
cai).sules, from Fr. caisse, Lat. capsa, a money-be x. 

Case-wort. Same as Case-weed. 

Cassocks. Couch-gi'ass, Triticmn repcns (S.W. 
Wilts, Somerset border). 

CA.SS-WEED. Sxme as Case-weed. 

Castings. A corresx3ondent at Liippitt (Devon) 
gives this as a local iiame for Snags — -the fruit of a 
Blackthorn, Prunus spinosa. Called in West 
Somerset Kestens or Christians. 

Cast the Spear. Miss Ella Ford, of Melijlash 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Golden Rod, Solidago virgaurea. 

Catchfly. a name originally given by 
Gerarde to Silene armeria, but now applied to 
the genera Silene and Lychnis, including the 
Bladder Champion, White Champion, Ragged 
Robin, and others. The name is, however, chiefly 
given to species having sticky hairs, and Dr. 
Watson says it ought not be ai^iDlied to any of the 
three species I have named. It is also given to 
other plants of which the stems or leaves are 
sticky, and particularly to the Sundew family, 
Drosera. 

Catch Weed, (i) The Goose Giass or 
Cleavers, Galium Aparine, from its habit of 
catching the passer by. 

(2) Several correspondents at Dunster give 
this as a local name for Madw^ort, which I 
think must be a mistake for Wild Madder, Ruhia 



51 

peregrina. The Madwort, Asjjerugo procumbcnis, 
is an alien, generally rare, but found near Bath, 
thovigh not I'lsewhere in Somerset. The Wild 
Madder is very common in the neighbourhood of 
Du'ister, and i'l an early stage much resenibles 
the Goose-grass mentioned above. It is very 
spiny, with short curved prickles, which would 
amply account for the local name. 

Cat Hips. A correspondent at Htockland 
(Devoa) gives this as a locil name^for the fruit of 
the Dog-ros3. Rosa canina. 

Cat Nep. Cat-ruint or Cat-aip, Nejpeta Cataria, 
from the fact that cats are very fond of it, and 
seem almost intoxicated by the smell of it. 

Cat o' Nine Tails. (1) Rev. Hilderic Friend 
gives this as a Devonshire name for the catkins 
of the Hazel, Corylus Avellana. 

(2) The name is also given to the Great Reed- 
mace, Typha latifolia. See Cat's Tail (1). 

Cat Posies. A corresj)ondent at Rodden (near 
Frome) gives this as a local name for the Daisy, 
Bellis perennis. 

Cats and Dogs. Mr. Edward Vivian, of 
Trowbridge, gives me this as a local name for 
the blossom of the Willow, Salix. 

Cats and Keys. Fruit of the Ash, Fra.vinvs 
excelsior, and Maple, Acer campestre. Rev. 
Hilderic Friend says " In Somersetshire the jieople 
speak of Cats and Keys." 

Cat's Claws. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Loi>'S 
cornic'datis. 

(2) Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria. 

(3) Bramble, Bubus fruticosus (Shoscombe). 

Cat's Ear. The usual English name for 
several plants allied to the Hawkbits, particularly 
Hypochceris radicata and H. maculata, from the 
sh-ajje of their lea.ves. 

Cat's Ears. Corn Cockle, Lychnis Githago 
(Stour Provost, Dorset). 

Cat's Eyes. (1) A fairly general name for the 
Germander Speedwell, Veronica Chamcedrys, 
more often called Bird's Eyes. 

(2) Water Violet, Hottonia palustris (Long 
Load). 

(3) Herb Robert, Geranium Rohertianum 
(Chettle, Dorset). 

Cat's Face. The Pansy, both wild and 
cultivated, Viola arvensis and V. tricolor. 

Cat's Foot. (1) The Mountain Everlasting 
Gnaphalium dioica, from its soft flower heads. 

(2) Also the Ground Ivy, Nepeta Glechoma, 
from the shape of its leaves. 

Cat's Fur. A correspondent at Babcary gives 
me this as a local name for the Bedstraw, Galwin 
(? verum). 



52 

Cat's Head. A very large kind of apple, 
sweet and juicy, excellent for cider. — -F. T. 
Elworthy. 

Cat's Love. Garden Valerian, Valeriana 
officinalis, on which cats like to roll (8.W. Wilts). 

Cat's Milk. Sun Spurge, Euphorbia Helios- 
copia, from its milky juice oozing in drops, as 
miik from the small teats of a cat. This milk is 
used for curing warts, and hence the plant and 
other Spurges are also known as Wartweed or 
Wartwort. 

Cats' Paws. (1) A correspondent at Strat- 
ton-on-the-Fosse gives me this as a local name 
for the Meadow Vetchling, but I think it possible 
that she has nam.ed this plant in mistake for the 
Birds-foot Trefoil, Lotus cornicidatus — an error 
which is very frequently made. 

(2) Catkins of Willow, aSa??.!-, while still young 
and downy (Deverill, Wilts). 

Cat's Tail. (1) A common name foi' the- 
Great Reedmace, Typha lati folia, more often 
calle<i Bulrush. 

(2) The Cornfield Horsetail, Equisetum 
arvense, a troublesome weed to faviners and 
gardeners. 

(3) The common Mare's Tail, Hippuris 
vulgaris ; called by the Dutch Kattestail. 

(4) The Crack Willow, Salix jragilis (West 
Somerset). 

(5) The Rev. Hilderic Friend gives this as a 
Devonshire name for Amarantkus caudatus, 
popularly known as Love Lies Bleeding or 
Prince's Feather. 

(6) Viper's Bugloss, Echium rulgare. See 
Cat's Tails. 

Cat's Tail Grass. Timothy Grass, Phleum 
pratense. 

Cat's Tails. (1) Catkins of Hazel, Willow, 
Alder, &c. • 

(2) Leaves of the Silverweed, Potentilla 
Anserina (Batcombe). 

(3) A correspondent at Wambrook gives it 
as a local name for the Ribwort Plantain, Plantago 
lanceolata. See Cat's Tail. 

Cat's Whin. Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 

Cattikeyns. Fruit of the Ash, Fraxinusr 
excelsior (North-West Wilts). 

Cauliflowers. A Taunton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the flowers of 
the Elder, Samhucus nigra. 

Cax. Wild Carrot, Daucus Carota (Dorset). 
Such names as Caxes, Kecks, Kex, Gicksy, 
&c., are given to the dry hollow stalks of 
various umbelliferous plants, and are also applied 
to the plants th-:-mselves. 



53 

Caxlies. Cow-pai'snip, Heracleum Sjyhondy- 
Hum (Otterford). See above. 

Centaury. The true Centaury is the genus 
Centaurium (form-^rly named Erythrcea) of the 
Gentian family, and bears i-ose-coloured flowers, 
but the name is very frequently applied to various 
Knapweeds, the Corn Bluebottle, and other 
flowers of the genus Centaxrea. 

Gentry. Bog Pimpernel, Anagallis tenella. I 
have this name from Barford (Wilts), and jVlr. 
W. S. Price, of Wellington, tells me that a field 
in Hemyock in which this ])lant is found is known 
as " Centry MeadoAv." 

Chairs and Tables. S^cd of the Box, Buxus 
■semperviretis (Muchelney). 

Chalk Plant. Gypsophila panlculata, often 
exiled th^ (tAUZE-plower. 

Changeables. The Hydrangea, H. horlensis 

Change op the Weather. A correspondent 
At Babcary gives me this as a local nam > for the 
Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis. 

Chariot and Horses. Monkshood, Aeoni- 
ium Napellns. 

Charity. (1) A correspondent at West Brad- 
ley gives this as a local name for Honesty or 
Lunary, Lmiaria biennis. 

(2) A correspondent at Bloxworth (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for Jacob's Ladder, 
Polemoniuni cccruleum. 

Charlock. (1) A general name for Wild 
Mustard, Brassica auvensis. 

(2) The Wild Radish, Baphanns Raphanis- 
irum (Dorset). 

(3) Many ether weeds r-f arable land are 
locally and erroneously called " Chai-lock." 

Chatterboxes. A correspondent at Ham- 
moon (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

Cheat. A very common name in Doiset for 
the Darnel, Lolium temulentum, or for the Wild 
Oat, Avena fatua, or Oats which from lack of 
soil or food or from other causes have degenerated 
into the wild form. 

Cheddar Pink. Dianthus g'aucus, from the 
l)lace of its growth on the clifTs of the famous 
C.ieddar gorge. 

Cheddies. Potatoes (East Somerset). 

Cheese and Butter. A correspondent at 
Winsham gives me this as a local nani'^ for the 
Le^sei- Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. See 
BuTTKB and Cheese (2). 

Cheese-Bowls. An old nam' apparently 
^itill used in many districts for the Field Poppy, 



54 

Papaver Rhccas. Dr. Prior ^ays " from the shape 
of the ripe cap?ule resembling that of round 
cheeses." 

Cheese-Cakes. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil. Lotus 
cornieulatiis. 

(2) A corresj)ondent at L^igh-on-Mendip gives 
it as a local name for the Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis 
Vidneraria. 

Cheese Cups. A correspondent at Hatch 
Beaiichamp gives this as a local name for the 
Lesser Celandine, Ranxmculus Ficaria. 

Cheese-Flower. Common Mallow, Malva 
sylvestris. Sje Cheeses. 

Cheese Rennet. Yellow Bedstraw, Galium 
verum, from the fact that it was formerly used 
to curdle milk for making cheese. 

Cheeses. The round flat seeds of the Common 
Mallow, Malva sylvestris. Children are fond of 
eating them when green and soft. 

Chemises. Hedge Convolvulus or Greater 
Bindweed. Cahjstegia sepiiim. 

Chequered Lily. The Snake's-head Fritillary, 
Fritillaria Meleagris. 

Cherry Bay. (1) Several ycung peojile at 
Paultoii give this as a local name for the Laurel, 
Lauras nobilis. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me the name is 
usually api»lied to the Pcrtugal Laurel, Cerasis 
h'sitanica. 

Cherry Odds. Cherry stones, always. — .F-T. 
Elworthy. 

Cherry Pie. (1) A very general name for 
the Heliotrope, Heliotr opium peruvianmn ; so 
called from its scent. 

(2) Great Hairy Willow Herb, Epilohium 
hirsutmn. 

(3) All-heal, Valeria7ia officinalis (S.W. Wilts). 

Chibbal, Chibble, or C*hipple. A young 
onion Avith the green stalk attached. Frciu the 
Frer.ch Ciboale, derived from the Latin Cepula — • 
a small onion. Mr. F. W. Mathews says the name 
" appears by tacit consert to be I'eseived for the 
iminature spring-sown onion." 

(■hick-Chack. a South Somerset foim of 
Shick-Shack — a name given to the leaves and 
" Apples " of the oak, worn on Royal Oak Day, 
May 29th. 

Chickens. — Rev. Hilderic Friend gives this 
as one of the Devonshire names for London Pride, 
Saxifraga umbrosa ; probably a contraction of 
" Hen and Chickens." 

Chickweed. (1) The usual English name for 
Stellaria media, whose bright green egg-shaped 
leaves and tinv white star-like flowei's abound 



55 

in negckcted gardon.s practically rll the year 
through. One of the names by which our fcilhei'S 
called it was Hex's Inheritance. 

(2) Mr. W. D. Miller tells me that the name is 
c mmon to all the Cerastiimis and Stellarias, and 
is applied m<^ire loosely still. 

(3) A considerable num.ber of my corres- 
pondents give the name to the common Groundsel, 
Senecio vulgaris, well known as a valuable food 
for birds. 

(4) A correspondent at Axbridge gives it as 
a local nemc — (Dr. Watson says a misnomer) — • 
for the Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis. 
RfrV. Hilderic Friend says the Chickweed has in 
some cases lieen confused with the Pimprrael. 

Chicory. A very general name for the beauti- 
ful blue Wild Succory, Cichorinm Intybus. 

Chilblain Berries. The scarlet egg-shaped 
berries of the Black Bryony, Tamils communis. 

Children of Israel. (1) A common name 
foi- the Virginia Stock, Malcohnia maritima, on 
account of its numerous small flowci's. 

(2) In Wilts the name is given to a small 
garden variety of Campanula for the sam? reason. 

(3) Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trowbridge, tells 
me that a large number of f)eoi)Ie in that district 
give th<' nf.me to the Londoji Pride, Saxijraga 
nmhrosa. 

Children's Clock. Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. This p'ant is very commonly known 
by the name of " Ciocks " from the fact that 
children pretend to tell the time by counting the 
number of i^ufEs of breath required to blow away 
all the downy seeds from the ripe seed-head. 
I have only had the prefix " Cnildren's " from 
Dunkerton. 

Chimney Bell-Flower. Correspondents at 
Muchehiey and Stoke St. Gregory give me this 
as a local name for a Campanula, which I believe 
t ) Ijo Campanula pyramidalis. 

Chimney Smock. The Wood Anemone, 
Anemone tiemorosa. 

Chimney Sweep. (1) The Black-head Grass 
or Field Wood-iush, Luzula campestris. 

(2) Ribwort Plantain. Plantago lanceolaia 
(East S'''mei"Set). 

(3) Hoarv Plantain, P. media (Oakhill and 
South Petherton). 

(4) Small Knapweed, Centaureu nigra (Mud- 
f ^rd). 

(')) S?veral correspondents at S xith Petherton 
give this as th" Ic cal name for Timcthy giass, 
Phlcum pratense. 

(0) Great Reed-mace, Typha latifolia, more 
commonly called Bulrush (Mells). 

(7) Mr. H. A. Bonding, of Shoscombe, gives it 
as a local n^me for the Sweet-scented Vernal-grass, 
Anthoxanlh'nn odoratum. 



56 

Chimney Sweepers. Field Woodiush, L^izvla 
<;ampestris (N.W, Wilts). 

Chimney Sweeper's Brush. Great lioed- 
niace, Typha latifolia, moi e c< 11111101117 called 
Bulrush. 

Chimney Sweep's Brush. (1) Iloavy Plantain 
or Lamb's Tongue, Plantago media (Ba.tcoml»e). 

(2) Blc ck Knapweed, Centairea nigra (Mvid- 
ford). 

Chinaman's Breeches. Dicentra spedabilis. 
popularly known as the Bleeding Heart, Lady's 
Locket, Lyre-flower, Locks and Keys, and by 
many other names. 

Chinese Lantern. (1) A very general name 
for Ih^ Winter Ch-i-jry, Physalis Alkekengi : 
som^Himes called Cape Gooseberry. 

(2) A correspondent at Minehead gives this as 
a local nam^ f»>i- the Herb Robert, Gerunivm 
Bobertian'(7n. 

Chiny (or Chinny) Oyster. A very common 
local coMuption of the name China Aster. 

Chippls-Eye. Mr. P. W. Mathews, of Brad- 
f"i'd-on-Tone, writes me: "By conlusion, the 
Tripoli Onion is ( ften celled Chipple-Eye." 

Chipples. Same as Chibbles. 

Chit Chat. The Mountain Ash, Pt/rvs 
Aucuparia (S.W. Wilts). 

Chooky-pig. (1) A fairly general name in 
North and East Somerset for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) Corresiiondents at Winscombe tell me the 
name is there given to the Spotted Orchis, Orchis 
maculata, the Siapdjagon being known as the 
■" Garden Chooky-pig." 

Chopped Eggs. A corresi^ondent at Hodden 
(rear Frome) gives this as a local name for the 
Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris. 

Christ and the Apostles. A correspondent 
at Stockland (Devon) gives this as a local n^me 
for the Passion-flower, Passiflora cccrulea. 

Christen. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this as 
a Dorset name for " a small kind of ])lum." 
Compare the two following names. 

Christians. Mr. F. W. Mathews, of Bradford- 
on-Tone, gives this as a local name for the Bullace, 
Prunus insititia. See above and below. 

Christlings. Rev. Hildeiic Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire name for " a small sort of plum." 
Compare the two preceding names and Crisling. 

Christmas. Holly, Ilex Aquifolimn, particu- 
larly wh?n used for dccoi-ative purposes ; but 
also' applied to any evergreen used for Christmas 
or other decoration, whether holly, mistletoe, or 
others. 



57 

Christmas Anthems. A very comiuon play 
upon the name Chrysanthemums, sent me from 
many ijarts of the county. 

Christmas Berry. H< lly (West S -merset and 
Devvjn). See Christm\8 

Christmas Candles. The floAver.s of the Horse 
•Chestnut, ^sciilus Hippocastanum (Oakhill). See 
also Candles and Christmas Tree. 

Christmas Rose. (1) Black Helle])oro, Helle- 
horvs niger. 

(2) A correspondent ».t Camerton gives it as 
a local name for the Wild Aconite, Eranthis 
hyemalis. • 

Christmas-tree. (1) Mr. F. R. Summer- 
hayes, of Milborue Port, gives this as a local name 
for the flower-sj)ike of the Horse Chestnut, ^sculus 
Hippocastanum. See Christmas Candles. 

(2) The name is also applied to the Auracaria 
imbricata (often grown as a pot plaot). 

Chucky Cheese. The Common Mallow, Malva 
■sylvestris. See Cheeses. 

Chucky Pig. (1) Same as Chooky-pig (1). 

(2) A correspondent at Cross (near Axbridge) 
gives it as a local name for the Grai^e Hyacinth, 
Muscari. 

Church Bells. (1) Common Comtrey, Syrw 
phyt'im officinale. 

(2) Canterbury Bells, Campanula Medium. 

(.3) A corresiDondent at Leigh (Dorset) applies 
the name to the Ivy-leaved Bell-flower, Campanula 
'heileracea. 

Church Brooms. The Teasel, Dipsacus 
sylvestris. 

Church Steeples. A name sometimes given 
to the Common Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria. 

Church- WORT. An old name for the Penny- 
royal, Mentha Pulegium. 

Churchyard Elder. A Duuster correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the She]>herd's 
Purse, Capsella B (rsa-pastoris. 

Churchman's Greeting. Dr. Downes ii forms 
me thvt in the neighbourhood cf Ilminster, the 
Mistletoe, Viscum album, is sometimes called by 
this name. 

Cigar Flower. — The general E.igli^h nanii 
of a M X can plf.nt of the Loosestrife family 
cultivated in Eugl'-sh g< rdens, Cuphea plaiycentra. 
It has 1 scarlet tubular corolla tipped with white 
a)id black. 

Claden. a nam? v^iry common in Dorset 
for the Goosegrass or Cleavers, Galium Aparine, 
which is known by a large number of different 
names, of which about 20 commence with the 
letters CL. Mr. Mansell Pleydell spells the name 

ivLAITON. 



58 

Clappede or Clappede-Pouch. S v.'i-al young^ 
people at Aller give ni" this as a local nam- for 
the She])herd's Pavse, Capselkt Bursa-pastoris. 
If the name is still used in that neighbourhood 
it is most interesting. Dr. Prior gives the fol- 
lowing particulars with regard to it : — •" A }ick- 
nam^ from the Dutch, which alludes to the 
licensed begging of lepers, who si ood at the cross- 
ways with a bell and cla]»peT." Holtman von 
Fallersleben. in his Niederl/indische Vo.kslieder, 
says of th( nr (p. J>7) : -" .S •i)arated from all the 
world, without house or home, the lepers were 
obliged to dwell in a solitary wretched hut by 
the roadside : their clothing so scanty that they 
often had nothing to wear but a hat and a cloak 
and a begging wallet. They would call the atten- 
tion of the passers-by with a bell or a clapper^ 
and receive their alms in a cui) or a bason at the 
end of a long pole. The bell was usually of 
brass. The clapper is described as an instrument 
made of two or three boards, by rattling which 
they excited people to relieve them. The lepers 
would get the name of Rattle-pouches, anil this 
be extended to the plant in allvision to the little 
purses which it hang^ out by the wayside." 

Clary. A very general name for the Wild 
Sage, Salvia Verbenaca. The usual English ram^ 
for S. Sclarea. See Clear Eye. 

Claton. S^e Claden. 

Claut. The Marsh Marigold, Caltha pdlmtris^ 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Clavers. a Dorset form of the name C! leavers 
(given by liev. W. Barxes and others). See 
Claden. 

Clay. A correspondent at Washford gives 
me this as a local name for the Goosegrass or 
Cleavers. Sc-e Claden. 

Clayton. See Claden. 

Clear Eye. (1) Wild Sage, Salvia Verbenaca. 
The old herbalists considered this one of the 
most efficacious of herbs in any complaint of 
the eye. Its seeds when i)ut into water yield 
a mucilage which, i)laced within the cj'elid for 
a few minutes, envelops any pa,rticle of dxist 
which may pain the eye. Hence the name of 
the yjlaiit Clef.r Eve or Clarv. 

(2) I am indebted to Mr. T. W. Cowan for 
the following interesting notes : — Clear-Eye or 
See-bright ai^e old popular names for the i>lant 
Salvia Sclarea, and are corruptions of the word 
Clary, otherwise called Godes-eie or Oculus 
Christi. On the strength of these names it was 
regarded, Prior says, as a prop?r ingredient for 
eye-salves. Gerard says in his Herbal it is called 
Clarie or Cleere-eie. See also Goody's-Eye, 
Somerset name for Salvia Sclarea, a corruption 
of a poj^ularname God's-eye (Britten & Holland)- 



59 

GoDES-EiE, Chbist's-eye, and Clear-bye seem 
tree renderings of its Low Latin nanae Sclarea 
(from clarus)." 

Cleavers (1) Goose-grass, Galium Aparine' 
See Claden. The name is, of course, due to the 
way in which the hooked seeds and leaves of the 
plant cling to the clothes of persons or to the 
coats of animals coming into contact with them. 

(2) Correspondents at Oakhill apply the name 
for the sanie reason to the Burdock, Arctium 
ma jus, and 

(3) For reasons which are not so obvious 
to the Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris. Dr. Wa" son 
tells me that the flower heads of the Fuller's 
Teasel are hooked as in the Burdock. Those of 
the Wild Teasel are sharply pointed. In his 
opinion the name ought to be restricted to the 
Goose-grass. 

Cleeve-Pixk or Cliff-Pink. A species of pink 
which grows wild in the c annies of Cheddar 
Cliffs, having a fine scent, more generally known 
as Cheddar Pink, Dlanthiis glaucus. Cleve for cliff 
is common in earl> English. 

Cletherex. Goosegrass or Cleavers, Galium 
Aparine (East Somerset), 

Clidden, Glide, Clider, or Clidoxs. Goose- 
grass, as above. See Cladex. 

Cliff-Rose. Thrift or Sea-Pink, Armeria 
maritima, on account of its love for our seaside 
cliffs and rocks and its rose-coloured flowers. 

Climbixg Jacks. Xasturtixims Trppceoluyn 
ma jus ( E Vc-rcreech ) . 

Clime. Goosegrass or CleaVc-rs, Galium Ajtarine 
(Paulton). 

Clixgixg Sweethearts. Goosegrass, as above 
(Sbrewton, Wilts). 

Clixg Rascal. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives 
this as a Devonshire name for the Goosegrass, 
on the authority of Britten, p. 107. 

Clitch Buttox. Rev. Hilderic Fiiend also 
gives this as a Devonshire name for the Goose- 
gi-ass. 

Clite or Clithe. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives me 
this as an old name for the Burdock, Arctium 
majus. 

Clite?. A Wiltsliivc nam'^for the Goo-ograss. 

Clivers. A Somerset and Dorset name for 
the Goosegrass. 

Clock-Flower. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. See Clocks. 

Clocks. (1) A very general name for the 
light seed heads of the Dandelion, which the 
children blow upon, to tell the hour by the numbei* 
of puffs required to blow off all the seeds. 



6o 

(2) The seed-heads of other i-^latives of the 
Dandelion, e.g., Groundsel, Coltsfoot, &c. 

Clocks and Watches. Dandelion, Taraxa- 
cum officinale (Wells). 

Clog Weed. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives nv thi^ 
as a Somersetshire name for the Co\v-Parsnip> 
Heracleum Sphondyliuni, and tells me that it is 
a shortened form of Keyc-logge, i.e., Keck-lock 
(A.S. leac) or Kex-plant (Prior). 

Clot Bur. (1) Burdock, Arctium mi jus. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan gives me this as a local 
name for the Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria. 

See COCKLE-BUR. 

Clote. Yellow Water Lily, Nympha^a bfea. 
(East Somerset and Dorset.) 

Clothes Brush. Wild Teasel, Dipsacus 
sylvcstris (S.W. Wilts). 

Clothes Pegs. (1) Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mi'ic<-da (Bradford-on-Tone and Ashcott). 

(2) A correspondent at Nelherhury (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for the Foxglove, Digitalis 
purj)urea. 

Cloud Berry. (1) A general name for the 
Mountain Raspberry, Rubus Charyuemorvs, so 
called, Gerard says, because they grow on the 
summits of mou.ntains, " where the cloucles are 
lower then the tops of the same all winter long, 
whereupon the people of the countrie haue 
called them Cloud-berries.'' Mr. T. W. Cowan 
suggests that possibly they get their name from 
old English clud=a. clifT. This plant does not 
grow in Somerset, and the name is given in ^ome 
parts of that county and of Dorset, to 

(2) the Dewberry, R>hi'S ca'sii'f>, which Dr. 
Watson says has no right to the name. 

Clove Gilawfur (or Gillift.ower). Clove 
]nnk, Carnation, Dianihus Caryophyllvs. See 
Gilawfer and Gilliflower. 

Clover Devil. The Dodder, Cuscuta. 

Clutch. Knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare 
known also in West Somerset as Tacker-Grass 
Tucker-grass, and Man-tie. 

Cly, or Clyde. Goose-grass or Cleavers. 
Galium Aparine (West Somerset and Devon). 

Cly-burs. The little hooked seed pods of the 
Goosegrass, as above. 

Clyder, Clydern, or Clyther. A name used, 
throughout a great ]iart of the four counties, for 
the Goosegrass, as above. 

Coach and Horses Monkshood, Aconitum 
Napellus (Sherborne). Comi^are Chariot and 
Horses. 

Coach Horses. Mv. P. T. Elworthy gives this 
as a West Somerset name for the conimon Pansy, 
Viola tricolor (cultivated) or V. arvensis (wild). 



6i 

Coachman's Buttons. Th^ Field Scaldous^ 
Scabiosa arvensis (Queen Camel). 

Cobbler's Wax. Several correspondents at 
Donhead (Wilts) give me this as a local name for 
the Sumach, Rhi'S. 

Cob-web. A correspondent at Broadstone 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Houseleek, Sempervivum teciorum. The name is 
l^robably due in some measure to the fact that 
there is a closely related plant, grown in gardens, 
known as the Cobweb House-leek, Sempenivum 
arachnoideum, on account of the long white hairs 
at the tips of the leaves, which cross and pre- 
sent the ai)pearance of a plant over which a 
spider has trailed its net. 

Cockagee {g hard). A kind of small hard sou. 
cider api^le, in use in the West of Englandr 
(Jennings, and Wilts.) 

Cock Grass. (1) Ribwort Plantain. Plantago 
lanceolata. Mr. El worthy says : "The only name 
used by farmers for this, the commonest variety 
of the Plantains" (West Somerset). . 

(2) Perennial Rye-grass or Red Darnel, Loliuni 
percnne. Children, taking a blade in one hand, 
run up the sprouts on each side with the finger 
and thumb of the other hand, and bovs say, 
" What shall I be ? " and girls "Who 'shall I 
marry ? " 

A tinker ? a tailor ? 

A soldier ? a sailor ? 

A rich nran ? a j^oor man ? 

A 'pothecary ? a thief ? 

(PULMAN). 

Many other questions are asked and 
answered by Somerset boys and girls in the same 
way. I do not think it necessary to set out all 
the forms in deta.il in this list, but the following 
selection, kindly sent me by Dr. Watson, will 
give a fair idea of the lines on which thty run :. — 
The usual rendering is " Tinker, tailor, soldier, 
sailor, rich man, poor-man, beggar-man, thief." 
About Culmhead the last two are replaced by 
" gentleman, farmer." Other renderings are to 
live in a " big-house, little-house, pig-sty, barn," 
to be m.arried in " silk, satin, cotton, rag " ; 
to go to church in a " coach, carriage, wheel- 
barrow, mud-cart " ; to be married " this year,, 
next year, sometime, never." 

Cockle Buttons. The seed-head of the 
Burdock, Arctium majus. One of our Somerset 
names for the Burdock is " Cuckold," of which 
" Cockle " is a corruption. 

OocKLB-BUR or Clot-bur. Mr. T. W. Cowan 
gives me this as a local name for the Agrimony, 
Agrimonia Eupatoria. See also Clot-bur. 

Cockles. (1) Periwinkle, Vinca major (and 
V. minor). Rev. Hilderic Friend attempts to 



62 

explain this name Ijy suggesting a coniusion 
between two kinds of shell-fish on the jmrt of 
people living fav fiom the sea and not knowing 
the difference betAA'em the two. 1 have had this 
name sent me from several different ])arts of 
South Somerset. 

(2) A general name throughout the district for 
the seed-heads or buirs of the Burdock, Arctixm 
ma jus. 

(3) A corresi)ondent at Watchet gives this as a 
local name for the flowers of the Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, Lotus cornicidatns, and also for 

(4) The seeds of the Furze, Ulex evropceus. 
■ (5) The Corn Cockle, Lychnis Githago. 

(6) Fircones (Leigh, Dorset). 

Cockle Shells. Several corresi^ondents at 
South Petherton give me this as a locj^l name for 
the Periwinkle, Vinca. 

Cock Robin. (1) The common name for the 
Red Canapion, Lychnis dioica, in North Somerset. 

(2) Several correspondents at Mells give this as 
a locil name for the Ragged Robin, Lychnis 
Flos-c'culi. 

Cocks and Hens. A common name foi- the 
Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata. 

Cock's Comb. A name given to several 
different floAvers, but most generally to the (1) 
Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus Crista-galli. The 
latter name is Latiii for Cock's Comb, and is given 
on acco-ant of the shape of the calyx. The plant 
))ears an equivalent name in many of the countries 
of Europe. 

(2) The Lousewort, or Red Rattle, Pedicularis 
sylvatica. 

(3) Several correspondents at Puddletown 
(Dorset) give it as a local name for the Teasel, 
Dipsacvs sylvestris. 

(4) The Cock's Comb of the gardeners is Celosia 
cristata, of the Amaranth family. 

(5) Often given to another member of the same 
family — Love Lies Bleeding, Amarardhi'S caudatus 
A. rdber or A. melancholicus. 

(6) A correspondent at Compton (between 
Yeovil and Sherborne) gives it as a local name for 
the Calceolaria. 

Cock's Head. The Sainfoin, Onobrychis 
vicicefolia, fronr the shape of the legume. 

Cocks' Heads. The heads of the Ribwor^ 
Plantain, Plantago lanceolata, which contain th^ 
seeds. Holloway says :— " In West Sussex boyS 
play with these heads ; one holds a stalk in hi*^ 
hand while another with a similar stalk strike^ 
his opponent's, and which ever loses the head 
first is conquered. It is called 'Fighting Cocks.' " 

CocKSPUR (1) An English name for the Virginia 
Hawthorn, Crataegus virginica. 

(2) Several correspondents at Bradford-on- 
Tone give this as a local name for Crow's-foot ? 



63 

Cock Thistle. A coirespo}ident at llammoon 
(Dorset) gives this as a local name for the Scotch 
(or Cotton) Thistle, Onopordum Aeanthium. 

Cock Upon Perch. A correspondent at West 
Bi-ndley gives this as a local name for " Eggs 
and Bacon." I b?lieve the name i^ applied 
hoth to the Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris, 
and the Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

CocKWEED. Several correspondents in the 
neighbourhood of Axminster give this as a local 
name for the Pei)i>er\vort, Lejiidium. 

Cocoa Buttons. TheBm-dock, .-IrcftHm ma jus 
(Queen Camel). Evidently a oorrni:)tion of 
" Cuckold." 

CoDLiNs AND Cream. (1) A Very general name 
for the Great Hairy Willow-herb, Epilohixm 
hlrsutum ; from the odoxir of its flowers or of its 
fresh shoots, when crushed in the hand. 

(2) A well-informed correspondent at Martock 
gives this as a local name for the Narcissus. 

CoE Grass. J uncus bufonius, the grass which 
is said to he the cause of the coc in sheep and 
cattle. By some this disease is said to conre from 
the Goosegrass — Carex hirta — biit both are 
generally found growing either together or in 
similar wet la.nd. (F. T. Elworthy.) 

Coffee Flowers. A correspo)ident at Ilmin- 
ster gives this as a local name for the Comfrey, 
SymphytHni ojficinale. 

Cog Weed. A correspondent at Curry Mallet 
gives this as the local name for a yellow flower, very 
common in that district, having its fruit in spiral 
cogs. Fi'om this description several botanical 
friends have recognised the plant as the Spotted 
Medick, Medicago maculata, or the Toothed 
Medick, 31. denticulata. 

CoLBWORT. (1) Several correspondents give 
this as a name for Avens, Geutn nrhawum. 

(2) It is also applied to the Sea Cabbage, 
Brassica oleracea. 

Colt's Tail. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire name for (1) The Cornfield Horse- 
tail, Equisetum arvense ; and 

(2) Common Mare's tail, Hippuris vulgaris. 

Comb and Brush. Wild Teasel, Dipsacus 
sylvestris (S.W. Wilts). 

Comb Fern. The Hard Fern, Blechnum 
Spicant (Dulverton). 

Combs and Hairpins. A Taunton corres- 
pondent gives this as a local name for the Dande- 
lion, Taraxacum officinale. 

Confetti. A correspondent at Watchet gives 
this as a local name for (1) White Goosefoot 
or Fat-he Q, Chenopodium album ; and 



64 

(2) The seeds of the Dock, probably applied 
to more than one sp; cies, but particularly to the 
(Grreat Water Dock, Rumex Hydrolapathum ; very 
common on banks of streams and rivers and ou 
peat moors. 

Conker Berries. The ripe fruit or " hips " 
of the Wild Rose, Rosa canina (East Somerset and 
Dorset). 

Conkers. (1) The fruit of the Horse Chestnut. 
j^scidus Hippocastamim ; from a game played by 
boys who string the horse-chestnuts on cord 
and take it in turn to strike at each olher'ss nut in 
order to " conquer " by cracking it. 

(2) A Watchet correspondent gives this as a 
local name for the Ribwort or Lamlj's Tongue 
Plantain, Plantago lanceolata, for a reason which 
will be found under Cock's Heads. 

(3) The ripe fruit or " hip " of the Wild Rose. 

(4) The bedeguir, or gall known as the " Robin's 
Pincushion " o'jten found on the Wild Rose. See 
Canker. 

Conquer Moors. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officina le ( B eami nst er dist rict ) . 

Conqueror Flowers. See Conkers. 

Convict Grass. Mr. Harry Pouncy tells me 
that at Portland the Red Valerian, Kentravihrs 
ruber is known by this name. 

Cop-Rose or Copper Rose. The Field Poppy, 
Papaver Rhceas, from its red rose-like flower and 
the cop or button-shape of its capsule. Dr. 
Downes kindly reminds me that Cop is A.S. for 
Head, c.f. modern German Kopj. 

Corn Bottle. A Devonshire form of the 
name Cornflower or Bluebottle, Centaurea 
Cyanus. 

Corn Cockle. Several correspondents at 
Winsham give this as a local name for the Black 
Knapweed, Centaurea nigra. The true C rn 
Cockle is Lychnis Githago, and the application of 
the name to the Knapweed is due to a double 
confxision. 

Cornets. A correspondent at Whitchiu'ch 
Canonicorum (Dorset) gives this as a local name 
for the Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 

Corn Flag (1) Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 

(2) Any plant of the genus Gladiolus. 

Cornflower. (1) A very general name for 
the Bluebottle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

(2) Applied almost as freely to the Greater 
Knapweed, Centaurea Scabiosa. 

(3) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis. 

(4) A correspondent at Wid worthy (Devon) 
gives it as a local name for the Common Red 
Poppy, Papaver Rhceas. 

Corn Pop. Bladder Campion, Silene lat'ijolia 
(N.W. Wilts). 



05 

Corn Rose. A fairly general name for the 
Common Red Poppy, Papaver Rhceas. 

CORNWOOD. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name for the 
Cornel or Dogwood, Cornus sanguinea. 

Cotton Flower. Several correspondents at 
Horton and Wellington give this as a local name 
for the Plantain — probably Plantago media, from 
the general cottony aj)pearance of its spike. 

Cotton Weed. (1) An old name for the High- 
land Cudweed, Gnaphalium sylvcdicum, from its 
soft white pubescence. 

(2) Mountain Everlasting, or Cat's-foot,. 
AntctDiaria dioica. 

Couch (1) The local form of Couch-grass or 
Cou-Ii-whea< . Triticum repens ; a very troublesome 
^veed. Mr. T. W. Cowan Wiites : — " A corrup- 
tion of Quitch — or Quick-grass. A. Sax. cicice, 
quice, i.e. the quick or vivacious plant. la 
Lincolnshire Wicks (from icick — -alive), it being 
very tenacious of life, and to its habit of growth 
lying on the ground. Do.-S' t Cooch to lie, French 
coucher." See Twitch. 

(2) Other troublesome weeds (e.g. the Field 
Convolvulus) are often known as CoucH or 
Cooch. 

Cough Wort. The Coltsfoot, Tussilago 
Farfara, from its medicinal use for the cure of 
coughs. 

Courtship and Matrimony. Meadowsweet, 
Spircea Ulmaria. 

^^ Coventry Bells. (1) Any of the cultivated 
" Canterbury Bells," particularly Campanula 
Medium. 

(2) A correspondent at Sherborne gives this 
as a local name for the Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea. 

CowBANE. A general name for the Water 
Hemlock, Cicuta virosa, from its injurious effect 
upon cows. Dr. Downes writes me : — Cicuta 
virosa is a very rare plant in Somerset ; more 
probably the plant referred to is CEnanthe crocatay 
the Hemlock Water-Dropwort. I am told that 
cows have died from eating the roots of this plant 
after ditches have been cleaned out 'and the roots 
left on the ground. The stems and leaves do not 
seem to be so injurious." 

Cowbell. A well-informed correspondent at 
Allerford gives me this as a local name for the 
Bladder Campion, Silene Cucuhalus. 

Cow Belly. Several correspondents at 
Muchelney give me this as a local name for Cow- 
parsnip, Heracleum Sphondylium. ''Bally" is 
possibly a corruption of " Billers," which see. 

Cowberry. (1) The Red Whortleberry, Tac- 
cinium Vitisldcca. Dr. Prior says " apparently 



66 

a blunder between Vaccinium, the fiuit of the 
Whortle, and Vaccinus, what belongs to a cow." 
Although this name has been sent me by a number 
of correspondents I und rstand this particular 
Whortleberry is very rare in Somerset, and is only 
found wild on the Quaat'cks, n -ar Quantoxhead. 

(2) Mr. F. W. Mathews t -ils me that near 
Dunster the comLinon Who^'tleberx-y, Vaccinium 
Myrtellus, is called Comberry, H? adds that 
cows are very fond of the fruit and bush, but that 
it do:s not agree with them if eaten in any 
quantity. 

Cow Bumble. The Oow-pai'snip or Hogweed, 
Heracleum Sphondylium (Otterford). 

Oow Chervil. Wild Beaked Parsley, Anthris- 
ciis sylvestris. Called "Rat's bane" in West 
Somerset ; a favourite food of \}^t rabbits. It 
grows three or foui' feet in height, and is the first 
of our umbelliferous plants to flower in the 
spring. 

Cow-Flop. (1) A common name in West 
Somerset and Devon for the Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea. 

(2) Several correspondents at Dunster give 
it as a local name for the Cowslip, Primula 
veris. 

(3) Rev. Hilderic Friend says the name is 
given by farmei's to a species of wide spreading 
oat to distinguish it from the Tartarian oat. 

Cow Grass. (1) The Zig-zig Clover, Tri- 
foli'im medium. 

(2) The perennial form of Red Clover, 
Trifolinm pratense. 

Cow Parsley. (1) Fool's Parsley, Mthusa 
Cynapium (East Somerset ). Anne Pratt records : 
" Some years ago two ladies in Somersetshiie, 
who ate it in salad, suffered very seriously, though 
both ultimately recovered." 

(2) Dr. Watson tells me that in the Taunton 
district this name is given to the Wild Beaked 
Parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, and probably to 
other similar-looking m.emb3r3 of the Parsley 
family. 

Cow Quakes. A correspondent at Comj)ton 
(between Yeovil and Sherborne) gives me this as 
a local name for the Quaking Grass, Briza media. 

Cows AND Bulls. The Wild Arum ov Cuckoo- 
piat. See Cows axd Calves. 

Cows and Calves. (1) A very general name 
for the Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Aruyn 
macnlatum. Those flowers in which the spadix 
is very light in colour are called " Calves " ; 
those in which it is medium coloured are " Cows " ; 
and those in which it is very dark " Bulls." 

(2) A correspondent at Leigh (Dorset) tells me 
in that district the name is given to Pink and 
White Clover. 



67 

Cows, Calves, axd Bulls. A form of tlie 
nanii ('ows AND Calvks, sent mo from Fault 'ii. 

Cow's Eyes. Th? Ox-eye, Chri/santhonion 
LeHcantkemmn (Sexey's School). 

Cowslip. (1) This is the general English 
name for Primula veris, but the Hev. Ilildcric 
Friend gives it as a Devonshire name for the 
Foxglove, Difjiialis purpurea ; and also for 

(2) Buttercuiis in the neighbourhood (f 
Teignmouth. 

Mr. T. W. CoA-an tells me that the 
name Cowslip is considered to be a corruption 
of Kesiop or Keslip, A. Sax. ceselib, cyselib, i.e. 
the prepared stomach of a calf (which the plant 
was supposed to resemble) used as rennet for 
making cheese. 

Cowslip of Bedlam. A name given by Mr. 
F. T. El worthy in his West Somerset Word 
Book to the Common Lungwort, Pulmovaria 
officinalis, much used as a herb, and known also 
as Jerusalem Cowslip or Jeiusalem Seeds. Mr. 
T. W. Cowan tells me that in other places the 
plant is known as Bedlam Cowslip, and that 
this name is also given to the Paigie or larger 
Cowslip, Primula veris. 

Cow's Parsley. A cojre.spondcnt at Bat- 
combe give^ me this as a local name for the 
Vtle'iap. He does not indicate the species, but 
Dr. Downes suggests it is probably Valeriana 
Sambucijolia. S^e also Cow Parsley. 

Cow's Parsnip. This was sent me from Oakhill 
as a locxl name for the Wild Aram or Cuckoo-i)int, 
Arum maculatum, but the naine seem'^d to me so 
improbable that I wrote for further information 
to the Schoolmaster, Mr. R. A. Colville, who 
kindly ^-eplied that the plant is actually known by 
this name in that district. 

Cow's Thistle. A correspondent at Watchet 
gives me this as a local name f^r the Creejnng 
Thistle, Cnicus arvensis ; sometimes known as 
the Horse Thistle. 

Cow Thistle. A correspondent at Batcombe 
gives this form of the name for the plant referred 
to in the previous paragraph. 

Cow Weed. (1) Several correspondents in 
the neighbourhood of Axminster give me this a^s 
a local name for the Chervil, Chmrophyllum 
temulum. 

(2) Same as Cow Wheat, which see. 

Cow Wheat. (1) In the Axminster district this 
name would appear to be frequently given to the 
Yellow B,a,tt\e, Bhinanthus Crista-galli, and the 
name Yellow Rattle to be frequently gi\en 
to the true Cow Wheat, Melampyrum cristatum 
and M. pratense. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in some 



68 

places this name is given to the Horse-flower op 
Lesser-flowered Yellow Cow-wheat, Melaiwpyrum 
sylvaticum. 

Crar's Claw. (1) The Watei-Sohlier, 
Stratiotes Aloides. 

(2) Spotted Persicaiia or Red-legs, Polygonum 
Persicaria. 

Crack Nut. Rev, Hilderie Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire name for the fruit of the Hazel, 
Corylus Avellcma. 

C'RAMMICK. Rest Harrow, Ononis repens (East 
and Mid-Somerset). 

Crane Bill. A eoreespondent at Hatch 
Beauchamp giv-es me this as a local name for the 
Iris — also ki^own in the same locality, as Duck's- 

BILL. 

Craxnock. a correspondent at Keinton 
Mandeville gi\es me this as a local name for the 
Furze or Gorse, Ulex europceus. 

Crawlers. A correspondent at Stalbiidge 
gives me this as a local name for Scurv^y Grass, 
Cochlearia officinalis. Dr. Downes points out 
that this is a maritime plant, very rarely found 
inland, and it is improbable that it grows at 
Stalbridge. 

Crazy. (1) A nanie applied in North Somer- 
set and Wilts to Buttercups in general. A 
corresi3ondent at Donhead (Wilts) tells me that 
certain fields in that district are said to be 
" smothered in Crazies." 

(2) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 

(3) A corresj^ondent at Frome gives it as a 
name for the Yellow Water Lily, Nymx>hcea 
lutea. Dr. Prior says " Apparently a corruption 
of Christ's Eye, Lat. oculus Christi the medie\al 
name of the Marigold, whi:h, through the con- 
fusion among old writers betweer Caltha and 
Calench'la, has been transferred to the Marsh 
Marigold and thence to other Baniniculacece.'' 

Cr\ZY Bett. (1) The general i ame all over 
Wilts for the Marsh Marieold, Caltha palustris. 

(2) Applied also in S.\^ . Wilts to various 
Bittercups and to the Lesser Celardine, Ranun- 
culus Ficaria. 

(3) Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum Leu canthe- 
mvm (Hampowofth, Wilts). 

(4) A correspondent at Tatwoi'th gives it as 
a local name for the Water Lily, Nymphrea lutea. 

Crazy Betsey. Marsh Mari'^old, Caltha 
palustris (Little Largford, ^^ ilts). 

Crazy Cup. A correspondent at Chew Magna, 
gives me this as a local name for the Lesser 
Celandine, Rammculus Ficaria. 

Crazy Lilies. A corT^espondent at Bat combe 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 



69 

Crazy Mar. Any kind of Buttojcup (N.W. 
Wilts). 

Crazy Moir. Ci'ec})ing Buttejcu]), Ranunculus 
rcpens (N.W. Wilts). 

Cream and Butter. A coiiespondent at 
Upotteiy gives this as a local name for the Lesser 
Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 

Creed. Lesser Duckweed, Lemna minor (N.W. 
W^ilts). 

Creeper. A correspondent at Watchet gives 
me this as a local name for Meadow Barley, 
Hordeum nodosum. 

Creeping Charlie. A Devonshire name for 
the Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 

Creeping Grass. (1) Meadow Barley, 
Hordeum nodosum (Bradford-on-Tone). 

(2) Barren Brome-grass, Bromus steriUs (South 
Petherton). 

Creeping Jack. Biting Stouecrop, Sedum 
acre. 

Creeping Jennie. A name given to a variety 
of plants, })ut most commonly in Somerset to 

(1) Moneywort, Lysimachia Nummularia, 
known also as the Creeping Loosestrife or Herb 
Twopence ; often cultivated as a rockery plant 
for its trailing branches, covered with shining 
deej) green leaves and handsome flowers of bright 
yellow. 

(2) Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 

(3) Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea (South 
Petherton and Combe St. Nicholas). 

(4) Ivy-leaved Toadflax, Linarki Cymhalaria. 

(5) The name is also given to the Common 
Yellow Loosestripe, Lysimachia vulgaris. 

(0) Creeping Cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans 
<Westonzoyland). 

(7) A correspondent at Winsham tells me the 
name is sometimes given in that district to the 
Bindweed, Convolvulus. 

(8) A correspondent at Wincanton gives it as 
a local name for the Yellow Bedstraw, Galium 
verum. 

(9) A number of correspondents in the 
neighbourhood of Axminster give it as a local 
name for the Virginia Creeper, Ampelopsis 
quinqiefolia. 

Creeping Sailor. (1) Ivy-leaved Toadflax, 
Linaria Cymhalaria. 

(2) Same as Aaron's Beard (2). 

Creeping Saxifrage. Same as Aaron's 
Beard (2). 

Creese. A ve<y common name for Water 
Cress, \ast>(rtiu)n aquatlcum. 

Crewel. A very general name throughout a 
great \yxvt of the district for the Cowslip, Primula 



70 

Crewkerxe Boys. Sevoial correspondents at 
Wiusham ai)ply this name to various kinds of 
Thistles, naming particularly the Marsh Piiime, 
Cnici's paliistris. and the Scotch. Onoporduni 
Acanthium, the latter of which does not, however, 
grow wild in the neighbourhood. 

Crewkerxe Warriors. A Taunton corres- 
pondent gives me this name for Thistles, as above. 

C'RIBBLES. Onions grown from bulbs (S.W. 
^Yilts, Somerset border). 

Crimson Lady. A correspondent at E\er- 
creech gives this as a local name for the Carnation, 
DiantJiKS Caryoj)hijUus. 

Crimsons. Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as a local name for Ten- 
week Stocks, Matthiola annua, no matter of what 
colour. The name is used indiscriminately, just 
as we say " Pinks," even of white ones. 

Crinchling. Holloway, in his Dictionary of 
Provincialisms, gives this as a Gloucestershire 
name for " A small a^jple such as can be easily 
scranched between the teeth." 

Crinoline. A correspondent at Martock gives 
me this as a local name for the Fuchsia. 

Crisling. (1) A small, black, very sour wild 
plum (P. T. Elworthy). 

(2) A small shrivelled imuiature api)le (F. T. 
Elworthy). 

Cristen. a suiali kind of plum (Barnes). See 
Christen. 

Crocks and Kettles. The seeds of the Box, 
Bkxus scnipervirens (South Petherton and Ever- 
shot). I understand a game is played with these 
seeds in some of our villages, but do n(^t know 
what form the game takes. 

Crocodile. Eev. Ililderic Friend says the 
small variety of Holly which grows in hedgerows, 
and is exceedingly brittle, chiefly bears this 
name, whi?h is common in Somerset, Ilex 
Aquifoliinn. 

Crocus .Taponica. A Somersetshire corrup- 
tion of Corchorus japonica, now known as Kerria 
japonica, a shrub which bears orange-coloured 
blossoms ; also known as Summer Roses. 

Cross Flower. (1) Milkwort, Poly gala 
vulgaris (West Somerset). Dr. Prior says " from 
its flowering in Cross-week." 

(2) A correspondent at Hatch Beaucham]) 
gives this as a local name ft>r th? Wallflower, 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, which may owe the name 
to the fact that (being one of the Crucijeroi) its 
four petals are arranged m the form of a cross. 

Crow Betls. Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, 
Scilla non-scriitta (S.W. Wilts, Hants bo'-de*-). 



71 

Cbowdy Kit. Wate- Figwoi\, Scrophi laria 
aquatica. " Crowdy " is an old neme for a fiddle, 
and thi.s plant is frequently called " Fiddles " or 
" Fiddkstrings " in Somerset, for the reason that 
children strip the stems of their leaves and scrape 
them across each other, llddle-fashion, when they 
produce a squeaking noise. Dr. Watson tells 
me the same name is used in the North. 

Cbowdy Kit o' the Walti. An old Devon- 
shire name for Sedmn acre and other varieties 
of Stonccrop. 

Crowfeet. A Watchet correspondent gives 
this as a local name for the Lesser Spearwort, 
Rananculus Flammula, which is, of course, one 
of the Crowfoot tribe. 

Crow Flower. Same as Crow Bell. 

Crowfoot. (1) A general name for any 
flower of the Buttercup family. 

(2) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

(3) A Martock correspondent gives this as a 
locil name for the Musk, Mimulus 7noschatus. 

Crow Needle. A correspondent at Leigh 
(Doi'set) gives this as a local name for the Shep- 
herd's Needle, Scandix Peden-Veneris. See 
Crow's Needle. 

Crown of the Field. Corn Cockle, Lychnis 
Githago. 

Crown of Thorns. (I) A correspondent at 
Babcary gives this as local name for the 
Medick (? Hedgehog Medick, Medicago intertexta, 
frequently grown in gardens). Mr, T. W. Cowan 
tells me that Medicago Echinus, or Calvary Clover,. 
is called Crown of Thorns, but is not a native 
plant. 

(2) A correspondent at Bloxworth (Dorset) 
gives it as a lo'^al name for the Passion Flower, 
Passlflora ccendea. 

(3) A correspondent at Stour Provost (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for Nigella damascena, 
generally known as " Love in a Mist." 

Crowpeck. (1) Shepherd's Needle, Scandix 
Pecten- Veneris. 

(2) Corn Crowfoot, Ranunculus arrensis (N.W 
Wilts). 

Crows. A crirresiiondent at Fu'^'ley gives me 
this as a local rmme fo- the Cowslip, Primula veris. 

Crow's Flower. Spotted O-chis, Orchis 
niaculaia (Sampford Aruiidel). 

Crow's Foot. (1) Several correspondents at 
Chew Magna give this as a local name for the 
Coltsfoot, Tnssilago Farfara. 

(2) A correspondent at Charlton Hcrethorne 
gi\ es it as a local name for the Greater Stitchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea. 

Crow's Legs. Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, 
Scilla non-scripta (Zeals. Wilts). 



72 

Crow's Needle. A correspondent a t Sampford 
Aiuiidel gives this as a local name for the She])- 
hei'd's Needle, ScancUx Peden-Veneris. See Crow 
Nefdle. 

Crow's Toes. Bii'd's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniciilatis. 

Crucifix Flower. A correspondent at Ilawk- 
church (Devon) gives this as a local name for the 
"Wallflower, Cheiranihvs Cheiri. See Cross 
Flower (2). 

Cruel. See Crewel. 

Crumple Lily. A Devonshire name for 
Lilium Martagon and L. tigrinum, on account of 
their pretty habit of tarning ba.-;k the petals. 

Crumpling. A general West of England name 
for a small stxxnted apple; one which shrivels 
on the tree. 

Cry Baby. (1) A common name in the 
Taunton district and in East Devon for the Herb 
Kobert, Geraniinn Boberlianum. 

(2) Several correspondents at Simpford 
Aiundel give this as a local name fo.' the Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis. 

(3) 3Irs. Day, of North Petherton, gives it a- 
a local name foi' the Rose Bay Willow Herbs 
Epilobium ang isUfolium. 

Cry Baby Crab. A correspondent at Culm- 
head gives this as the local form of Cry Baby (1). 

CucKLE Buttons. A Devonshue name for 
the f raits or baw's of the Burdock. Arctimn ma jus. 

CucKLES. The East Somerset and Dorset 
name for the fruits of the Burdock, as al>ove. 

Cuckold. The Burdock, Arctium maj>'s. 
Cuckold Buttons. The burrs of the Burdock, 
as above. 

Cuckold Dock. The Btirdock, as altcve. 
(West Somerset). 

Cuckoo or Cuckoos. Used in many cases as 
a contraction of Cuckoo Flower, which see. 

(1) I have this shortened form from several 
districts as a local name for the Early Purple 
Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(2) Corre.sijondents at Oa^ hill and in several 
pai'ts of Wilts give it as a local name for the Wc>od 
Anemone, Anemotie nemorosa. 

(3) Correspondents at Paulton give it as a 
local nam-i for the Lady's Snnck or Bitter-cress 
(generally kno^^'n as the Cuckoo Flower), and in 
connection with this name it is interesting to 
note that the authors of the ^Ailt shire Glossary 
state that about Sxlisbury Saxifraga granulaia 
is knowii as Dry (or Dryland) Cuckoo, and 
Cardamine pratensis as Water Cuckoo, fr( m 
their respective habitats. 



(4) Covrespondents at Wiveliscoinbe and 
Withypool give it as a local name for the Red 
Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

(5) A lady at Iwoi-ne Minster (Dorset) tells 
me the name is given in that district to the Bugle, 
Ajuga repta)is. 

(6) In Devon the name is givon to the liare- 
])ell, Campanula rot undi folia. 

Cl'ckoo Boots. A correspondent at West 
Moors (Doi'set) gives this as a local name for the 
Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. 

Cuckoo Bread. (1) Several Taunton corres- 
pondents give this as a local name for the 
Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella. S^e CucKOo's 
Bread and Cheese. 

(2) It is also an old country name for the 
Cuckoo Flower or Lady's Smock, Cardamine 
pratensis. 

Cuckoo Buds, A name applied in several parts 
of the district to various kinds of Buttercup 
{Ranunculus). 

Cuckoo Buttons. The atlhesive seed pods of 
the Boar-thistle, Cnicus lanceolatus, and of the 
Bvu'dock, Arctium ma jus. 

Cuckoo Flower. A name applied to a 
variety of plants which flower about the time 
of the arrival of the cuckoo, but most generally 

to ^ ^ 

(1) The Lady's Smock or Bitter-cress, Carda- 
mine pratensis. 

(2) A fairly general name throughout the 
district for the Wood Anemone, Anemone 
nemorosa. 

(3) The name is still frequently given to the 
Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi, which was 
once generally so called. The specific name 
Flos-cuculi is Ijatin for Ctckoos Flower. 

(4) In West Somerset and East Devon the 
nanv^ i- frequently given to the Early Purple 
Oicbis, Orchis mascida. Also to the 

(-y) Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta. 

(0) Cori-espon dents at Oakhill ap])ly the name 
both to the Red and the White Campion, Lychnis 
dioica and L. alba. 

(7) A c<)rres])ondent at Watchet gives it as 
a locil nami for the Water Vio'et. Hottonia 
pali'stris. 

(8) In Wilts the name is given to the Wood 
S>rrel, Oxalis Acetosella. 

(Cuckoo Meat. Wood Sorrel. Oxalis Acetosella 
(Sexey's -School). W. Turner says '' Oxys (i.e. 
Oxalis) is called in English Allelua, Cockowe's 
Meate, and Wod Sorel." A.D. 1543 " The Names 
of Herbs." 

Cuckoo Pint. (1) One of 1h- lu vst general 
n;;m'>s for the Wild Ar.ini, Arnn macidatnn. 



74 

(2) A correspondent at Dunkerton gives this 
as a local name for the Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica. 

Cuckoo Roses. Daffodils, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcissus. Mr. Elworthy quotes one as sayings 
*' The proper name o'm's Lent Lilies, but we 
always calls 'em Guckoo Roses." 

Cuckoos. See Cuckoo. 

Cuckoo's Boots. A name given in some parts 
of Somerset to the Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell. 
See Cuckoo Boots. 

Cuckoo's Bread. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 
Acetosella. 

Cuckoo's Bread axd Cheese. (1) A name 
fairly general throughout the district for the 
Wood F'.orrel, Oxalis Acetosella. 

(2) In N.W. Wilts the name is given to the 
young shoots of the Hawthorn. Cratcegvs mon- 
ogyna. See Bread and Cheese in each case. 

Cuckoo's Buttons. See Cuckoo Buttons. 

Cuckoo's Meat. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 
Acetosella (Taxm^on and Btunham). 

Cuckoo's Shoes and Stockings. (1) An old 
country name for the Cuckoo Flower or Lady's 
Smocki Cardamine pratensis, sent by several 
correspondents. 

(2) A correspondent at Stogursey gives it as 
a local name for the Early Pui'ple Orchis, Orchis 
mascida. 

Cuckoo's Sorrel. Same as Cuckoo's Meat. 

Cuckoo Spit- Same as Cuckoo's Shoes and 
Stockings. 

Cuckoo's Stockings. Bird's-foot Trefoil, 
Lotus corniculatus. 

Cuckoo's Victuals. A Dorset foim of 
Cuckoo's Meat. 

Cucumbers. The seed vessels of Iris Pseud- 
acorus, which in their green state bear a close 
resemblance to small cucumbers. (Rev. H. 
Friend.) 

Cuddle Me. An old country name for the 
Pansy, both vA\(\ {Viola arvensis) and cultivated 
(F. tricolor). 

CulleNbeam. a common corruption in East- 
Somerset and Wilts of the name " Colmnbine." 

CuLRAGE or CuRAGE. Sevei'al corresj)ondents- 
send this old name for the Water Pepper, 
Pohjgomnn Hydropiper, of which Dr. Prior says : 
The old poj)ular name comes to us through the 
French from the Latin cuUrabies. a plant so 
named, says Gerarde (p. ,S61) " from his oi^erat ion 
and effect when it is used in those parts." 



75 

t'ULVERFOOT. Tho Dove's-fool Cranesbill, 
Geranii.m moUe. 

CuLVERKEYS. Is an interest ing old Somerset 
niine for soiii'.* blue flower which many authorities 
liave endea\a'are(l co identify, but without i-;ucce.ss, 
IziRc Walton uses the name in his " Compleat 
Angler." Mr. J. W. White. P.L.S., in his 
'• Flora of Bristol." says : " The word Culveikeys 
has long l)een a puzzle to writers on the subject 
of plant names. It first a])pears in some rather 
lidicvilous lines upon Angling by John Dennys, 
of Packkchuich in this district.'' and he favours 
th? view that " Culverkey " was probably 
Meadow Cranesbill {Geranixm py-atettse). The 
a,uthor of "A Mendip Valley " considered it to 
be the Columbine (Aquilegia). The Century, 
The Encyclopaedic, and The Cx'orl Englis'h 
Dictionary all indicate the Wild Hyacinth or 
Bluebell {Scilla nonscrijAa) as likely to be 
the true plant, and the last named work says 
th<' BiUetje I is siiH knt-wa in S meiset a-. 
" Culverkey." W. Miller in " English Names 
of Plants " gives this name to Scilla nutans, the 
Oxlip, Primula variuhilis, and the fruit of 
Fraxinus excelsior, the Common Ash. In Kent 
the f rm Covey-keys is applied to the Oxlip, 
Primula elatior. It is also an old poj)ular name 
(Kev. A. S. Palmer says) for Orchis morio, and 
is ai^parently a corruption of culverkins, i.e., 
little culvers or pigeons (A. Sax. culpe), to which 
its flowers were fancifully resembled. 

CuLVERWORT. Th'' Cotombine, Aq <ilcgia 
vulgaris, from the resemblance of its flowers to 
little heads of pigeons (culvers) feeding together. 
Compare Doves Round a Dish. 

Cup and Saucer Plant. A Taunton corres- 
pondent gives this as a popular name for Cobcr.a 
scandens variegata, a climbing jdant of the Pole- 
monium crder, a native of Mexico, cultivated 
in this country. 

Cupid's Dart. A popular name for plants of 
the Catananche family. 

Cup of Wine. xV correspondent at Hatch 
Boauchamp gives this as a locnl name for the 
Yew, Taxus baccata. 

Cups. (1) This name is given by several 
corre-^pondent< at Paulton to single varieties of 
the Canterbmy Bell, Campanula, as distinguished 
from the double varieties, which they call Cups 
AND Saucers. 

(2) A correspondent at Crewkerne gives this 
as a local name for the Hedge Convohulus, 
Calystegia sepium. 

Cups and Saucers. A name given to several 
different plants, but most generally in this district 
to 



76 

(1) The cultivated variety of Canterbury Bell, 
Campanula medium. 

(2) Wall Penny\fort or Navelwort, Cotyledon 
Umbilicus- Veneris. 

(3) Several correspoadents at Otterhanipton 
give this as a local name for the single Daft'odil, 
Narcissus Pseudo-Narciss'(S. 

(i) Mrs. Lansdowne, of Over Stowey, gives it 
as a local name for the dcfuble Polyanthus. 

(5) Several correspondents at Everciecch give 
it as a local name for th - Marsh Marigold. Caltha 
palustris. 

(6) A correspondent at Mells gives it as a 
local nani'^ foj' the Wood .S:)rjel, Oxalis Acetosella. 

(7) Acorns. 

(8) Mexican Ivy Plant, Cohoea scandens. 

CuRDLY Greens. Cui'ly greens : curled K;rle, 
Brassica fimbriata. 

Curds and Cream. — Loixdon Pride, Sa.vifraga 
V nib rasa. 

Curse. Cress (Rev. W^ P. Williams). 

CuRSHiNS. Thrift, Statice vulgaris (West 
Somerset). 

Cushion Pink, Saa Pink or Thrift, Stai'iff 
maritima, from the dense tufted growth of the 
leaves, and the resemblance of its flowei's in Iht^r 
genera] appearance to pinks. 

Cushions. (1) Same as Cushion Pink. 
(2) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis. 

CUSTIN. A kind of sniall wild plum (Rw. W. 
P. Williams). 

Cut and Comb Again. A very prolific variety 
of kale or winter gi'eens, much grown in cottage 
gardens (F. T. Elworthy). 

Cut Finger. (1) A correspondent at Bloxworth 
(Dorset) gives this as a local name for tin- Pt-ri- 
winkle, Vinca major. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in otber 
parts of the country this name is given to the 
Capon's-tail Grass, Valeriana pyrenaica. 

Cut-heal. Dr. Pi-ior gives this as a po]nilar 
name for the Valerian, and things it may lie from 
Dutch Ktitte. 

Cut Finger Leaf. The Wilts Glossary gives 
this as a N.W. Wilts name for All-heal, Valeriana, 
and says : " The leavos are good for application to 
sluggish sores, whitlows, &c. Mr. Cunninglon 
quotes it as V. dioica." 

Daddy-man's Beard. A correspondent at 
Dunster gives me this as a local nanie for the 
Wild Clematis, or Traveller's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba, more generally known throughout the 
district as Old Man's Beard, from the grey 
whisker-like tufts of seeds which follow the 
flowers and remain on the plant for mojiths. 



77 

Daddy's Beard or Daddy's Whiskers. 
Variations of the above name received Jrom 
other parts of the district. 

Daddy White-Shirt. A correspondent at 
Chaffcombe gives me this as a local name for the 
Hedge Bindweed or Convolvulus, Calystegia 
septum. 

Daffy and Daffy -Down-Dilly. Names very- 
general ly used by children for the Daffodil, 
Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. 

Daft Berries. The fruit of the Deadly 
Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna, which is highly 
poisonous. 

Dagger Flower. The Iris, both the Yellow, 
Iris Pseudacorus, and the Blue, or Stinking, 
/. Joetidissima. 

Daggers. (1) The broad straight leaves of 
the common Iris or Flag. 

(2) Corresi)ondents at Over Stowey give this 
as a local name for the Wild Crocus (? Colchicum 
autuninale). 

(3) Rev. Hilderic Friend sa>'S " In Somerset to 
a coarse w'de-leaved grass usually knoWn as 
'sword-grass' or ' withers '—Poa"^ aquatica " 
(Glyceria aquatica of the London catalogue). 

Daisies. A correspondent at Fm-ley gives this 
as a local name for the Ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea, 

Dale Cup. (1) Buttercups of various species. 

(2) Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. Com- 
pare Dill Cup. 

Damsel. (1) Damson. Mr. Elworthy says : 
" Very common : by some individuals always so 
called." 

(2) Rev. Hilderic Friend spells it Damzel and 
says the name is " Vaguely applied to the fruit 
of Prunus spinosa and other large species both 
black and yellow." 

Daxcing Lady. The Fuchsia. 

Dandelion. This name is frequently given 
erroneously to the Hawkbit, Coltsfoot, and other 
yellow flowers of the Dandelion family. 

Dandy Goslings. (1) Early Purple Orchis, 
Orchis mascula (N.W. Wilts). 

(2) Green-Winged Orchis, O. morio (S.W. 
Wilts). 

Dandy Gusset. This is sent me by a corres- 
pondent at Dowlish Wake as a local name for the 
Marsh Orchis, Orchis latifolia. 

Dane Ball. Dwarf Elder, Sambuciis Ebulus 
Dane's Blood. (1) The Dwarf Elder, Sam- 
bucus Ebulus. In Aubrey's Wilts, M.S., Royal 
Soc. p 120 we read : — Dane's Blood (Ebulus) 
about Slaughtonford, is plenty. There was here- 
tofore a great fight with the Danes, which made 



78 

the iaihataitauts give it that nam-^." Di'. Downes 
tells me that a similar legend is current at St. 
Ei-th, Cornwall, where Dan wort flourishes in 
abundance. It is said that the wounded Danes 
were carried in litters made of bundles of sj^ears, 
and from these spears the Daneworts si:>rang. 
The probability of this derivation being the ti'ue 
one, however, is discounted by the fact that the 
plant is known as Danewort or Daneswbbd 
(which see) in other parts of England. The 
whole plant turns the most brilliant reds and 
crimsons in autumn. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in some 
places this name is given to the Pasque-flower, 
Anemone Pulsatilla, and to 

(3) The Clustered Bell-flower, Campanula 
glomcrata. 

Daneswebd or Danewort. (1) Dwarf Elder» 
Sambucus Ebulus. Rev. H. N. Ellacombe, vicar 
of Bitton (1870), says : — ^It is not uncommon 
in our Bath flora, but is most abundant at 
Slaughterfoi-d, near Chippenham, a place where 
there was once a great victory gained over the 
Danes. The plant is called Danewort, a ad is 
an evil-smelling and noxious plant, and the 
legend tells us that it derived its evil qualities 
of all kinds from the Danes, on whore graves it 
grew so luxuriantly. See Dane's Blood. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in some 
counties the Field Eryngo, Eryngiuni campestre, 
is called Danes'-weed. I believe this plant is 
very rare in Somerset, extinct in Devon, and not 
recorded as having been found in Dorset, Wilts, 
or GIos. 

Dangle (or Dangiincj) Bell. Saveral corres- 
pondents at Fault on give me this as a local name 
for the Lily of the Valley, Convallaria majalis. 

Darling of April A number of young people 
at Aller give me this as a local nama for the 
Frimrose, Primula vulgaris. 

Dashel. (1) A very common name in West 
Somerset and East Devon for the Thistle. There 
are several forms of pronuncixtion, differing 
slightly and about equally common, but Mr. 
Elworthy says "in none is th ever sounded." 
I have the name also from other p^rts of the 
county. 

(2) Mr. Harry Foancy tells me that in Dorset 
this name is sometimes given to the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officitiale. It is also used in Devon. 
See Dazzle-flower. 

Datches. Vetches (West Somerset). Over 
the greater part of my district Vetches are known 
as Thatches, and in West Somerset the th becomes 
d ; compare Dashel (1). 

David's Harp. Solomon's Seal, Polygonatum 
muUiflorum. 



79 

Davison. A species of wild plum, superior 
to the KullAce (Hollo way). 

Day-bebry. Mv. T. W. Cowan sa\s that in 
Oornwall this name is given to the Wild Goose- 
berry, Ribes Grossularia. It is a corruption of 
its popular name Thape or Theabe plus Berry, 
the " p " or " b " being merged in the ensviing 
" b," so that the word became Tha'-berry and 
then Day-berry. See Deberries. 

day Lily. A correspondent at Babcary gives 
me this as a local name for the Dandelion, Tarax- 
acum officinale. 

Day's Eye. I have this from all over the 
district as a pox)ular name for the Daisy, Bellia 
perennis. 

Dazzle. Cnicts arvensis and thistles 
generally (Devon). See Dashel (1). 

Dazzle-flower. A corresi^ondent at Bi-ad- 
ford-on-Tone sends uie this as a local name fop 
the Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. Compare 
Dashel (2). 

Deadly Nightshade. (1) Tiie real Deadly 
Nightshade is Atropa Belladonna, but the name is 
very frequently given to the Woody Nightshade 
or Bittersweet, Solanum Dulcamara. 

(2) Mr. F. W. Mathews tells me that in East 
Dorset the name is given to the Common Night- 
shade, Solanum nigrum. 

Dead Man. A correspondent at Durrington 
(Wilts) gives me this as a local name for the 
Broom-rape, Orobanche minor. 

Dead Man's Bells. A correspondent at 
Broad Windsor (Dorset) gives me this as a local 
name for the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

Dead Man's Hand. Same as Dead Men's 
Fingers, but less commonly used. 

Dead Men's Bellows. Mx-s. Day, of North 
Petherton, gives me this as a name for the Louse- 
wort, Pedicularis sylvatica, often known as the 
Red Rattle. 

Dead Men's Fingers. A fairly general 
name throughout the district for the Early 
Purple Orchis, O. maseula, and the Spotted 
Orchis, O. maculata. Speaking of the latter Dr. 
Prior says the name is given on account of the 
pale colour and hand-like shape of the palmate 
tubers. 

Dead Men's Thimbles. Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea. 

Dead Nettle. A name given to three plants 
which have nettle-like leaves, but which do not 
sting, and from their apparent insensibility^ are 
generally called dead, deaf, blind, or " dunch " : — 

(1) White-flowered, Lamium album. 

(2) Red-flowered, L. purpureum. 



8o 

(3) Yellow-flowered, L. Galeobdolon. 

(4) The name is also sometimes given to the 
Hedge Woundwort, Stachys sylvatica, frequently- 
called Hedge -nettle. • 

Deaf and Dumb. Se^ eral correspondents at 
Horton give me this as a local name for the 
Yellow Dead-i^ettle, Lamium Galeobdolon. 

Deaf Nettle. See Dead Nettle. 

Death's Flower. Several correspondents at 
Brompton Regis give me this as a local name for 
the Snowdrop, Gcdanthus ni-cdis. 

Death Warrant. Mi -is Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name tor the 
Wliite Bryony, Bryonia dioica. 

Deberries. The fruit thus named in the 
" Devon Courtship " is the Gooseberry. It is said 
that Shakespeare probably referred to the 
Gooseberry wh-^n he used the aame Dewberries 
in his " Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Deceiver. Grotmd Ivy, Nepeia hedemcea. 
Several youiig people send me this name, wl ich I 
imagine is given to the liant on accovmt of its 
blue flowers frequently being mistaken in the 
early sj^ring for Violets. 

Deer's Hair. A Dimster correspondent gives 
me this as a local nan:ie for a Club-rush. Botanical 
friends tell me that the name is most frequently 
applied to the Tufted Clab-rash, Scirj)^(S ccespi- 
iosiis, which grows on the hills about Dunster, 
but is not common there. A larger i^lant, the 
Salt Marsh Club-rush, S. maritinws, is very 
common between Dunster and Minehead, and is 
probably also kao^^-a in the neighbourhood as 
Deer's Hair. Both plants have tufts of slender 
stems, looking like coarse hair. 

Delicate Bess. The white variety of Valerian a 
celtica (Devon). 

Dell Cups. Buttercups of various species. 
Compare Dale-Cups and Dill-Cups. 

Delticups. Creeping Ciowfoot, Ranvncidus 
repens (ShreA^'lon, Wilts). 

Devil Among the Tailors. Fennel-flower, 
Nigella dconascena, more often called Love-in-a- 
MiST or Devil in a Bush. 

Devii Daisy. (1) Conrmon Feveifew, Chry- 
santhemnm Parthenium ; and 

(2) Stinkirg Chamomile, Anthemis Cotida, 
from their daisy-like floAvers and unpleasant 
odour (S.W. Wilts). 

Devildums. a correspondent at Puddletowu 
(Dorset) gives me this a=; a local name for the 
Ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea. 

Devil and Angels. A correspondent at 
Stratto'i-on-tl-e-Fosse gives me this as a local 
name for the Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceo- 
lata. 



Devil in a Bush (or in a Den or a Hedge). 
Fennel -flower, Nigella damascena, more com- 
monly known as Love-in-a-Mist. 

Devil in Church. A correspondent at 
Lytchett Matravers (Dorset) gives me this as a 
local name for Borage, Bora go officinalis. 

Devil May Care. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives mo this as a local name for the 
Dogwood, Cornus sanguinea. 

Devils and Angels. (1) Wild Arum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Arum rnaculatuin. 

(2) A correspondent at Tisbary (Wilts) gives 
it as a local name for the Wild Orchis (? Orchis 
mascula). 

Devil's Bane. A correspondent at Martock 
gives me this as a local name for the Hairy 
St. Johr's Wort, Hypericum hirsutum. 

Devil's Berries. The fruit of the Deadly 
Nightshade, Atropa Belladmina. Dr. R. C. Knight 
writes : — " It is interesting to note the number of 
times the word ' Devil ' is associated \vith 
poisonous plants. This must have served as a 
protection to childre i on numerous occasions." 

Devil's Bit. (1) The commoa plant ,SVo6/osa 
Succisa, found growing in ]>astares. It liears a 
mauve-coloured llower oti a long stem, and 
blooms in Aug ast and Sei)teml)er . Gerard says ' ' It 
is commonly called 2Iorsus DiaboU or Divelshit. of 
the root (as it seems) that is bittea off ; for the 
superstitious ^Deoj^le hold opinion, that the divell, 
for enuy that 1 e beareth to mankinde, bit it off, 
because it would I e otherwise good for many 



(2) A number of correspondents in the neigh- 
bourhood of Taunton give th3 name to the Small 
Knapweed. Centaurea nigra, doobtlesj- through a 
confusion of the two plant ■. 

Devil's Blanket. A Salisbury correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Great 
Mullein, Verhascum Thapsus. 

Devil's Blossom, A correspondent at Ex- 
mouth gives me this as a local name for the 
Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

Devil's Candlestick. (1) Correspondents in 
the Axminster district give me this as a local 
name for the Purple Medick or Lucerne, Medicago 
sativa. 

(2) A correspondent at Rodden (Frome) gives 
it as a local name for the Ground Ivy, Nepeta 
hederacea. 

Devil's Cherries. (1) The poisonous fruits 
of the Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna. 

(2) The berries of the Woody Nightshade or 
Bittersweet, Solanum Dulcamara — a common 
mistake through confusing this plait with No. 1. 



82 

Devil's Claws. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotn s 
corniculatus. 

(2) Corn-field CroAvfoot, Ranimcvlus arvensis. 

Devil's Cups and Saucers. The Wood 
Spurge, Euphorbia amygdaloides. of which the 
flo-wer suggests two little green cups standing in 
a green saucer. 

Devil's Cut. Pulman says " The wood of the 
Wild Clematis, dried and used by naughty boys 
for smoking." See Devil's Guts (1). 

Devil's Dabxixg Needles. A name given in 
some districts to the Stepherd's Xeedle, Scandix 
Peden-Veneris. 

Devil's Dens. A corresx)ondent at Camertoa 
gives me this as a local name for the Fennel 
Flower. See Devil in a Bush. 

Devil's Eye. (1) Correspondents at Wed- 
more and Kimnieridge (Dorset) give me this as a 
local name for the Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea. 

(2) Another correspondent at Kimmeridge 
gives it as a lo-al name for the Henbane, 
Hyoscyamus niger. 

Devil's Fiery Poker. A correspoadent at 
West Pennard gives me this as a local name for 
the Flame Flower or Red Hot Poker, Tritoma 
Uvaria. 

Devil's Fingers. Birds-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus. 

Devil s Flower. (1) A corresiDondent at 
South Petherton gives me this as a local oame for 
the Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

(2) Mr. C. J. Tomkins, of Mistertoxi, gives it 
as a local nauie for the Greater Stitchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea. 

Devil's Garters. A corresiDondent at Ilton 
gives me this as a local name for the small Bind- 
weed, Convolvulus arvensis. 

Devil's Gilloffer. A correspondent at 
Barrington gives me this as a local name for the 
red Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

Devil's Guts. (1) Wild Clematis or T.'a- 
veller's Jov, Clematis Vitalba. Called in Germany 
" Devil's Band." See Devil's Cut. 

(2) The name is also given to the Dodder, 
Cuscuta. from the resemblance of its stems to 
catgut and the mischief it causes. 

(3) Small Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis, 
from its roots rxmning down deeioly into the 
ground and spreading rapidly abroad, defying the 
skill of the faimer or gardener to eradicate 
them. 

Devil's Leaf. Several correspondents at 
Aller and Martcck give this as a local name for 
the Great Nettle, Urtica dioica. 



83 

Devil's Milkpael. — A coiicsi^ondent at Dray- 
cott tells me that, this name is commonly given 
in that district to the Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. j 

Devil's Nightcap. Coirespondents at Wim- 
borne give me this as a local name for 

(1) Hedge Bindweed or Convolvulas, Caly- 
stegia sepium. 

(2) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 

Devil's Paint Brush. A corresjoondent at 
Allerford gives mc this as a local name for the 
Hawkweed, Hieracium, but does not name the 
species. Dr. Watson tells iie that the Moase-eap 
Ilaw'kAveed, H. pilosella is the only Hieracium at 
all common in the distiict. 

Devil's Pinches. A correspondent at Eampi- 
shani (Dorset) tells me this name is sometimes, 
but not commonly, given in that district to the 
Spotted Persicaria, Polygonum Persicaria. 

Devil s Pincushion, A correspondent at 
Otterhampton gives me this as a local name for- 
the Prickly Cactus, Echinojysis. 

Devil's Plaything. The common sJnging 
Nettle, Urtica dioica ; frequently called Naughty 
Man's Plaything. 

Devil's Poker. (1) Several correspondents 
at Bradford-on-Tone give me this as a local name 
for the Great Reed-mace, Typha latifolia, more 
3ommonly called Bulrush. 

(2) The Flame-flower, or Torch Lilv. See 
Devil's Fiery Poker. 

Devil's Rhubarb. (1) Several correspon- 
dents at Paultoii give me this as a local name 
for the Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna. 

(2) A correspondent at East Harptree gives it 
as a local name for " Wild Rhubarb," by which 
she probably means either tl e Bordock, Arctium, 
or the Butterbur, Petasites officinalis. 

Devil's Shirt Buttons. Greater StitchAvort,. 
Stellaria Holostea. 

. Devil's Snuff-box. A Puff-ball fungus, 
Lycoperdon, when fully ripe and giving ofl: its 
spores when touched. 

Devil's Spit. Several correspondents at Brad- 
foi'd-on-Tone give me this as a local name for the 
t?^napvveed. Sec Devil's Bit (2). 

Devil's Torch. Flame-flower or Red Ho 
Poker, Tritoma Cvaria (Otterhampton). 

Devil's Wand. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name for the 
Fool's Parsley, ^thusa Cynapium. 

Devil's Wort. A correspondent at Bradford- 
on-Tone gives me this as a local name for the 
Winter Aconite, Eranthis hyemalis. 



84 

Devon Eaver or Ewer. Ry Grass, LolUim 
perenne. A name in use move esi^ecially amongst 
Somerset fai-mt'irs. 

Devon Pride. A correspondent gives me this 
name for tne Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber. 

Dew-berry. A large kind of Blackberry, 
having fewer fmitlets and a more acid taste, and 
more jtiicy than the ordinary kind, growing on a 
low braiiihle, Ruhus ccesius. Mr. T. W. Cowan 
tells me the name should properly be Dove- 
berry, from the colour of its fruit ; and. it is 
known by th? equivalent of this name in Germany 
and other countries. Mr. W. S. Price says " The 
berries always appear cloudy instead of bright 
as in the Blackberry, as if tl ey were covered with 
mist o'' dew — hence the name." 
•t Dr. R. 0. Knight writes : — " The genus Ruhus 
has, of coarse, ever been a s-^are and a delusion, 
and I was pleasantly surprised recently to find 
in conversation on the roadside near Axm.inster 
that even local people realise this. The large 
juicy truits of one of the Rubi (I know not w'hi-"h, 
but I know it well by its leaves, large druj)es and 
ear]^ ripening) were described to me as " . . . not 
hardly blackberries, more of a dewberry — growin' 
in covers." Tils, oi :'ourse, is very sound 
obser /ation. The blackberries are not found in 
covers — rather on hedges, whil t the dewberry 
end of the eries grows on low bushes in rough 
land, e.g., a recently coppiced cover. 

Dew-cup. A Shaftesbury correspondent gives 
me this as a local name for the Buttercup. Possibly 
a corruption of DiLL-CUP. 

Dew-drops. A correspondent at Muchelney 
gives me this as a local name for the Snowdrop, 
Galanthus nivalis. 

Dew op the Sea. Mrs. Lansdowne, of Over 
Stowey, gives me this as a local name for the 
Bosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis. 

Dew-Plant. A number of young peoj)le at 
Paulton give me this as a local name for the Ice- 
plant, by which I assume they mean Mesembry- 
anthemum crystallinum, which is frequently called 
Dew plant. It is a diffusely pro^rmbent her- 
baceoi s xjlant of the Fig-marigold fanily, popular 
on ac30urt of its cu iois large ovate wavy leaves, 
covered Avith large glittering pap.lae on every 
part, which glisten like ice in the s nshine, and 
acco . nt for its i)oi)ular names. 

Dicky Birds. (1) Seeds of the Sycamor 
Acer Pseudo-platanus. 

(2) Common Fumitory, Fumaria officinalis 
<S.W. Wilts). 

Dicky Bird's Bill. Oranesbill, Geranium 
< Paulton). 



Dicky Dii.ver. A coirespondent • at West- 
Coker gives nie this as a local name for the Lesser 
Periwinkle, Vmca minor. 

Dill-cup (1) Bulbous Buttercup, Runxni- 
culus buIbosHS (Dorset and Wilts). 

(2) Losser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria 
(Dorset and Wilts). 

(3) Marsh Marigold, Caltha palnstris (Dorset)^ 
DiLLY Daffs. a correspondent at Winshani 

gives rue this as a local name for the Daffodil, 
Sarcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. 

DiLLY Dally. A correspondent at Evercreech 
gives this as a local name for the DsiUodil, X arcissus 
Pseudo-Narcissus. 

DiMPLEWORT. Correspondents at Shute 
(Devon) give me this as a local name for the 
Penny wort. Cotyledon Umbilicus-Veneris. 

Ding Dongs. Harebell, Campanula rotundi- 
jolia (Melbury Osmond, Dorset). 

Dingle Bell. Snowdi'oj), Galanthus nivalis 
(Paulton). 

Dirt-abed. Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. 

Dirt-weed. White Goosefoct. CJicnopodium 
album. 

Dirty Dick. A Wiltshire corresiiondent gives 
me this as a local name for the Goosef oot, as above. 

Dittander. Broad-leaved Pepperwort, Lepi- 
dium latijolium. Very rare in Somerset, and not 
found in Devon, Dorset, or Wilts. Lyte (1578) 
says " It is fondly and unlearnedly called in 
English Dittany. It were better in following the 
Douchemen to call it Pepperwurt." 

Dobbin in the Ark. A correspondent at 
Muchelney gives me this as a local name for the 
Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellus. 

Dock Cress. A correspondent at Evershot 
(Dorset) gives m '. this as a local name for the Com- 
mon Nipplewoi't, Lapsana communis. 

Dockery Stick. Phosphorescent Wood (Re v 
W. P. Williams). 

DocK-FLOWER. (1) Several correspondents at 
Horton give me this as a local nan^e for the White 
Goosef oot, Chenopodium album. 

(2) A corrt^spondent at Watchet gives it as 
a local name for the Amphibiou.s Persicaria^ 
Polygonum amphibium. 

Dock-seed. A correspondent at Axminster 
gives this as a local name for the Common Sorrel, 
Mumex Acetosa. 

Doctor Sharp. A correspondent at Chideock 
(Dorset) gives this as a local name for the Crane's- 
bill, Geranium, but does not indicate the species- 



86 

|S Doctor's Love. A Bridgwater schoohuastar 
gives me this as a local name for the Goosegrass 
or Cleavers, Galium Aparine. 

Doctor's Medicine. (1) A Taunton corres- 
pondent gives me this as a local nam.e for the 
Bramble, Rubus Jratlcosus. 

(2) A correspondent at West Coker gives it 
as a local name for the leaves of the Dock, Rumex 
obtusijolius. 

Does My Mother Want Me ? A correspon- 
dent at Shoscombe, near Bath, gives me this as 
a local name for the Bye-grass or Baver, Loliuni 
jperenne, som.etimes called Tinker Tailor Grass, 
because girls seek to discover the occupations of 
their fature husbands, and to answer miany other 
qaestions by the number of sj^ikelets. 

Dogbane. The general English name of the 
genus Apoci/tium (from aj)o = away, and kyon=Si 
dog ; adopted by Dioscorides because the plant 
was supposed to be poisonous to dogs), but a 
correspondent at Compton (between Yeo\il and 
Sherborne) gives it as a local name for the Hen- 
bane, Hyoscyamus niger. 

Dog Berry or Dog Cherry. The fruit of the 
Dogwood, Cornus sanguinea. 

Dog Cocks. Wild Ai'uui or Cuckoo -i:)iiat, 
Arum maculatum (N.W. Wilts). 

Dog Daisy. (1) A fairly general name for 
the Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemuni. 

(2) A Watchet correspondent gives it as a 
local name for the Chamomile, by which he 
ljro]>ably means Matricaria ChamomUJa. 

Dog Drake. A correspondent at Kimmeridge 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local ricime for the 
Privet, Ligustruni vulgare. 

Dog Flower. A correspondent at Glaston- 
bury gives nre this as a local name for the Dog's 
Mercury, Mercurlalis perennis. 

Dog Poison. A correspondent at Axminster 
gives me this as a local name for the Fool's 
Pai'sley, .^thusa Cynapium. 

Dog's Cherries. The In-illiantly coloiu^ed 
frviits of the Bed-berried (or White) Bryony, 
Bryonia, dioica. See Dog Berry. 

Dog's Cole. Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis 
pcrennis. 

Dog Bose. A corj-espondent at Babcary tells 
me Ih'it this name (which is almost everywhere 
given to th ' Wild Rose) is given in that district 
to the Guilder Rose, Viburnum Opulus. 

Dogs d' Bark. Snajidragon, Antirrhinum 
nmjus (Keiiiton Mandeville). 

Dog's Dibble. Wild A-nm or Cxukoo Pint, 
Arutn maculatftm (North Devon). 



87 

Dog's Fexnbl. A correspondent at Axmiuster 
gives me this as a local name for tho Coj'n Chamo- 
mile, Anthemis arvensis. 

Dog's Grass. (1) A name freqaeutly given 
to the Couch-grass, Agrojyyron repens. Mr. F, W. 
Mathews tells me this is the real dogs' emetic ; 
and Mr. W. D. Miller writes : "It is the case that 
a dog Avill select mth unerring instinct from a 
variety of gi'asses the leaves of Agropyron repens 
as medicine." 

(2) Several correspondents at Chew Magna 
tell me the name is given in that district to the 
Soft liush, Juncus e^usus. 

(3) Holloway and others give it as applied to 
the Crested Dog's-tail, Cynosurus cristatus, 
" because dogs eat the tops of it to a ;t as a 
vomit. Dr. Watson says " Some other grasses 
act similarly. The name is aiJi^lied to any grass 
which dogs eat." 

Dog's Lichex. Siveral correspondents ia the 
Axminster district give me this as a lojal name 
for the Grovmd Lichen, Peltlgera canina. 

Dog's Medicine. A coi respondent at Samp- 
ford Brett gives me this as a local name for the 
Dog's Merciu'y, Mercurialis jterennis. 

Dog's Mouths. (1) A fairly general name 
for the Snapdragon, Antirrhimcm majus. 
(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris. 

Dog's Nose. S3veral correspondents at Otter- 
hanaptoa give m-^ this as a local name for the 
Snapdi'agon, Antirrhinum majus. 

Dog's Oats. A correspondent at W idworthy 
(Devoa) gives me this as a local name for the Wild 
Oats, Avena fatua. 

Dog-spears. The wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, 
Arum maculatum. Mr. F. T. Ehvorthy quotes 
an under -gardener as saying " They'v a-got 
differ 'nt names like, hat *we most times calls 
'em Dog-spears." 

Dog Stoxes. Several corresjjondents send nae 
this as the name ot an. Orchis, l)ut they do not 
indicate the species. Dr. Downes writes : — 
O. mascula and O. morio, which have bi-lobed 
tubers, in contradistinction to O. maculata, whose 
tubers are hand-like. Compare Dead Max's 
Fingers." 

Dog's-tail Grass. The usual English name 
for Cynosurus cristatus. See Dog's Grass (3). 

Dog's Tassel. The W ild Arum or C uckoo-pint , 
Arum maculatum (West SDmerset). 

Dog's Teeth. A correspondent at Hatch 
Beauchamp gives me this as a local name for the 
flower of the Broad Bean. See Dog Teeth. 

Dog's Thistle. Common S':)w-thistle, Sonchus 
oleraceus (Dunster). 



88 

Dog's Timber. (1) Dogwood or Wild Cornel, 
Cornvs sanguinea. Mr. T. W. C'owan ^\Tite8 : — - 
" Df gwood was undoul>ledly originally rZo^-wood, 
the wood that skeAvt-rs wo.>e made cf ; Old English 
ilagge. Prior calls it Prirk-icood (" prick " being 
an old Avord for a butcher's skewer), SJi'ewer- 
icood, and Gad-rise {i.e., A. S. gad=a' goad, and 
/iris = a rod). 

(2) A correspondent at Smallridge (Devon) 
gives it as a local name for the Sj^indlc-tree, 
Enoyiymv.s europceus. See Dog Timber. 

Dog's Tongue. Common Hound's Tongue , 
Cynoglossum officincde. 

Dog Teeth. A correspondent at Stoke St. 
Gregory giv^s me this as a local name for the 
Coralwort, Dentaria hidhifera, which Mr. W. D. 
Miller tells me is not now found M-ilc' in Someiset^ 
nor is it recorded from the W(-^st of England. 

Dog Timber. (1) A Tatmton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Spindle-tree, 
Etwjiymus europcm s. See Dog's Timber and 
Dog-Wood, 

(2) Rev. Hilderic Friend gives it as a Devon- 
shire name for the Mealy Guelder Rose or Way- 
faiing Tree. Vihvrnum Lantana. 

Dog Violet. This is, of coarse, the common 
English nanre for the scentless blue Violet, Viola 
canina, but a correspondent at Stalbridge 
(Dcrset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis. 

Dog-wood. Mr. T. W. Cowan tel's me that 
this name (which is the t^sual English name for 
CornKS sanguinea) is a,]so given to 

(1) The Spindle-tree. Euonyrnvs europcvus. 

(2) The Black Alder, Rhamnus Frangnla. 

(3) The Guelder Re se, Vihi^rnum Opidus. 

(4) Mr. W. S. Price tells me th^t in the 
Wellington distiict the Wayfaring Tree, Vibximium- 
Lantana, is always knowni by this name He has 
never heard it called DoG Timber. 

Doleful Bells. Mrs. Montagu, of Chai motith,. 
gives me this as a local name for the Deadly 
Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna. 

Doll's Shoes. \ Castle Cary correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Herb Rol)ert» 
Geranium Robertianvm. See Dolly's Shoes. 

Dolly Mounter. A fircone. Mr. Geo. Sweet - 
man says " A Castle Cary word — -not general," 
but I have heard the name many times in Yeovil, 
and have had it sent nre )>y several correspon 
dents. 

Dolly's Apron. A common 'lame in the ('hard 
and East Devon district for the Herb Robert, 
Geranium Roberiianum. 

Dolly's Bonnets. A correspondent at Samp- 
ford Brett gives me tliis as a local name for the 



89 

Columbine. Aquilegia vulgaris, mc<i-e often called 
Granny's Bonnets. 

Dolly's Nightcap. Correspondents in the 
Axn inster dist ict give me this as a local name 
fo the Herb Robert, Geranium Rohertianum. 

Dolly's Pinafore. A variation of Dolly s 
Apron, from Axminstc^\ 

Dolly's Shoes. (1) Correspondents at 
Muchelney and Creech give me this as a local 
name for the Colmnbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

(2) Several coiresi^ondents in the Axminster 
district give it as a local name for the Herb 
Kobert. (Jeraniutn Rohertianum. 

Dolly Soldiers. A correspondent at Cembe 
St. Nicholas gives me this as a local name for the 
Dove's foot Crane's-bill, Geranium tnolle. 

Dong Bell. A correspondent at West Coker 
gives me this as a local name for the Daft'odil, 
Narcissus Pseu(lo-Narcissi(s. 

Donkeys. A corresi^ondent at East Harptree 
gives me this as a local name for 

(1) Goosegrass or Cleavers, Galium Ajmrine. 

(2) Bmdock, Arctium. 

Donkey's Breakfast. Thistle (Taunton). 

Donkey's Ear. (1) The Woolly Woundwort, 
Stachys lanata ; also called Mouse's Ear, from 
the shape and hairy nature of the leaf. (Devon). 

(2) Great Mullein, Fer6ascinn Thapsus (Dorset). 

Donkey's Ears. A nunaber of young people 
at Winsham give me this as a local name for the 
Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata. 

Donkey's Oats. The flowers and seeds of the 
Dock, Rumex obtusifolius, and the Sorrel, Rximex 
Acetosa (Devon). 

Donkey's Tails. Several correspondents at 
Thorne St. Margaret give me this as a local 
name for Old Man's Beard, by which I presume 
they mean Mare's-tails or Jointweed, Equisetum 
arvense. 

Donkey's Tongue. A correspondent at Small- 
ridge (Devon) gives me this as a local name for 
Love Lies Bleeding, Amaranthus caudatus. 

Donkey's Thistle. Several young people at 
Oakhill give me this as a local aame for the 
Teasel, Dipsacus syivestris. 

Dots and Dashes. A correspondent at 
Camerton gives me this as a local name for 
London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa. 

Dough-fig. A Tiirkey fig, Ficus Carica. so 
called most i)robably from being soft as dough. 
The name is used to prevent ;onfusion arising 
between it and the ordinaiy raisin, which is 
called a " fig." 



90 

Doves at the Fountain. A Watchet corres- 
pondent gives me this as a local name for the 
Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Dove's Foot. The Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, 
Geranium molle, from the shape of the leaf. 

Doves in the Ark. Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris. 

Doves Round a Dish. Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris. 

Down. A name given in Somerset to certa,in 
thistles which I cannot definitely identify. 
Several corresi)ondents name the Common Cotton 
Thistle, Onojyordum Acanthium, but this is a 
rare plant in Somerset, and Dr. Watson suggests 
there is probably some confusion between this 
and the Spear Tiiistle. 

DoWNSCWOBS. A correspondent at Dorch'^ster 
gives me this as a local name for the Marsh 
jMarigold, Caltha jjalustris. 

Dbagon Flies. (1) A Yeovil correspondent 
gives me this as a name for the Lobelia. 

(2) From Evershot I have it as a local name 
for seeds of the Sycamore, Acer Pseudo-platanus. 

Dragon Flower. A Devonshire naan'^ for the 
Yellow Iris. /. Pseudocorus, and the Blue (or 
Stinking) Iris, /. foetidissima. Possibly a cor- 
rui)tion of " Dagger-flower," ])ut several other 
possible derivations have been suggested. 

Dragon's Blood. Correspondents at North 
Petherton aid Fiddleford (Dorset) give me this 
as a local name for the Herb Robert, Geranium 
Rohertianum. 

Dragon's Female. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives 
jiie this as an old name for Arum Dracunculus. 

Dragon's Head. Mrs. Day, of North Pether- 
ton, gives me this as a local name for the Snap- 
dragon, Antirrhinum majus. Mr. T. W. Cowan 
reminds me that it is the general English name 
for the genus Dracocephalum. 

Dragon's Mouth. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum 
majus (North Petherton, Martock, and Ilton). 

Dragon (or Dragon's) Wort. (1) An old name 
for the Snake-weed or Bistort, Polygonum 
Bistorta, sent by several correspondents. 

(2) Holland & Britten give Dragon wort as 
a popular name for Arum Dracunculus. Mr, T. 
W. Cowan tells me that Pliny calls it " Dragon," 
and says that its loot " is somewhat red, aad the 
same wrythed and folded round in manner of 
a Dragon, whereupon it took that name." 

Dromedary. Knapweed, both Ccntaurea nigra 
*nd C. Scabiosa (Barford St. Martin, Wilts). 



91 

Drooping Bell. Suowdroii, Galanthus nivalis 
(Fault ou). 

Drooping Bell of Sodom. His Honour J. 
S. Udal gives this as a Dorset name for the Snake - 
lily, FriiUlaria Meleagris. 

Drooping Heads. Snowdrop, Galanthus 
nivalis (Thorne St. Margaret and Saaapford 
Arundel). 

Drooping Lily. Snowdroj), as above (Castle 
Oary). 

Drooping Willow. (I) The Weeping Willow 
Salix babylonica (Devon). 

(2) Also the " Golden Chain," Cytisus 
Lahnrnum, on account of its long elegant chains 
of gold hanging down like the branches of the 
Weeping Willow (Devon). 

Drops of Blood. Mr. Edward Vivian, of 
Trowbiidge, gives me this as a local name for the 
Scarlet Pimpernel, AnagalUs arvensis, more 
generally called the Poor Man's Weather- 
glass. 

Dropwort. a number of correspondents send 
me this as a local name for the Meadow-sweet, 
Spircea Uhnaria. The true Dropwort (Spircea 
Filipendida) and the Meadow-sweet are closely 
allied, but the latter grows mostly beside streams 
or in damp woods or meadows, and the former 
favoius drier situations, where the soil is chalk 
or gj'fvel. 

Druid's Hair. Halliwell gives this as a Wilt- 
shire name for long moss. 

Drummer Boys. A correspondent at Char- 
mouth gives me this as a local name for the Small 
Knai^veed, Centaurea nigra. 

Drummer Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum Leucanthemuni (Martock and Muchelney). 

DRU3IMER Heads. Same as Drummer Boys- 
Drumsticks. (1) Small Knapweed, Cen' 
taurea nigra (West Coker). 

(2) A Tisbury correspondent gives m- this 
as a local name for the Burnet, Potcrium officinale. 
(Mr. W. D. Miller suggests that the Salad Burnet. 
P. sanguisorba is i)i'obably intended). 

Drunkards. This name is given to a number 
of plants ; in this district perhaps most generally 
to 

(1) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris, on 
account of its fondness for water. The children 
say if you gather them you will get drunk ; or 
if you look long at them you will take to drink. 

(2) Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus ruber, 
commonly known throughout a great part of the 
district as Kiss-me-quick. 

(3) Red Campion, Lychnis dioica, throughout 
a great part of Somerset, particularly in the West. 



92 

(4) Ragged Eobiu, Lychnis Flos-cuculi (West 
Somerset). 

(5) Herb Robert, Geranium Rohertianum 
(North Petherton and Horton). 

Drunkard's Nose. A Minehead correspou 
d.ent gives me this as a local name for the Red 
Spur Valerian, Kentranthus ruber. See 
Drunkards (2). 

Drunken Willy. A common name in West 
Somerset and East Devon for the Red Spur 
Valerian, Kentranthus ruber. 

Drunken Sailor. A Devon name for the 
Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus ruber, more 
particularly used in the Plymouth district, but 
sent me by several correspondents in East Devon 
as being used locally. 

Drunkits. Mr. F. W. Mathews tells me tha^ 
m the Wellington district this name is given to 
the Red Spur Valei'ian. See Drunkards (2). 

Dry (or Dryland) Cuckoo. White Meadow 
Saxifrage, Saxifraga granulata (S.W. AVilts). See 
Cuckoo. 

Ducks and Drakes, Early Purple Orchist 
Orchis mascula (Hammoon, Dorset). 

Duck's Bills. (1) The Yellow Iris, Iris 
Pseudacorus. 

(2) Lilac, Syringa vulgaris ; from the shape 
of the flowers (Devon). 

(3) One of the miany pojoular names given to 
picentra spectabilis ; frequently known as Bleed- 
ing Heart, Lady's Lockets, Chinaman's Breeches, 
The L>-ie Flower, <fcc. 

Duck's Mouth. A Taunton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis -purpurea. 

Dumb Cammock. Rest-harrow, Ononis repens 
( Wincanton). 

Dumb Nettle. (1; Most frequently the 
White Dead Nettle, Lamiiim album. 

(2) In some districts api)lied also to the Red 
Dead Nettle, Lamium purpureum. See Blind 
Nettle. 

DuaiMY Nettle Same as Dumb Nettle (1), 

DuNCH. White Dead Nettle, Lamium album 
(Wilts). 

DuNCH Nettle. (1) White Dead Nettle, 
Lamium album (East Somerset and Dorset). 

(2) Red Dead Nettle, Lamium purpureum 
(S.W. Wilts). 

Dun Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum 
leucanthemum. Probably a contraction of Dunder 
Daisy (which see) although it has been sv.ggested 
that the name is possibly derived from " Dun," 
meaning a hill. 



93 

DuxDER Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum Le canthemum. Doubtless a coviaiptiou 
of *' Thunder Daisy." Mr. G. Clarke Nuttall 
says : " In Somersotshire there is an old tradition 
connecting it in some way with the Tnunder 
God." 

DuNDLE Daisy. A variation of the last nam?, 
sent me from Hatch Beauchamp. 

Dusty Bob. The Cineraria (Otterhampton). 
Dusty Miller. (1) A fairly general name for 
the Auricula. Primula Auricula. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me the name is 
also given to S?a-side Ragvveed . Senecio Cineraria. 
Dutch. White Clover, Trijolium repens. 
Dutch Elder. Goutweed, jEgopodium 
Podagraiia (S.W. Wilts). 

Dutchman's Breeches. 3Ir. T. W. Cowan 
tells me that the true " Dutchman's Breeches " is 
Dicentra cucullaria, hut the name is frequently 
applied to D. sijectabilis, which is also known by 
a large number of other names, including China- 
man's Breeches and the i.yre Flowe-I, wnich 
see. 

Dutchsian's Pipe. A climbing shrub, a 
native of the Mississippi Valley, Aristolochia 
Sipho, introduced in 1763 ; sometimes called 
Pipe-vine. 

Dutch Myrtle. Sweet Gale or Bog Myrtle 
Myrica Gale ; from its abounding in Dutch bogs 
DWALE. Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Bella- 
donna. In the 14th century this name was 
given to a drink composed of different herbs 
to stupify the patient when undergoing an opera- 
tion. Once a general term for a sleeping draught, 
it has now been appropriated to this ijarticular 
plant. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that a sleeping 
potion made of Hemlock and other materials 
is alluded to by Chaucer under this name : 
Whenne Joseph had tolde this tale 
Thei fel as thei had dvonken dicale 
Grovelynge down on erthe ]3lat. 
D WINKLE. Periwinkle, Vinca (Brompton 
Regis). 

Dyer's Green Weed. Woad-waxen or Dyer's 
Whin, Genista tindoria ; so called from the fact 
that its young tops were formerly used by dyers 
to give a yellow colour to yarn. 

Dyer's Rocket. A general English name for 
the Yellow-weed or Weld, Reseda Luteola, formerly 
much used by dyers. It is to the juices of this 
yellow weed that the artist owes the colour called 
Dutch pink. 

Dyer's Weed. Reseda Luteola. Same as 
Dyer's Rocket. 



94 

Ea-grass. See Ear-grass and Ee-grass. 

Ear-Bobs. The Fuchsia (Ilton). See Ear- 
drops. 

Ear-drops. (1) A common name in Somer- 
set and Devon for the Fuchsia. 

(2) Dicentra spedabilis : see Bleedixg Heart 
and Chinasian's Breeches. 

Ear-grass. Young gTass ; the annual or 
biennial grasses sown upon arable land. Mr. 
Elworthy considered it shou.ld be " year-grass, 
i.e., annual. Rev. W. P. Williams defines it as 
" grass after mowing." See Ee-grass. 

Early Mushroom. Miss Ella Ford, of Mel- 
plash, Dorset, gives me this as a local aiame for 
the Butter-bur, Pefasites ovatiis. 

Early Rose. Several young peoi^le at Oak- 
hill give m.e this as a local name for the Primrose, 
Primula vulgaris. See First Rose. 

Ear-rings. The Fuchsia (Axbridge). See 
Ear-drops. 

Earth Gall. Com.m.on Centaury, Centaurium 
umhellatuin, the leaves of which are intensely 
bitter, but possess valuable tonic properties. See 
Gall of the Earth. 

Earth Nut. The gener-il English name for 
the Conimon Hog-nut, Conopodium majus. 

Earth Smoke. An old English name given 
to several species of Fumitory, Fumaria, 
(particularly to F. officinalis), which in 
France bear the equivalent name of Fumeterre. 
Tlie English and most of the continental names 
of the plant, as well as the scientific name, indicate 
its connection with smoke ; some say because it 
covers the earth like smoke ; others because it 
affects the eyes like smoke ; but probably the 
true reason is'that given by the Rev. C. A. Johns, 
who says the name was given because the smoke 
of this j)lant was said by the ancient exorjists 
to have the power of expelling evil si^irits. 

Earwig. Mr. H. A, Bending, of Shoscombe. 
gives me this as a local name for the Lesser 
Convolvulus or Field Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis. 

Easter Bell. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire namie for the Greater Stitchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea, from the time of its floweidng, 
and the shape of the half-expanded blossoms. 

Easter Flower. Several coiTespondents in 
Dorset and Devon give me this as a local name 
for the Wood Anemone, Anemone netnorosa. 
Compare Pasque-flower. 

Easter Lily. The Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcissus. 

Eastern Star. Several corresi^ondents at 



95 

Axbridge give me this as a local name for the 
Passion-flower, Passiflora ccerulea. 

Easter Rose. (1) The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pseudo-N arcissus. 

(2) Mr. F. W. Mathews tells me that around 
West Buckland Corchorus japonica is always 
known by this name. 

(3) A correspondent at Dunkerton gives it 
as a local name for the Primrose, Primula vulgaris. 

Eaver. Common Rye-grass, Darnel, or Ray- 
grass, Lolium perenjie ; usually called Devon 
Eaver by Somerset farmers ; in Dorset called 
Every. 

Ee-GRASS. Aftermath or second crop ; some- 
tim.es applied to Lammas grass also. 

Egg-cups. The Tulip, Tulipa Gesneriana ; 
so called from the shape of the flowers, which 
are sometimes known as Wine-glasses for the 
same reason. 

Egg in the Pan. Mr. W. C. Baker, late of 
Maunsel, gives me this as a local name for the 
Yellow Alyssum. 

Egg Plant. A herb of the Nightshade family, 
Solanuni Melongena (or esculentum), extensively 
cultivated and often seen in cottage windows. 
It bears large egg-shaped edible fruit, white, 
yellow, or dark purple. 

Eggs and Bacon. A name given to a numbec 
of different flowers, particularly those which con- 
tain two shades of yellow or yellow and rose- 
colour. Most frequently given in this district to 

(1) Narcissus of all kinds, including the 
Jonquil and Daffodil. 

(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(3) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

(4) Water Crowfoot, Ranunculus hetercphyll s. 

(5) The stalks of the Dewberry, Riibus 
ccesius. 

(6) A well-informed correspondent at Wat diet 
gives me this as a local name for the Grass of 
Parnassus, but as our only native species {Parn- 
assia 2>alustris) is exceedingly rare in this part of 
the country, I x>resumc the name refers to some 
cxxlti^ated variety. ]NIi'. W. D. Miller adds 
" Parnassia has not been seen in Somerset for 
100 years, and I know of no cultivated variety." 

(7) Several correspondents at Pau.lt on give it 
as a local name for the flower of the garden 
Potato, Solanuni tuberosum. See Bacon and 
Eggs. 

Eggs and Butter. (1) Narcissus of almost 
every kind, including Daffodils and Jonquils. 

(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(3) Meadow Buttercup, Ranunculus acris. 
Probably most of these flowers are more tre- 
quently called Butter and Eggs, which see. 



96 

Eggs and Collops. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria 
vulgaris (Rodden, neav From?). 

Eggs Eggs. Fruit of the Hawthorn, Cratcegus 
Dionigyna (S.W. Wilts). Probably connected 
with A.S. hciga, Dutch hcg = a hedge. Mr. G. 
T. Onions whites me " Egg uiu t be an unasi)irated 
form of heg, a by-form of hag (you have the 
diminutive in aglet). Hag is again a parallel 
form, of Hate, waich is the wide.spi'ead name for 
the l)Lvry of the Hawthorn." It has also been 
suggested that the name is perhaps derived from 
a jjerversion of Hedge-pegs, although this latter 
name is usually applied to the Sloe. 

Eglaxtixe. An old English iiame for the 
Sweetb.-iar, Rosa Eglariteria ; frequently used by 
the older poets or tlie Wi d Ro e. 

Eglet. Tnc HaAV : fruit of the Whitethorn, 
Cratcegus thonogyna (D3von). S^e Aglet. 

Eglet-bloom. Hawihoi'n blossom, (see above). 

Eldeb Trot or Eldrot. Oow parsnip, 
Heracleiim Sphondylium. 

Eldroot. Rev. Wm. Barnes (Dorset) define 
this as " the stalk and iimbel of the Wild Parsley." 
See Eltrot (2). 

Elephant's Ear. (1) A common name for 
the genus Begonia. 

(2) Miss Ida Roper informs me that ""the 
narae is also given to a shrubbery species of Ivy. 

Elem or Ellum. a very com.mon pronuncia- 
tion in Somerset, Dorset, and Devon of the name 
Elm, Ulmus campestris, frora which we have the 
adjective Ele:mbx — made of elm. Dr. R. C. 
Knight quotes a native of East Somerset as 
saying " The Elum idden a tree, he's a weed, 
because if you d' stick a elum pwoost in groun' 
he d' sprout an' grow." 

Eleven O'clock Lady. Star of Bethlehem, 
Ornithogalum umbellatum. The French call it 
by the equivalent name of Dame d'onze heures, 
from its waking up and opening its eyes so late 
in the day. 

Elf-cup. Any cup-shaped fungus of the 
former genus Peziza (now split up) ; probably 
the best known being Geopyxii coccinea, the 
Scarlet Elf-cup, commonly called in Som.erset 
Soldiers' Caps or Jerusalem Stars. See Fairy 
Oups (3). 

Eltrot. (1) The usual name in East Somer- 
set, Dorset, and West Wilts for the Co w-parsnip 
Heracleum Sphondylium, generally k»own in West 
Somerset as Limperscrimp. 

(2) Rev. Hilderic Friend says : "A stalk of 
Wild Parsley is in the Western Counties called 
Eltrot." 



97 

(3) Dr. R. G. Knight informs me tlial in at 
least one village iii North Dorset the name Eltrot 
is applied to garden Rhubarb, Rheum Rhapon- 
ticum. It is a local saying that " Ansty Randy 
(= fail) d' come the second month (!) of Maay 
an' you d' always have ELTROT-pL ." 

Emmets' Stalk. Several correspondents at 
South Pethertoa give me this as a local name 
for tfie Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum Salicaria. 

Emony or Enemy. Corruptions of the name 
" Anemone," very frequently heard in the dis- 
trict. Mr. El worthy says the form.er is a common 
gardener's name. " The coramon pcoj)te call 
tljem Emones." Coles, " Adam in Eden," 1657. 

English Fly-trap. Round-leaved Sunde\v, 
Drosera rotundifolia. 

Evening Close. Miss Ella Ford, of MelpJash 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name. for the 
White Campion, Lychnis alba. 

Evening Pride. (1) Several correspondents 
in the Axminster district give me this as a local 
name for the Honeysuckle or Woodbine, Lonicera 
Periclymenum. 

(2) One correspondent in the sam.e district 
gives it as a local name for the Evening Prim.- 
rose. 

Evening Priivirose. This is the genera, 
English name for (Enothera biennis, from, its 
pale yellow colour and its opening at sunset. 
The name is som.^times given — -I believe in mis- 
take — to the Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus' 

Evening Twilight. Miss Ella Ford, of Mel- 
plash (Dorset), gives me tnis as a local name for 

(1) Tne Wood Soriel, Oxalis Acetosella. 

(2) Tne Wood Anem.one, Anemone nemorosa, 

EvER-GRASs. Common Rye-grass, Ray-grass, 
or Darnel, Lolium perenne. Mr. ±'. ^'. Cowan 
writes : — Ever, Ever-grass, and Every are 
corruptions of the Frencn ivraie, so called from. 
its power to inebriate or m^ike drunk {ivre). 
The fh'st part of the name Ray-grass also repre- 
sents tne Frencn iyraie = drunkenness, from the 
supposed intoxicating quality of some species 
(Piior). In the North of England it is named 
Drunk. See Eaver. 

Everlasting. Any flower which retains its 
coiom' and shape wuen dried, as the species of 
Gnaphalium, Helichrysum, Rhodanthe, Antennariaa 
&c. 

Everlasting Pea. Perennial Sweet Pea. 
botti Broad-leaved, Lathyrus latijolius ; and 
Narrow-leaved- L. sy est s. 

Every. A Dorset form of Bvbr-gbass, which 



98 

Eve's Apron. A correspondent at Brutoa 
gives me this as a local name for the large-leaved 
Saxifrage, but Dr. Watson writes m.e " There is 
no Saxifrage except Saxijraga tridactylites native 
at Bruton. Unless Saxifrage itself is a mistake 
it mvist refer to a cultivated plant. London 
Pride (<S'. xmibrosa) is the otily one I have seen 
cultivated there." It may possibly refer to the 
Golden Saxifrage, which is a Chrysosplenium. 

Eve's Cushion. Mr. Edward Vi\ian gives me 
this as a name for the Mossy Saxifrage, Saxifraga 
hypnoides. 

Eve's Tear. A correspondent at Stoke-under- 
Ham give;-; me this as a local namie for the Snow- 
drop, Galanthus nivalis. 

Ewe Brimble. The Common Bramble, Bubu* 
Jruticosus. Mr. P. T. Elworthy says : " The 
term is generally applied to an individual specimen 
and miostly when of a coarse rank growth. Brooms 
made of iieath are always bound round with a 
Ewe Brimble." See Hew -mack 

Eyebright. This is another name which is 
applied to a number of different plants. 

(1) It is the general English name of Euphrasia 
officinalis, formerly in great repute for diseases 
of the eye, in consequence of an old legend which 
says that the linnet uses this plant to clear its 
sight. 

(2) Mr. Elworthy says that in West Somerset 
the name is m.ost commonly applied to the 
Germander Speedwell, Veronica Chamcedrys, 
generally known in Somerset as Bird's-EYBS. 

(3) It is also applied in West Somerset to 
the Common Alkanet, Anchusa officinalis, and to 
the 

(4) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 

(5) Several young people at Mark tell me 
the namie is given in that district to the Poppy, 
Papaver Bhceas. 

(6) Several young people at Brompton Regis 
give it as a local name for the Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis. 

(7) Rev. Hilderic Friend gives it as both a 
Somersetshire and a Devonshire name for the 
Rose-bay Willow-herb, Epilobium angustijolium, 
called Cats'-eyes in some parts of England. 

Eye Glasses. A correspondent at Chard gives 
me this as a local nam.e for the Scotch Pine, 
Pinus sylvestris, but it is not easy to see the 
connection. 

p Eye of Day. A number of young people in 
different parts of the county send me this as a 
local name for the Daisy, Bellis perennis. 

Pace in Hood. Monkshood, Aconitum Napel- 

IU8. 

Fairies. Mr. P. R.. Summerhayes, of Milborne 
Port, tells mo that this aame is given ir> that 



99 

flistrict to tho stami'iate, carpellate, and neute 
florets of the Wild Arum, Arum maculatum. 

Fairies' Basins. (1) A correspondent at 
Evercreech gives me this as a local name for the 
Cowsii]), Frimnla veris. 

(2) Several correspondents in the Axminster 
district give it as a local name for Buttercups, 
Baninicnlvs. 

Fairies' Bath. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(D^'rset), gives me this as a local name for the 
Wafer Avens, Geuni rivale. 

Fairies' Beds. Tho same correspondent gives 
me this as a local name tor the Figwort, Scro- 
ph'daria. 

Fairies' Bells. (1) The Foxglove, Digitalis 
pirrpurea. 

(2) A Cf/riospondent. at South Petherton gives 
it as a l<jca! name for the Lily of the Valley, 
Convallaria majalis. 

(3) A correspondent at Mells gives it as a 
local name f<^r the Wild Hyacinth or Bluehell, 
S cilia non-scripta. See Fairy Bells. 

Fairies' Broom. The Teasel, Dipsacus syl- 
vestris (Thorne St. Margaret and North Cheriton). 

Fairies' Caps. The Harehell, Campanula 
rotundiiolid (Trowbridge). 

Fairies' Clock. A correspondeit at Mushury 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
MtJschateJ, Adoxa Moschatellina. 

Fairies' Cups. Several young people at 
Paulton give me this as a local aame for the Arum 
Lily. 

Fairies' Fire. A correspondent at Paulton 
gives me this as a local name for the Teasel, 
Dipsacus sylvestris. 

Fairies' Flower. The Cowslip, Primula veris 
(Stogursey). 

Fairies' Gloves. Tne Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea Also called Fairy Gloves. 

Fairies' Keys. A correspondent at Dalwood 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
Oxlip, by which is no doubt iatended the hybrid 
between the Cowslip and the Primrose. 

Fairies' Lanterns. A correspondent at 
Duakerton gives this as a local name for the 
Yellow Toad-liax, Linaria vulgaris. 

Fairies' Paint-brushes. The Periwinkle, 
Vinca (South Petherton and Ilminster district). 

Fairies' Petticoats. Foxglove, Digitalis pur- 
purea (Odcombe and Taunton). 

Fairies' Thimbles. (1) The Harebell, Cam- 
panula rotundifolia (Dunster and Brompton 
Regis). Dr. Watson, however, tells me the 
Harebell is extremely rare in these districts. 

(2) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 



lOO 

Fairies' Ujibbelia. A coiiespondent at 
C'oinbe St. Nicholan gives this ass a local name foi 
the Field Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis. vSee 
also Fairy Umbrella. 

Fairies' Wand. (1) Miss Ella Ford, of 
Melpiasb (Dorset), gives this as a local name for the 
Agrimony, Agrivionia Eupatoria. 

(2) A correspondent at lNeitlecom.be gives it 
as a local name fov the Great Mullein, Verhascum 
Thapsiis. 

Fairibs' Windflowek. xV correspondent at 
Chideock (Dorset) gives this as a local name for 
the Wood Anemone, Anemone netnorosa. 

Fairies' Wine-cups. — The small Bindweed, 
Convolvulus arvensis (North Cheriton). 

Fair Maids of February. (1) A very 
general xiame for the Snowdrop, Galanthiis nivalis. 

(2) Several correspondeats at Dunster give 
it as a local name for the Narcissus. 

Fair Maids of France. (1) Mis. Lansdowne, of 
0\er Stowey, gives me this as a local name for 
the Marguerite Daisy or Ox-eye, Chrysantheynum 
Le^i canihemjitn. 

Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that the name is 
also given to 

(2) Bannnciiliis aconitifolins. 

(3) The White Mountain Saxifiage, Saxifraga 
gram lata. 

(4) The Sneeze-wort Yarrow, Achillea Ptar- 
mica. 

Faipy Bells. (1) A number of correspon- 
dents at South Petherton aud ia other districts 
give this as a local name for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea. 

(^) The iJarebell,. Campanula rotundifolia. 

(3) The Cowslip, Primula veris (Bradiord-on- 
Tone). 

(4) Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta (Evercretch and Camertun). 

(5) A correspondent at Cerne Abbas gi\ es it 
as a local r?ame for the Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcissus. 

(6) A correspondent at Stockland (Devon) 
gives it as a heal name for the Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella- See Fairies' Bells. 

Fairy Boats. A Taunto'i correspondeat gives 
mie .bis as a local name foj the Water Lily, 
Nymphcea lutea. 

Fairy Bud. A school -boy at West Coker 
give^ me this as a 1' c xl n. m" f'^r th'^ ** Deadly 
Nightshade," by which he probably means the 
Woody Nightshade, Solanum D Icamara. 

Fairy Cap. (1) Thj Foxglove, Digitalis pur- 
purea (Taunt oi, uver Stowey, Duwlisb Wake, and 
oth - (li^^Hict ■). 

(2) The Harebell, Campanula rotundifolia 
(Trowbridge). 



Fairy Cheese. Common Mi^.llow, Mcdva syl- 
vestris (Stalbridge). See Cheeses. 

Fairy Cheesecake. Mr. Edward Vivian 
(Trowbridge) gives me this as a local name for a 
Medick — I presume Medicago lupulhia. 

Faery Clocks. Seed-heads of Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale (Milborae Port and Mark). 

Fairy Cups. (1) The Cowslip, Primula veris 
(Bradfoid-on-Tone, North Petherton, West Coker, 
and other districts). 

(2) A correspondent at Chetnole (Dorset) gives 
it as a local i^ame for tho Harebell, Camfunula 
rotundifolia. ^ ^.x. 

(3) Any cup-shaped fangus ot the genus 
Peziza, varticularly P. coccinea. See Elf-cup. 

Fairy Dell. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplask 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name for 

(1) The Sun Spurge, Evphorhia Helioscopia. 

(2) The P.tty Spurge, E. Peplus. 

Fairy Fingers. The Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea (Umi'istcr and Combe St. Nicholas). 

Fairy Flax. (1) Cathartic Flax or Mill 
Momrtain, Linum catharticum. The Rev. H. N. 
Ellacf-mhe, lectoi'ing at Bath over 40 years ago, 
■^poke (.1 " the little Fairy Flax ^vhich you will find 
on your downs round Bath." Dr. Downes points 
out that the flowers of this plant are white, so 
that our " Fairv Flax " cannot be that of Long- 
iellow, v.-hu wrol'e in his " Wreck of the Hespei us, 

Blue were her eyes as the Fail y Flax. 

(2) Several yoang people at Wembdon apply 
the name to a plant of the genus Ipomaa. 

(3) A coire8pt)ndctit at Wiiicai.tcn gives it 
as a local name for the Scabioaii, ? Scabiosa 
arvensis. 

F\iRY Gloves. The Foxglove, Digitalis pur- 
purea. AlftO called Fairies' Gloves. 

P\IRY Hat. a correspondent at Charmoath 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

Fairy Pops. (Pops = sweets). The School 
Mistress at Beaminster gives me this as a local 
nam^ f"r the lied Clover, Trifoli-im pratense, 
known th-oiighout a great pait of tbe district as 
Honeysuckle. B<nh names refer to the sweet 
ness which children extiact by sucking the 
flowers. 

Fairy Queens. A correspondent at Hatch 
Beauchrmp givv-s in- this as a local name for the 
Pansy, Viola. 

Fairy Ringers. The Harebell, Campanula 
rotundifolia (Hammom, Dorset). 

Fairy Rings. Circles or parts of circles in 
pastures of a darker green and more luxuriant 
growth than the adjoining \wrts. most cbscrv- 



I02 

able whe the grass is short. They were 
formerly believed to mark the dancing places 
of fairies, and Mr. E. W. Swanton says they 
are to this day a puzzle to irany oi the old 
shei^herds iii \Vilts aad Dorsi t (wfty not in 
Somerset ?), who vouchsafe the explanation 
" Zome do say they do iome by lightnen whot do 
thunder." The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, in his 
" Oxitlines of British Fungology," says : — " It 
is believed that they originate from a single 
fungus, whose giowth rendeis the soil im- 
mediately beneath unfit for its production. The 
spawn, however, spreads all around, and in 
the second year j)rodaces a crop, whose spawn 
spreads again, the soil behind forbidding its 
retarn in that direction. Thus the circle is 
CO itinually increased and extends ii' definitely 
till some cause iTitervenes to destroy it. The 
manure arising from 5be dead fungi of the former 
years makes the grass pe^vxliarly vigorous rour.d, 
so as to render the ;;ircle visible even whe'i there 
is no externpl appearance of cte turgus, a-id the 
contrast is often tne stronger froir that bebi^id 
being killed by the old simwn." Mr. E. W. 
Swanton, in his " Fungi and How to Know 
Them" (1909), says: "Later ^mters hold that 
a single fungus does not usually give rise to the 
circle in pastures, but that anything which may 
kill a small patch of grass — e.g., a heap of rotten 
manure — and thus provide a suitable naatrix, 
may be a cause." The best known of these 
circle-forming fungi are the Fairy Rirjg Champig- 
non, MarasmiKS orcades and M. urens, hut Dr. 
Watson tells me that the St. George's Mushi oom, 
Tricholoma gambosum, seems to be more notice- 
able in Somerset. 

Fairy Stools. Toadsoools (Long Sutton). 

Fairy Tables. A correspondent at Muchelney 
gi/es me this as a h-cal nane tor Mushrooms 

Fairy Thimbles. The Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea. Called .^Iso Fairies' Thimbles. 

Fairy Trumpets. (1) A i> umber of corres 
pondents at South Petherton give me this as a 
local name for the Honeysuckle or Woodbine, 
Lonicera periclymenum. 

(2) A corres]>ondent at Evershot gives it as 
a local name for the Hedge Convolvidus, Calystegi-a 
septum. 

Fairy Umbrella. A correspondent at Sher- 
borne gives this as a local name for the Field 
Bindweed. See Fairies' Umbrella. 

False Blossom. The male flower of Melon or 
Cucumber (always). Said also of any blossom 
which fails to set. (F. T. Elworthy). 

Farewell Summer. (1) A fairly general 
name for several species of Aster, poi>ularly kiowu 
as the Michaelmas Daisy. 



I03 

(2) Several correspondents in Dorset give it 
as a local name for Phlox. 

Both plaiits are also known as SUMMER 
Farewell, which ^ee. 

Farmers' Clocks. A Taunton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. 

Farjvier's Weather-glass. Mr. W. S. Price 
gives me this as a local name for the Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis in the Wellington 
and Milvorton district. More generally known as 
Poor Man's or Shepherd's Weather-glass. 

Fat BEiiLiES. Bladder Campion, Silene talifolia 
(Nettlecombe). 

Fat Hen. (1) A fairly general name for the 
White Goosefoot, Chenopodiinn albimi. 

(2) A Taanton correspondent gives it as a 
local name for Polygonum Persicaria. Dr. 
Watson tells me this is due to confusion between 
the two plants which often grow together. 

Father Big-pace. A correspondent at Ever- 
creech gives me this as a local name for the 
Nodding (or Mask) Thistle, Cardi us nutans. 

Father Time. Wild Clematis or Traveller's 
Joy, Clematis Vitalba, in seed ; generally called in 
East Somerset and Dorset Old Man's Beard. 

Fathbry Ham. In Chap. 16 of " Clara 
Vaaghan," Mr. R. D. Blackmore ai>plies this nam.e 
to the Valerian. 

Feather fern. Sjpircea Japonica, on account 
of its gracef 1 feathery bunches of flowers (Rev, 
H. Friend). 

Feather Few, Foe, or Fold. Commoa 
Feverfew, Chrysanthemum Parthenium. This 
name — written ard i>rO'io.n;ed in au almost 
eadles^ variet/ of ways — ^is "eally a conuption of 
Febrifuge (Lat. Jebris fuga=vfhsbt puts fever to 
flight) ; or possibly, as Dr. Prior suggests, 
from confusion with the name Feather-poil, 
which see. Dr. Watson writes me : — " No doubt 
confusion has occurred. No doubt Febi'ifuge 
(= fever fly-away) is the origin of Feverfew, 
but probably the name of FeatherfoLl (= feathery 
leaves) has really been applied to the plant, and 
is so still in the north in places where the Water 
Violet is unknown." 

Feather-poil. ( 1) The Wat er Violet , Hottonia 
palustris. The ijopular name means feathery leaf, 
in reference to the finely divided leaves of the 
plant. 

(2) Miss M. J. Shute tells me that in Devon 
this name is given to a Commoia Chamomile, 
very aromatic. 

Feathers. (1) Pampas Grass, Gynerium 
argenteum. 



I04 

(2) A coiTespondent at Sialln^idgc gives this 
as a local name for the Amaranth, kno^vn as 
Love Lies Bleediiig, Amaranthvs cavdalns. 

Feathery Plume. Pampas Gravss, Gynerh'm 
argenteuvi (Wins! am). 

Feathery Shamrock. Several young prc-ple 
at Aller giA e me this as a local name for the 
Clover, Trifolivm . 

February Fahi-maid (or Maiden). The 
Sno\\(l.r"ip. Galanthi's nivcdis. 

Felon -WORT. The Woody Nightshade or 
Bittersweet, Solanum dulcamara. From it«4 use 
in Ciiring whitlo-\vs, called in Latin furunculi, 
little thieves, thai is, felo-is. 

Fennel-flower. The general Ejiglish name 
for Nigella damascena, popularly callf^d Lov in a 
Mist, or Devil id the Bush. 

Fern Butt"r-cup. Siherweed. Potentilla 
Anserina (S.W. Wilts). 

Fekn-leaved Dalsy. a coi'i^espo -"dent at 
Paolton gi-ves me tlis as a local name for the 
Scentless Mayweed, Matricaria inodora. 

Fevertory. a Wiltshire name for the 
Famitory, Fumaria, from which a cosmetic for 
removiag treckks used to be distilled. A Wilt- 
shire rhyme says : — 

If you wish to be pui e and holy. 
Wash yonr face ^\'ith fevertoiy. 

Fiddles. (1) Water Figwort, Scrophidaria 
aquatica, so called because if two of the stalks are 
drawt'^ across each other as a bow i^ drawn across 
the strings they make a noise like a fiddle. See 
Crowdy Kit. 

(2) Dr. Watson tells me this name is also 
giveu to the Knotted Figwort, S. nodosa. 

Fiddlestick. An alternative Devonshire 
name for the Figwort, as above. 

Fiddle Strings. (1) The Water Figwort. 
See Fiddles. 

(2) Tlie rii>s of the Plantain leaf when pulled 
oat (Castle Oayand X.W. Wilts). 

Field Daisy. A correspondent at Watchet 
gives this as ;■> 1< cal name for the Feverfew, 
Chrysanthem n m Parthenium. 

Field Lilies. A correspondent at South 
Pethertop gives this as a local neme for the 
Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. Probably some 
confusion. Dr. Watson writes : — " Field is 
scarcely right as qualifying Lilies in regard to 
the Flag. It would be more suilable for the 
Foetid Iris, which actually grows in fields and 
not only in Wet places. I suppose LiLlBS is 
used because of the leaf being like a Lily, and 
not in reference to the flower." 



I05 

Fighting Cocks. Various PJantains, particu- 
larly tbe Ribwort or Cock-grass, Plantago lanceo- 
\4xia, and the IToaiy or Lamb's Tongue, P. media. 
CVildieii fight thein head against head. See 
Cock's Heads and 8(jldibbs 

Figs. The common name in Somerset and 
Devon for raisins. Sc^mo years ago a corres- 
pondetit asked in tJ e Western Antiquary why 
people ill Ibis part of England called raisins figs, 
and a plum ])vidding figgy pudding ; and lie was 
met A\ith the counter question, " Why do you 
sj)eak of plum p'addiiig wh<'ii you mean raisin- 
p adding ? " 

Finger Cap. Mrs. Day, of North Pelherton, 
gives me this as a Iccal name for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea. 

Finger Hut. Two correspondents at Stock- 
lar.d (Devon) give this as a local nsme for the 
Foxglove ; see above. Dr. R. 0. Knight writes : 
— "This is worthy of r-maik. Presumably Hut 
is the same word as the Somerset hud, i.e. a 
finger-stall, derived from hood.'' 

Fingers. T1 e Foxglove, Digitalis jjurpurea 
(West Somerset and Stowey, near Cl-utton). 

Fingers and Thumbs. This name is applied 
to a nunrber < f different flowers, but most gener- 
ally in this district to the 

(1) Bird's-foot Tr.foil, Lotus comiculatus. 
Correspondents in vaiious i>aits tf the district 

give me tire pame as bring applied to the following 
flowers, but whether they are botanically correct 
in naming the species in every case I am unable 
to say. 

(2) Tifted Vetch, Vicia Craccn (Stmapford 
Brett, Melplash, Iwerne Minster). 

(3) MeadoAv Vetchling, Lathyrus pratensis 
(Weston Zoylaud, Brompto.i Regis, Donhead). 

(4) Yellow Vetchling, Latkyrvs Aphaca (Lux- 
borough, Bradford -on-Tone). Dr. Watson writes 
" Very questionable, as X. Aphaca is not known 
to me from either of these localities." 

(5) Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria (Stock- 
land, Chaimoath, Widworthy). 

(6) Horse shoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa 
(Queen Camel). 

(7) Purple Vetch, Vicia sepium (Sexey's 
School). 

(8) Red Campion, Lychnis dioica (Scxoy's 
School). 

(9) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (Nettle- 
combe, Sampford Arundel). 

(10) Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (Oakhill). 

(11) Yellow Cory da lis, Corydalis lutea (Stoke 
Abbott). 

(12) la East Somerset and Wilts the name is 
frequently given to the flowers of the Furze, 
Ulex europaius. 



io6 

(13) Be\ . HiJderic Fiiead gives it as a Devon- 
shire name for the Lady's Slipper, Cypripedii:m 
Calceolus. Mr. W. D. Miller writes : " Not one 
person in 10,000 in Devon can ever have seen the 
Cyiyripedium. Undotibl dly Lotus corniculatvs is 
meant." 

Fingers and Toes. Tavo correspo/idents a 
Axminster give me this as a local name for tVe 
Biid's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comicvlatus. 

Finger tips. A correspondent at Donhead 
(Wilts) gives me this as a local name for the 
Foxglove, Digitalis imrpurea. 

Fir Bob. A lir-coue (West Some.'set). 

Fib Cog. A fir-cone (Bridgwater). 

Fire Flout. An old country }iame lor the 
Poppy, Papaver Rhoeas. 

Fire Grass. A Yarlington school ooy gives, 
me this as a local name for the Plantaio. See 
Fire Leaf. 

Fire Leaf. A correspondent at Mnchelney 
gives me this as a local name for the Ribwort 
Plaota.i'i, Plantago lanceolaia. See Fire Grass. 
Miss Ida Ropei adds " See ' Gardener's Chronicle,' 
1860, p. 738, quoted Flora of Bristol, p. 501." 

Fire Lily. A correspondent at Bnckerell 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
Tiger Lily, Lilium tigrinuni. 

Fire Screen. A ^-orrespondent at Broadstone 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Flame Nasturtitim, Tropceoluvi speciosvm. 

Fib Gog. A fir-cone (Wellington district). 
Mr. F. W. Mathews quotes a woman saying " I 
always picks up a lot o' they vur-gogs ; they be 
better'n fire-lighters." 

FiRLEY Gog. A lir-cone (Sampf ord Arutulel), 

First Flower op Spring. A correspondent at 
Evercreech gives me this as a local name for the 
Croc as. 

Fibst Rose. Prom all parts of the district 
I ba/e had this sent me as a popidar name for 
the Prim-ose, Primula vulgaris. See Early 
Rose. 

Fish Bones. (1) A correspondent at Ilton 
gives me this as a lo ^al name for the Silver Weed, 
Potentilla Anserina. 

(2) Several correspo:idents at Bridgwater tell 
me that this name is there given to the leaves 
of tl e Horse Chestnut, ^sculus Hippocastanum. 
Mr. Woodward adds : " After the green poition 
has beei removed." 

(3) A correspondent at Wells gives me this as 
a local name for Thistles. See below. 

Fish Bone Thistle. A -.orrespondeat at 
Muclelney gives me this as a local name for a 



I07 

fpecies of the genas Chamcepeuce, aatives of the 
MMifpT-ra.-ne^f rfeio }. pllied both to the Pltime 
Thistles and the true Thistles. Mr. T. W. Cowan 
tells me that it is the conamon name for Chama- 
pence Casabmiw. Soe Fish Bones. 

Fisherman's Basket. A fairly general name 
for the Calceolaria. 

Fishwives' Basket. A correspondent at 
Colyford (Devon) gives this variation of the 
above nauie for the Calceolaria. 

Five - finger - Grass. Creeping Cinquefoil, 
Fotentilla reptans, so called from its live leaflets. 

Five Fingers. Ciiiquefoil, Potentilla. 

Flag. A name gi\en to a number of different 
plants having sword-shaped leaves, and particu- 
larly to the Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus, and 
the Stinking Iris, I. foetidissima. Dr. W tson 
says " Generally and truly applied to Iris 
Pseudacorus." 

Flaggers. a correspondent at Stalbridge 
gives me this as a local variation of the above 
name. 

Flag Lily. Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 

Flag Sedge. A correspondent at Hawk- 
church (Devon) gives me this as a local name 
for the Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus, 1 r. 
Watson writes " I doubt this. It seems more 
probable to be given to a sedge, Carex riparia, 
often associated with Flags." 

Flajme Climber. A correspondent at Blox- 
worth (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the NasturtiumL, Tropceolum speciosum. 

Flame Flower. (1) The Torch-lily or Red 
Hot Poker, Tritoma uvaria. 

(2) Correspondents at Yeovil and at Ansty 
(Dorset) give it as a local name for the Phlox. 

(3) Rev. H. N. Ellacom.be gives it as an old 
name foi the Pansy, Viola tricolor. 

Flaming Sword. A correspondent at Plush 
(Dorset) gives this as a local name for the Flamb 
Flower. 

Flannel, Flannel Flower (or Leap). Great 
Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus. 

Flannel Petticoats. A correspondent at 
Winsham gives this as a local name for the Great 
Mullein, Verbascum 1 hapsus. See above. 

Flap Dick, Flap Dock, or Flappy Dock, 
The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. Mr. F. T. 
Elworthy says " Like a dum'ldary in a flappy- 
dock " is a commoa simile to describe a busy, 
bustling, fussy, noi^y person. 

Flax Mountain. ( 1) Mr. J. C. Mansell Pleydell 



io8 

gives this as a Dorset name for the Corn Spurrey. 
Spergula arvensis. 

(2) The usual Englisli name for the Dwarf, 
Fairy, Mountain, or Purging Flax, Linum 
catharticum. 

Flaxwebd. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vul- 
garis. 

FleaBANE. a general English name for 
various species of Pulicaria, Inula, Erigeron, and 
Conyza, the powerful smell of wJiich is supposed, 
to drive away fleas. Dr. Watson tells me that 
the name Flbabane used by itself is more 
definitely used for Pulicaria dysenterica. 

Fleas and Lice. A Bruton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Ivy-leaved 
Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria. 

Flesh and Blood. The name of a certain 
kind of apple (Devon). 

Fleur db Luce (or Lys). Yellow Iris, Iris 
Pseudacor s. Probably the Slinking Iris, /. 
foetidissima, also, but I have no record of this. 
See Flower de Luce : both names are, of course, 
a corruption of Fleur dp Lis, a French name for 
the Iris. 

Flibberty Gibbet. A correspondent at Wells 
gives me this as a local uam.e for the Common 
Mallow, Malva sylvestris. 

Flirtweed. Feverfew, Chrysanthemum Par- 
thenitim. liev. Hilderic Friend says " A name 
which has apparently nearly died out, but which 
was common in South Devon some years ago as 
the designation of the Feverfew." 

Flock. A very common corruption of Phlox. 
Flop-a-Dock, Flops, or Flop Top. The Fox- 
glove, Digitalis purpurea (West Somerset and 
Devon). 

Flora's Paint-brush. A Dorset com-espon- 
dent gives m.e this as a lame for certain cultivated 
species of the genus Cacalia, plants belonging to 
the Aster famUy, and natives of America «,nd 
Asia. Mr. T. W. Cowah writes me " I do not 
know any Cacalia called by thr- name unless it 
is meant fur C. coccinea, commonly called Scarlet 
Tassel Fiower. A Oalifornian plant, Castilleia 
parviflora, goc; by the name of Indian Paint- 
brush and Scarlet Paint-brush, but this belongs 
to the Figworl family." 

Flower de Luce. An old English name for 
the Iris, both the Yellow {Iris Pseudacorus) and 
the Slinking (/. foetidissima). See Flbltr de 
Luce. 

Flower Flames. A Taunton correspondent 
gives ine this as a local name for the Nasturtium, 
Tropceolum speciosum. 



109 

Flower of an Hour. Sevei a1 correspondents 
send me this as a aame foi the Mallow, Malva 
sylvestris. This Would appear to be due to con- 
fusion. Rev. H. Friend says : — •" Another species 
of Hibiscus is the Venice Mallow, which is a 
native of Italy and Austria, boars a purple and 
yellow flower, and has long been known in our 
English gardens as Mallow of an Hour or Good 
Night at Moon." 

Flower op Bristowb (i.e. Biistol). An old 
name for the cultivated Scarlet Lychnis or 
" None-such," Lychnis chalcedonica. The Bristol 
Naturalists' Society's Proceedings for the year 
1909 (pub. 1910) contained a m.ost interesting 
paper with regard to this plant and the origin 
of its local name by Miss Ida M. Roper, F.L.S. 
1 understand that shortly after the publication 
of this paper the then new University of Bristol 
adopted this flower as its emblem. 

Flower of Spring. (1) Several young people in 
different parts of Somerset send me this as a 
popular name for the D^isy, Bellis perennis. 

(2) In view of the above it is perhaps worth 
recording that the Primrose has the honour of 
being called the " Flower of Spring " in nearly 
a dozen different languages. 

Flower of the Axe. The Rev. Hil Teric 

Friend gives this as a name applied by the 
country people about Axminster to the rare 
Lobelia urens, wiiich, he tated, is found in 
Britain only near that town, but several corres- 
pondents tell me it is found also in Dorset and 
Co nwall. 

Flower of the Sun. A correspondent at 
Camerton gives me this as a local name fo.- the 
Myj'tle, Myrtus communis. 

Flue Brushes. A correspondent at Mells 
gives me this as a local name for the Great Reed- 
mace, Typha latijolia, more often called Bulrush. 

Fluff Weed. Great Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus (Stalbi'idge). 

Fluffy Buttons. A Taunton boy, attending 
Sex« y's School, gives me this as a Taunton name 
for th^ Sallow. Dr. Watson says "Both Salix 
caprea &nd S . cinerea are almost certainly meant." 

Fluffy Puffy. Mrs. Lansdowne, of Over 
Stowey, gives me this as a local name for the 
seed-head of the Dandelion, Taraxacum officimale 

Fly Angels or Fly- aw ays. A Yeovil school- 
boy gives me these as local names for the seeds of 
th' 8\ca,jnore, Acer Pseudo-platanus. See Flying 
Angels. 

Fly Catcher. (1) A number of young people 
in the Axminster district give me this as a local 
name for the Sundew, Drosera. 



(2) CoiTespondents in several different parts 
of Somerset give this as a local name for the 
Campion. See Catch Fly. 

(3) Miss Audrey Vivian, of Trowbridge, gives 
it as a name commonly used in that district for 
the Wild Arum, or Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum. 

(4) Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash (Dorset) gives 
this as a local nam.e for the Butterwort, Pin' 
guicula vulgaris. 

(5) A cori^espondent at Dunkerton gives it 
as a local naure for the Orchis, without indicating 
the species : probably the Fly Orchis, Ophrys 
muscijeia, whilst two correspondents at Upl3pm.e 
inform me the name is in that district given to 
the Bee Orchis, Ophrys apifera. Dr. Watson 
■writes: — Some confusion here probably. I 
suspect that the Fly Oichid is intended in both 
cases. The likeness of the flower to a fly has 
caused the name to be mis-applied. 

Flying Angels. Mr. F. R. Summerhayes, of 
Milborne Port, gives me this as a North Somerset 
name for the seeds of the Sycamore. S?e Fly 
Angels. 

Flying Dutchmen. The winged seeds of 
the Ash, Maple, and Sycamore (Stowey, near 
Clutton). 

Fly Trap. Sundew, Drosera (Horton). 

Foal's Foot. An old country name for the 
Oolt's-foot, Tussilago Farjara. 

Fog. The long grass in pastures which th e 
cattle refuse. This is Fog while green, and Bent 
or Bonnet when dry (F. T. Blworthy). Old, 
withered, or spoilt grass (Rev. W. P. Williams). 

Fog Grass. Coarse, sedgy grass such as grows 
in Wtt places. The distinction is kept between 
Fog and Fog Crass (F. T. Elwoi»thy). 

Fog Wort. Correspondents at Wambrook 
and Wimborne give me this as a name for the 
Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 

Folk's Glove. This is sent me from all 
parts of the district as a popular name for the 
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. It is generally 
stated that the original form of the name was 
Folk's Glove, i.e. Fairies' Glove, but not all 
etymologists are prepared to accept this as the 
derivation. 

Folly's Flower. Several correspondents at 
Stalbridge and Stoke Wake (Dorset) send me 
this as a local name for the Colum.bine, Aquilegia. 

Fool's Cap. A correspondent at Evercreech 
gives m.e this as a local name for the Woody 
Nightshade or Bittersweet, Solanum Dulcamara. 
Probably owing to the kind of peak foraied by 
the m.ore or less conjoint stam.ens. 



Ill 

Fool's Cress. A weil-'uforniodcoiTespoudent 
at Leigh (Dorset) gives nio this as i local name 
foi- the Watercress. Badicula nasturtium, but I 
think there nui-^t be some confusion. S?v^ Brook- 
LIME (2). Mr. W. S. Price (Wellington) tells 
me he has frequently heard this nam.e applied 
to Brooklime in order to distinguish it from the 
edible Water-cress. 

Fool's Parsley. This is the general English 
name for yEthusa Cynapium, sometimes called the 
Lesser Hemlock. In *' Flowering Plants," by 
Anne Pratt, revised by Edward Step, it is recorded 
that some years ago two ladies in Somersetshire, 
who ate of it in salad, suffered very s( riousiy, 
though both ultimately recovered. Several cor- 
respondents give this name as being applied to 
Hemlock, Wild Beaked Paisley, Cow Parsley, 
Hedge Parsley, and other Umbellifers;, but 
probably in most cases they really mean the 
plant mentioned above, and I have not thought it 
necessary to set out the names of other plants 
separately. 

Fool's Watercress. Procmnbent Marsh - 
wort, Apium nodiflorum. See Brook Lime (2). 

F'ORGBT-ME-NoT, (1) Any specics of Scorpioii 
grass, Myosotis ; but more pariiculaily the 
Water Sconn<.!)-£,'i'?t.ss. M. scorpioides, which 
grows On the banks of streams. I believe 
it was less than 100 years ago that this name was 
first given to this geijjs of plants-; in England, 
although it was the popalar Dame for them in 
Germany aid Denmark. It wa'^ in co.isequence 
of the remarkable popularity gained by the now 
well-kn<jwn German legend of a knight aod his 
lady love, published about a century ago by 
Mills id his " Origin < f Chivalry," that this 
name was given to the Myosotis in England. 

(2) Di-. Prior tells as that for more tha i 200 
years i^revious to the introdaction of this German 
legend, the plant which had borne in England 
the name of Forget-me-not was the Ground Pine, 
Ajuga Chamcepitys, which also ]>ore in France 
and the Netherland; a popular name having the 
same meaning, which was said to have been 
giver in consequence of the nauseous taste which 
it leaves in the mouth. 

(3) Correspondents in different parts of each 
of the four counties apply the name to the 
Germander Speedwell, Veronica Chamcedrys, 
more generally known as Bird's Eyes. Dr. Prior 
says this is owing to a cor)fusion. originating in 
the blue colour of the flowers, but what appears 
to me to be a much more probable explanation is 
that given under the oanae Speedwell. 

Four-leaved Grass. Herb Paris, Paris 
quadrifolia. 

Four O'CLOCK. Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale 
(Stoke-under-Ham and Axmi ister). Called also 
Twelve o'Clock and One o'clock. 



112 

Fox Flops. A West Somerset ^lame for the 
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea. 

Foxs Brush. A corie.pondeixt at South 
Pethovton giv*?3 this a-, a local name for the 
Val" i>'> but doe? not indic^^e the species. Mr. 
T. W. Cowan tells me it is Kentranthus ruber. 

Fox's Mouth. A correspondent at Ihninster 
gives this as a local name for the Monk's-hood, 
Aconitnm Napell 'S. 

Fox Stones. Correspondeats at Chewton 
Mendip and Wiiub jvne give this as a name for 
the Olch^^ Init do not indicate the species. See 
Dog Stones. 

FoxTAHiS. (1) A correspondent at Thurlbear 
gives ra^ this as a local name for the catkins of 
the H;izel, Coryl'S Avellana. 

(2) In i .W . Wilts ti-e name is gi /en to the 
catkin of the Willow, Salix. 

(3) A coire-^poadent at Evershr.t gives it as 
a local nam'^ f r the Cbickweed, Stellaria media. 

Fox Wort. A ^.lartock school boy gives me 
this a;i a l-'cd name for the Lesser Celandine, 
Ranuncdxs Ficaria. 

Framboise, or Framboys. Mr. J. C. Man- 
sell Hcytitii gives this as a Dorset liame 
for the Baspbeiry, B 6«'s idcevs, and qut-tes 
"My Lord of Silisbmy tok'me that in Cran- 
borne Chase there grew raspes commonly, and 
in grent plerty, ai d th^t the country people 
called th-m framboises. v 1 i-^h i- the Frei ch av. rd 
ffith'm." (Written about 1638, and quoted iu 
Notes and Queries Ser. iv., vol. 1, p. 532). 

Freckled Face, A correspondent at Dowlish 
Wake gives m^ this as a local name for the 
Cowslip, Primula veris. 

French. A correspondent at Weliow gives me 
this as a local nam? for the Sviafrin, Onobrychis 
vicicefolia. See French Grass. (1). 

French Brans. Mr. Elworthy says : " Ap- 
plied by colt'-gers to the dwarf varieties only. 
Th-^ climbing runners are always Kidney Bcar^s, 
fv m th^ c 1 nr f^'^d «h rt^ f th > sppd." Dr. 
Watson writes " So far as my experience goes 
applied indiscriminately to any Kidney Bt-an. 
In some parts where Kidney Beau:^ or Scarlet 
Runners are grown the foirmer is used 
when grown for the kitchen, the latter when 
grown as a flower. I do not think this dis- 
crimination applies to the South of England at 
all, but only to districts where the climate is 
not usually suitable for gi-owing Kidney Beans 
for eating." 

French Goat's Beard. A correspondent at 
Stockland (Devon) giv^. m^ this as a local name 
for the Hawkweed, Hieraci i.m. 



"3 

French Grass. (1) Sainioin, Onobn/chis 
vicicefolia. 

(2) The garden striped Ribbon-grass, Phahtris 
arundinacea variegala. 

- French Honeysuckle. (1) The plant that 
IS usually known by this name is Hedysarum 
eoronarium. 

(2) Mr. W. S. Price tells me the name is applif-d 
to a cultivated variety of Honeysuckle beaiing 
numerous clusters of deep orange coloured 
flowers. The florets are smaller, and each cluster 
contains more than the common wild variety. 

(3) Several youag people at Sampford Arundel 
give m3 this as a Icc.ii name for the Lupine, 
Lupinus. 

Frenchman's Darling. A correspondent at 
Martock gives me this as a local name for the 
Mignonette, Reseda odorata. 

French Nut. A name very c )mmouly used 
in Somerset and Devon for the Walnut, Juglans 
regia. HoUoway adds, "great numbers of tl-is 
fruit b?i.ig imported from France." 

French Pink. (1) Same as Indian Pink, 
Dianthus chinensis. 

(2) Sea Piak or Thrift, Statice maritima 
(Devon). 

French Poppy. A correspondent at Wid- 
worthy (Devoo) gives me this as a local name for 
the Great Mullein, Verhascum Thapsus. 

French Pops. Mr. F. T. Elworthy says : 
" The small purple Gladiolus. The flowers are 
in shape much like Pops, i.e.. Foxgloves. They 
are very common in cottage flower knots." 

French Primrose. A correspondent at Hol- 
ditch (near Chard) gives me this as a local name 
for the Polyanthus, 

French Sparrow Grass. According to Dr 
Prior this is the name under which are sold iii 
the Bath market, to be eaten as Asparagus, the 
sprouts of the spiked Star of Bethlehem, Omitho- 
galum pyrenaicum, 

French Violets. A correspondent at Watchet 
giv^s me this as a local nam*^ for the «* Mi ""get 
Campanula, but Dr. Watson tells me that Wahlen- 
ergia hederacea does not occur at Watchet. 

French Willow. Rose-bay (Willow-herb), 
Epilobinm angnstifolium. 

Friar's Caps. Monk's-hood, Aconitum 
Napell'is, from its upper sepals resembling a 
friar's cowl. 

Fried Candlesticks. This curious name for 
a wild Orchis, most probably the Early Purple, 
Orchis mascula, is sent me by a couple of corres- 
pondents at Winsham. See Candlesticks (1). 



IT.4 

Mr. Gr. T. Onions writes me : — " What the Friei> 
is I can't guess, but the OANDLESTiCKa has, 1 
think, come oat of Kandlegostes or some such 
foi-m which is in Gerarde's Appendix (according 
to Britten & Holland), together with GandeR- 
GOSSES, of which it may be a further corruption." 
See Gander Gauze. 

Fried Eggs. I wonder that so appropriate 
a name is not more commonly given to the Ox- 
eye, Chrysanthe^nmn Leucanthemnm. I have re- 
ceived it only from a coirespondent at Chilton 
Polden aiid Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trowbridge. 

Frith. Brushwood (Rev. W. Barnes, Dorset)* 

Frog Bites. Tlie Frog Bit, Hydrocharis 
Morsus-rance (Chew Magna). 

Frog's Foot. Correspondents at Yeovil and 
Rodney Stoke give mie this as a local nam^e for 
a species of Crowfoot, Ranunculus. 

Frog's 3Ieat. (1) Toadstools (Wilts). 
(2) Leaves of the Ai'um, Ai-um maculatum 
(Dorset). 

Frog's Mouth. (1) Mrs. Day, of North 
Pethertoii, gives me this as a Somerset name for 
the Eavly Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(2) A corresi)ondent at Sherborne gives it 
as a local name for the Snapdragon, Antirrhinum 
majus. 

Fuller's Thistle. The Fuller's Teasel, Dip- 
sacus pdlonum, which is grown in some parts of 
Somerset. 

Funny Faces. A correspond<nt at Ever- 
cieech gives m • this as a local name for 

(1) The Pansy, Viola tricolor. 

(2) The Nasturtium, Tropceolum speciosum. 
Furniture. Several correspondents at South 

Petherton give m<- this as a local nam.e for the 
Box, Buxus semper vir ens. Compare Chairs and 
Tables. 

Fuzz or FuzzEN. Furze. Goi-se or Whin, Ulex 
europceiis. 

When the Fuzz is out o' blossom 
Kissing's out of fashion. 

Dr. Watson writes: — ■'' It is not generally known 
that there is more than one species of Ulex. 
U. europieus .is the common large Gorse and 
flowers most profvisely from January to April. 
Other species Western Gorse {U. Gallii) and 
Dwarf Furze ( U. minor) come into flower much 
later on, and flower most profusely about Sep- 
tember and October. It is a curious coincidence 
that Gorse is always in bloom during the months 
with an R in their names. From January to 
April flowers are plentiful. From May to August 
late flowers of the Common Gorse and early 
flowers of the other species may be found." 



"5 

Fuzz Ball. A piifi; ball, Lycoperdon bovista 
and other species of Lycoperdon (Dorset and Wilts). 

Gall of the Earth. A correspondent at 
Oake sends me this as a local name for the 
Comnron Centaury, Centaurium umbellatum. See 
Earth Gall. 

Gallow Grass. Cant name for hemp — also 
called Neckweed — ^as furnishing halters for the 
gibbet. Cannabis saliva. 

Gallows Fruit. A correspondent at Dowlish 
Wake gives me this as a local name for the 
F uchsia. 

Gander Gauze. A Wiltshire name for the 
Early Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. Mr. 
Edward Vivian tells me that in the Trowbridge 
district the use rf this name is almost always 
used. The j^lant is often called GooSE AND Gos- 
lings — from a fancied resemblance of the 
flowers to the shape of little goslings. See 
Fried Candlesticks and Gandergosses. 

Gandergosses. — Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me 
that this and Goose and Goslings are old names 
lor the Green-Dinged Orchis, O. morio, and be ha-s 
not known them applied to O. mascula, u-lthough 
this may be the case in Wiltshire, as st .%ea in the 
paragraph above. 

Gander Grass. An old name for the Silver- 
weed, Potentilla Anserina, the silvery white 
leaves of which may be found on almost every 
road side. Sometimes called Goosewebd. The 
specific name is from Latin Anser = a goose, and 
was given in consequence of that bird being fond 
of the plant. 

Gandi Goslings. Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mascula (N.W. Wilts). 

Gang Flower or Gang Weed. The Milkwort, 
Poly gala vulgaris, from its blossoming in Gang- 
week, three days before the Ascension, and being 
employed to make garlands used in the Rogation 
proces ions ; for the same reason it was formerly 
called Cross, Rogation, or Procession Flower, 

Gape Mouth. A much less general form of 
Gap Mouth, which see. 

Gaping Jack. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vul- 
garis (North Cheriton). 

Gap Mouth. (1) A common narae for the 
Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(3) The Yellow Monkey Flower, Mimulus 
Langsdorffii ; also the cultivated species of 
Mimulus, including the Musk. 

(4) Several young people at Sampford Arupdel 
give it as a local name for the Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea. 



ii6 

G-yRDENER's Garters. The garden striped 
Ribl on Grass, sometimes called French Grass, 
Phaloris arnndinacea variegata. 

Gardex Gates. London Pride, Saxifraga 
umbrosa. The old name used to be " Kiss me Love 
at the Garden Gate " : this was contracted to 
" Garden Gate." Snch names are, perhaps, moie 
frequently given to the Pansy or Heartsease, 
Viola tricolor. 

i^ Garden May. The School Mistress at Bea min- 
ster gives me this as a kcal nam.e for the Lauri- 
stiniis. 

Garden Patience^. A correspondent at Wins- 
combe gives me this as a local name for the 
Monk's Rhubarb, Rumex alpin>s, formerly used 
for medicinal piu-poses. It has been wittily 
suggested that the name " Patierce " was 
doubtle^-i given to thi ' Dock oo account of the 
length of time required f<^r it to effect a cure of 
the malady for which it was prescribed. Dr. 
Watson writes " I think there is often confusion 
here with Butterburr ; I knew of a few cases. 
The plant mentioned is obviously a garden one, 
and is probably the true plant. Bistort is often 
known in the North as Payshun or Patiencb 
Dock, derived from Passion Dock, since the 
leaves of the plant appear about Passion week." 

Gaskins or Gascoignes. A correspondent at 
West Coker gives me this as a local name for 
the Wild Cherry, Prunus avium. It bears a 
similar name i i Ke t, and probably in other 
parts of the cotmtry. 

Gauze Flower. The " fern-saver " of the 
gardeners, Gypsophila panics lata ; also known as 
Chalk Plant. 

Gpl\N. a geTi'^ral Engli'^b n m<^ f<^r Pr n 8 
avium. Lady Francis Cecil tells me Gean is a 
Scots name supposed to be derived from Elinor 
of Guienne, who brought this Cherry from France 

Gell ALFRED. This is an illtere.-^tii-g tx mple 
of the way in which names get corrupted. A 
correspondent sends it as a l< cal nanae f < r the 
Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri. The m me is 
obviously a corruprion of Gilawfep, which see. 

Gellifors. a correspondent at Winsh m 
gives this as a h c^\ rr m>' h ■ ^ 'Ti'* sn- ' id« S « 1 ^ , 
but I am in some doubt whether this means a 
species of Matthiola or the White Double Rocket, 
Hesperis matronalis. See Gilawfer and also 
under Whitsuntidb. 

Gentleman's Buttons. Several corr(spon- 
dents at Paulton give me this ; s a kcal r feme for 
the garden Double Dai-^y, Bellis. 

Gentleman's Cap and Prills. A school girl 
at Paulton giv^s m'^ this as . 1 cal nf m.v for the 
Lesser Celandine, Bannnc I s Ficaria. 



117 

Gentieman's FixCtER. Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
macclatum (N.\Y. Wilts). 

Gentlejian's PiNCUsmox. A Somerton .-orres 
pondeit gives me this as a local name for the 
Field Scal)ions, Scahiosa arvensis. 

Gentleman's Purse. Quite a number oi 
young people at Paulton give me this as a local 
name for the Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa- 
pastoris. 

Gentleman Tailors. A correspondent at 
East Lul worth (Dorset) gives me this as a local 
name for the Pansy, Viola tricolor. 

Gentlemen and Ladies. (1) A Crewkerne lady 
gives me this as a local name for the Wild Pansy, 
Viola arvensis. 

(2) Dr. Watson tells me that this name is 
occasionally used instead of Lords and Ladies 
for Arum maculatum. 

Gextlemex's and Ladies' Fingers. C uckoo- 
pint. Arum niaculaturn (S.W. Wilts). 

Gentlemen's Caps. Several correspondents 
at Long Satton give me this as a local name for the 
Tulip, Tulipa Gesneriana. 

Germ.vns and English. A correspondent at 
Watchet gives me this as a lo-al name for the 
Celeiy -leaved Cro^^'foot, Ranunculus sceleratus. 

Ghost Grass. Mr. W. C. Baker, late of 
Maansel, gives me this as a local nan^e for Pampas 
Grass, Gynerium argenteum. 

Ghost Poppy. A correspondent at Stockland 
(Dev n) gives me this as a local name for the 
Shirley Poppy. 

GiBBLES. Onions grown from bulbs (Wilts)- 
Jennings and H- lloway spell the name Gibbol' 
and define it as a sprout of an onion the secontl 
year. Compare Chibbles. 

GlCKSY. A dried aettle (East Somereet). A 
sinaile freqi ently beard in that part of the country 
is ' Zoo light's a gicksy." Also the stalk cf the 
Wild Parsley, out of which primitive pipes were 
made. See Kex and Kecksy. 

Giddy Gander. The Early Poi-ple Orchis, 
Orchis mascula, and the Green-winged Meadow 
Orchis, Orchis morio, aid other common spe< ies of 
OrcHs, are so called in the Vale of Blackmore.,. 
See Goosey Gander. 

GiGGARY. Daffodil. Narcissus Pseudo-Xar- 
cissus (Devon). Edward Capern, the poet- 
writing in the Western Times, March 29th, 1879, 
quoted one as saying : " Don't bring they 
GIGK3ARYS into the house : vor if 'ee du, es shaant 
ha' a single ohick.' 

GiLAWFER. It wo aid be easy to write a column 
on this name, which is spelt and pronounced in 



ii8 

a great variety of ways, from Gell Alfred ami 
Gellifors (see aboT e) to Jelly Flower or July 
Flower. The form Gn^AWFER is ad(/i)ted by 
Jenaiiigs, F. T, Elworthy, and Rev. W. P. 
Williams. The name is derived from the French 
girofli, which, with the Italian garofilo, goes back 
to Caryophyllum, a clove, and refeis to the 
spicy od( uf of the flower so named (the CJlove 
Pink), Avhich seems to have been xised in flavouring 
wines. Dr. Prior tells us "The name was origin- 
ally given, in Italy, to plants of the Pink tiibe, 
especially the Carnation, but has of late years, in 
England been transferred to several ciuciferou? 
plants, such as the Wallflov/er and Stock, 
The Gilhflower of Spenser and Shakespeare 
was, as in Italy, Dianthus Caryophyllus ; 
that of later Avriters and gardeners, 
Matthiolaaind Cheiranthus " (Britten «& Holland). 
HoUoway say.? the name Ghawfer is cori^upted 
from Giily Flower, which is corrupted from July 
Flower — in which, I believe, he is quite wrong — 
and he describes it as a general name in Somerset 
for plants of tho Dianthus tribe, many of which 
flower in July. Scores of corre.si)ondents have 
sent me this name in one form or aaother, and 
have applied it to a number of ditfevent. flowers 
wl ich I do not co isider it aecessary to set out 
in detail, but speaking broadly, the great majority 
of those who spell the name Gilliflower apply 
it to the Wallflower (except in Dorset), whilst the 
majority of those who gi^ e some such form a.s 
GiLAWFER or Jilloffer apx^ly it to one or other 
of the Stocks. 

Gil Cup or Giil Cup. A common name for 
Buttercups generally, on account of their cup-like 
shape and the gift-like gloss of their i)etals. 
Judging from the lists sent me from all parts of 
the district, the name is most frequently applied to 

(1) The Bulbous-rooted Buttercup, Ramm- 
culvs bulbosKS (i:)articularly in Dorset). 

(2) Meadow Crowfoot or Buttercup, Ranun- 
culus acris. 

(3) Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 

(4) Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 
Glqd, Gilded, or Gilding Cup. Same as 

Gil Cup. 

Gill. A corresponde it at Rodden (near 
Frome) gives this as a local name for the Ground 
Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. 

Gill-Ale. Halliwell give this as a Devonshire 
name for the Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. 
It is also known as Alehoop, and according to 
Gerard it was formerly used in the making of 
Ale. 

GiLLAWFER. S^e GiLAWFER. 

Gill Creep by the Ground. An old Somerset 
name for the Ground Ivy (see Gn.L), given me 
by a Yeovil correspondent. 



119 

Gill Cup. See Gil Cup. 

Gill go on (or Over) the Ground. An old 
English name for the Ground Ivy (see Gill) 
sent mo by several correspondents as being 
still in use. 

GiLLiFLowEB. See also Gilawfer. 

(1^ Mojt generally the Wallflower, Cheiranthus 
CAem(particularlyin Somerset and in the North). 

(2) Various species of Stock, Matthiola (par- 
ticularly in Dorset). Dr. Watson tells me the 
name is not applied to the Ten-week Stock, but 
to those which stand the winter. 

(3) Clove Pink, Carnation, SAveet William, and 
oth"r species of Bianthus. 

(4) Dr. Watson tells rne the nam- is sometimes 
given to the Cuckoo Plowei', or Lady's Smock, 
Cardamine2)rcttensw, probably owing to coifusion, 

(5) In Devon, Polemiutn ccerideinn and P. 
album, commonly known as Jacob's Ladder. 

(6) S-'veral young i^eople at Long Sitton give 
this as a locil iiam^^ for the Garden An mone. 

Gill Run Along the Ground. An old 
English name for the Ground Ivy (see Gill),- 
sent me by several coj'responde'ils as being still 
in use. 

GiLLY. A correspondent at Doulting giv(s me 
this as a local name for the Wallflower. CheiranthtiS 
Cheiri. See Gilawfer aiid Giliflower. 

GiLOFFER. See Gilawfer and Gilliflower. 
Rev. Hildeiic Friend says : "In Someisetshire 
the word Giloffer is still used in speakii g cf the 
Ten-week Stock, Avhile in Xorlh Devon Ihe Wall- 
flower is so called." 

Gilt, Gilted, Gilten, Gilting, or Gn/rY Cup. 
Same as Gil Cup, v/hich see. 

Ginger, Mrs. H. Day, of North Petherton, 
gives this as a name for the Biting Ston(croiD, 
Sedum acre, often called Wall Pepper. 

Ginger Flower. An Evercreech school boy 
gives me this as a local name for the Stock, 
Matthiola. 

Gipsies. (1) Herb Robert, Geranv^m Roberti- 
anum. See Gipsy Flower (1). 

(2) Mr. J. Woodward, of Bridgwater, gives me 
this as a local name for the Hedge Mustard, 
SisymbriKm officinale. 

Gipsy. (I) S-veral correspondents at Neltle- 
combe give me this as a local name for the 
Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata. 

(2) A 1 other correspondent at Nettle *om)je 
gives it as a local name for the Ragwort, Senecio. 
Jacobcea. 

(3) Carnation grass, Carcx panicea, " because 
it turns so lirown " (N.W. Wilts). 

(4) Fi^ld Woodrush, Luzula campestris (West 
WiJts). 



Gipsy Beans. Seeds of the Vetch, Vicia 
(Draycott). 

Gipsy Curtains. Wikl Parsley, Anihriscra 
sylvestris (Ilminster). 

Gipsy Daisy. (1) The Ox-e>e, Chrysanthe- 
mum Leu canthemum {Babrrington and Beanainster). 

(2) The Scentless Mayweed, Matricaria inodora 
(Bridgwater). 

(3) A Muchelney school boy gives it as a local 
name for the Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis, 
more commonly called Gipsy Rose. 

Gipsy Flower. (1) The plant mos^ com- 
monly called by this name in the area covered by 
this list is the Herb Robert, Geranium Boberti- 
ammi. 

(2) Wild Parsley, Anthriscvs sylvestris. 

(3) Hound's Tongue, Cynoglossum officinale. 

(4) Correspondents at Lydford-on-t he-Fosse 
and Washford apply this name to the Red 
Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

(5) A correspondent at Babcary gives it as a 
local name for the Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos- 
cuculi. 

(6) A corresjiotident at Martock ap->lies it to 
the Hemlock, Conium macidatum. 

(7) A correspondent at Keinton Maiideville 
gives it as a local name for the Field Thistle, 
Cnicus arvensis. 

(8) A correspondent at Leigh (Dorset) gives it 
as a local name for the ** Deadly Nightshade," 
which is j)robably a mistake for the Woody 
Nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara. 

(9) In N.W. Wilts the name is given to the 
Meadow Crane's-biU, Geranium pratense. 

Gipsy Lace. Correspondents at South Pether- 
ton give me this as a Iccal nsme for 

(1) Wild Par:- ley, Anthriscus sylvestris. 

(2) Water Bedstraw, Galium palustre. 
Gipsy Maids. A correspondent at Martock 

gives me this as a local name for the Red Spur 
Valejian, Kentranthus ruber, more commonly 
known in that part of the county as Kiss-ME- 

QUICK. 

Gipsy Peas. Common Vetch, Vicia saliva. 

Gipsy Pink. A correspondent at Creech St- 
Michael gives \\\q this as a local name for the 
Striped Ca.-nation — a vanety of Dianthus Caryo- 
phyllus. 

Gipsy Primrose. Red Polyanthus, Primula 
(Wookey). 

Gipsy Rose. (1) Th- Field Scabious, 
Scabiosa arvensis. 

(2) The Devil's Bit, Scabiosa Succisa. 

(3) The Garden Scabious, Scabiosa atro- 
purpvrea. 

Gipsy Violet. (1) Correspondents at Long 
Sutton and Stalbridge give nae this as a local 



121 

name for the pink variety of Violet. 

(2) An Evercreech school-boy tells me the 
name is given in that district to the Dog Violet, 
Viola canhia. 

Gipsy's Baccy. (1) Two school-boys at 
Evercreech give me this as a local name for the 
Common Sorrel or So\ir-dock, Rmnex Acetosa. 

(2) A correspondent at Corfe Mullen (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for the Wood Sage, 
Teucrium Scorodonia. 

Gipsy's Bride. A correspondent at Winshanv 
gives me this as a local name for the Fnchsia. 

Gipsy's Curtains. Common Hemlock, Conium 
macidatum (Ilminster). 

Gipsy's Flower. Several young people at 
Oakhill give me this as a local name for the " Wild 
Sweet Pea," by which they probably mean the 
Wild Everlasting Pea, Lathyrus sylvestris. 

Gipsy's Gibbles. Garlic, Allixm nrsiniim 
(Doultiiig). "Gibbles" or "Chippies" is a 
well-known Somerset name for young onions, 
and is here applied to the Garlic on account of its 
onion-like smell. 

Gipsy's Hat. Lesser Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis (St oke-under-Ham). 

Gipsy's Lace( or Laces). Cow-parsnip or 
Hogweed, Heracletnn Sphondyium (Yeovil). 

Gipsy's Money. The Marsh Maiigold, Caltha 
palustris (Thurlbear). 

Gipsy's Onions. Garlic, A'li^im ursinum. 

Gipsy's Parsley. (1) A correspondent at 
Thurlbear gives this as a local name for the Wild 
Beaked Parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris. 

(2) A correspondent at Hatch Beauchamp 
gives it as a local name for the Herb Robert, 
Geranium Bobertianum. 

Gipsy's Rhubarb. (1 ) The Burdock, Arctium 
majus. 

(2) The Butter-bur, Petasites ovatus. 

Gipsy's Sage. Wood Sage, Teucrium Scoro- 
donia (Melplash, Dorset). 

Gipsy's Soap. A correspondent at Chelborough 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Knotted Figwort. Scrophvlaria nodosa. Dr. 
Downcs writes "More probably the SoapAVort, 
Saponaria offici^ialis, the leaves of which were 
formerly used as a substitute for soap." See 

SO-^-I EAVES. 

Gipsy's Tobacco. (1) A Dorchester lady 
gives me this as a local name for the Wild Clematis 
or Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba, of which 
the dried stems are snaoked by school-boys. 
Murray, in his " Flora of Somerset," states that 



the leaves of the Clematis aie sometimes tised as 
a substitute for tobacco. 

(2) Two Evercieech school-boys give it as a 
local name for the Common S'>riel. Rnmex 
Acetosa. See Gipsy's Baccy. 

Gipsy's Umbrella. Several correspondents 
at Wembdon give this as a local name for the 
Wild Parsley, Anthrisc s sylvestris. 

Gebls. The short -styled (lluum-or rose-eyed) 
Primroses, Prim 'la v ilgaris. The lorig-styled or 
pin-eyed flowers are called BoYS. 

Gerls' Delight. Southermvood, Artemisia 
Abrotanum, nx'-re geneially known as Boy's LovE, 
which see. 

Girls' Love. Rosemary, Rosmarinus offici- 
nalis. 

Gix or GiXY. Britten gives this as an 
East Somerset and Wilts name for the Kex of 
Hemlock, and adds " Kex, Keck, Kecks, Kiks, 
Kecksey, <fec., are all api^lied to different members 
of the Carrot family." See also Gicksy. 

Gladdon, Gladwyn, Gladin, Glader, or 
Gladdy. The Stinking Iris, Tris fwtidissima. 
Although Penning says that this is a general 
uame for plapts mth a broad blade, fromLat. 
Gladi'S, a sword, it appears at the preseat 
time in this district to be confined to the Tris. 
Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that in Norfolk 
the name Gt addon is given to the Cat's-tail, 
Equisetum. 

Glastonbury Thorn. Mr. El worthy describes 
this as " a variety of Whitethorn, which puts out 
rather a sickly-looking white blossom in winter, 
and is said to blossom on Christmas Day. Its 
name is from the legend of Joseph of Arimathaea , 
who planted his staff on Wearall Hill at Cxlaston- 
bury, whence sprung the famous thorn." The 
botanical rame is Cratcegvs Oxyacantha prcecox. 

GLEA3IING Star. Quite a number of young 
people at Paulton give me this as a local name for 
Londoji Pride, Saxifraga xmbrosa. 

Globes. The Common Globe-flower, TroUi'fS 
europce^ s ; rarely foruid wild (never in the area 
covered by this list), but s( metimes seen in 
cottage ga'rdens. Dr. Watson \\Tites " I think 
the ' Globe-flower ' cf cottage gardens is often a 
double-flowered Ranunc h s." 

Gloriless. The Moschatel, Adoxa lloscfut- 
tellina : this popular name is the English equiva- 
lent of the Greek geneiic name Adoxa. 

Gnat-Flower. A corresi^ondent at Merriott 
gives me this as a local name for the Knapweed, 
both Centa>rea Sc i ios and C. nigra. 

Goat Leaf. A correspondent at Long Load 
gives me this as a local name for the Honeysuckle 



123 

or WoodbhK % Lonicera Peridymenxm. Sec Goat's 
Leaf. 

Goat's Beard. (1) This is the genoifU nanio 
for the Salsify grouv, and is the Eughsh equivalent 
of tlie generic name Tragopogon. It would not be 
included in this list but for the fact that several 
correspondents in Devon and Dorset give it as a 
local uame for 

(2) The Meadow-S-weet. Spircea Ulmaria. 

(3) A correspondent at Queen Camel gives it 
as a local name for the Endive, Cichori ni Endlvia. 

Goat's Foot, (i) The Schoolmaster at Bat- 
combe gives me this as a local nil me for the 
Common B,ock-rose, Helianthenwm Chamcecistus. 

(2) A corresj)ondent at Draycott gives it as a 
local name for the YeJlow Goat's-beard, Trago- 
pogon pratense. 

(3) A correspondent at Axminstei- gives it as 
a local name for the Gout -weed, ^±,gopodi)<m 
Podagraria. 

Dr. Watson considers that 2 and 3 are both 
mis-applications, due to a similarity in s('und of 
the first pa'.t cf the i ame. 

Goat's Leaf. Corresi^ondents at Evershot 
and Stockland (Devon) give me this as a Iccal 
name for the Woodbine or Honeysuckle, Lonicera 
Periclymenvm. This plant is placed by botanists 
in the crder Caprifoliacece — a Lr.tin name which 
means " Goat's leaves." 

Goat Weed. (1) Goutweed, .Hgopodi ;m 
Podagraria. 

(2) Blcck Bindweed, Polygon nt Conrolv lus 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Go-cups {i.e., Gold-cups). (I) Butteicups 
in general, but perhaj)S more particularly the 
Meadow Crowfoot, RanimcAvs acris. 

(2) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha pah stris. 

(3) The Lesser Celandine, Ranuncid s Ficaria. 

God Almighty's Bread and Cheese. A 
common name in West Somerset and other 
parts covered by Ihi:^ list for the Vv'ood Siorrol, 
Oxalis Acetosella. 

God Almighty's Flowers. A correspondent 
living near Axminster gives me this as a local 
name for the Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus cornicu- 
latus. See God s Fingers and Thumbs. 

Godfathers and Godmothers. Mrs. H. Day, 
of North Petherton, gives me this as a local name 
for the Pansy, Viola tricolor. Compare Step- 
mother. 

God's Fingers and Thumbs. Correspondents 
at Bradford-on-Tone, Culnrhead, and elsewhere 
send me this as a local name for the Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, LotiS carniciilat> s. See God Almighty's 
Flower. 

Gold. (1) The Bog Myrtle or Sweet Willow, 
Myrica Gale : abundant in the bogg^'' moors of 



124 

Somerset. Called gaide by the old herbalists. 

(2) Also applied to the Corn Marigold,. 
Chrysanthemicm segetum. 

(3) Dr. Watson writes " Gold is a fairly 
general name for various Marigolds, including the 
garden Calendula officinalis. 

Gold Balls. Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., give& 
me this as another name for Buttercups, Ranun- 
culus. 

Gold Bejlis. Daffodils, Narcissus Pseudo^ 
Narcissus (Trowbridge district). 

Gold Cups. Buttercups generally. Holloway 
gives the Meadow Ranunculus, B. acris, and 
Jennings B. bulbosus. See Go-cuPS. 

Gold Dust. (1) Biting Stonecro]?, Sednm 
acre. 

(2) Yellow Alyssum, Alyssum saxatile. 

Golden Balls. (1) A name commonly used 
in West Somerset for the Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Opulus. 

(2) A correspondent at Bloxworth (Dorset )■ 
gives it as a local name for the Globe Flower, 
Trollius europcBus. Dr. Watson tells m.e it is so 
vised in the North of England. See Globes. 

(3) A variety of apple. 

Golden Bells. A Martock Fchool-boy gives 
me this as a local name for the Cowslip, Priymla 
veris. 

Golden Blossom. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives 
this as a. Devonshire n.arae for the Creeping 
Cinquefoil, Poientilla reptans. 

Golden Butter. A correspondent at Leigh 
(Dorset) gives me this a local name for the Lesser 
Spearwort, Bananculi s Flanmiula. 

Golden Buttercup. A correspondent at 
Axbridge gives me this as a local name for the 
Marsh Maiigold, Caltha palustris. 

Golden Buttons. Common Tansy, Tanace- 
tutn vidgare (Axminster). 

Golden Cap and Frill. A correspondent at 
Paulton gives this as a kcal nanae for the Lesser 
Celandine, Banunculus Ficaria. 

Golden Carpet. A corresx)ondent at Rad- 
stock gives m'" this as a local name for the Yellow 
Stonecrop, Sedmi acre. 

Golden Chain. (1) A very general name for 
the Laburnum, Labi' mum vulgire. 

(2) A number of correspondents at South 
Petherton and Mells and one at Leigh (Dorset) 
give it as a local name for the Broom, Cyiisus 
scoparius, which belongs to the same genus fis 
the Labiu'iium.. 

(3) Mr. F. T. Elworthy gives it as a common 
name in West Sonaerset for Banunculus globosa. 



125 

Several botanical friends tell nie this name is 
Unknown to them, and suggest that Mr. Elworthy 
referred to the Common Buttercup, R. bulbosua. 

(4) In S.W. Wilts the name is sometimes given 
\ o the Meadow Vetchling, Lathyrus pratensis. 

Golden Cornflower. The Corn Marigold, 
Chrysanthemum segetum. 

Golden Cups. (1) A name given to Butter- 
cups generally ; Rev. Ililderic Friend names 
Ranunc'dus acris in particular, and Mr. F. T. 
Elworthy says jR. globosa is commonly so-oalled 
in West Somerset. 

(2) The usual name in West Somerset for the 
Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. I have it also 
from Bridgwater and other districts. 

(3) The Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria 
(Wembdon). See Go-cups. 

Golden Daisy. A correspondent at Babcary 
gives me this as a local name for the Wild 
Marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum. It is also 
given to the garden Marigold, Calendula officinalis. 

Golden Drap. A well-known variety of 
plum (F. T. Elworthy). 

Golden Drinking Cu . A Yeovil school- 
boy gives me this as a local name for the Lesser 
Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 

Golden Drops. A correspondent at Camerton 
gives me this as a local name for the Cowslip, 
Primula veris. 

Golden Dust. (1) Yellow Alyssum, Alys- 
sum saxatile. 

(2) Yellow Bedstraw, Galium . verum 
(Wookey). 

(3) A Martock school-boy gives this as a local 
name for the Golden Rod — probably a cultivated 
variety, as the Wild Golden Rod, Solidago 
Virgaurea, is rather local in its occxu'rence, and is 
very rare in this district, even if it is found here 
at all. 

Golden Feather. A very general name for 
the Pyrethrum. 

Golden Flower. (1) A fairly general name 
for the Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum. 

(2) A correspondent at Wookey gives it as 
a local name for the Silverweed, Potentilla 
Anserina. 

Golden Glow. A correspondent at Babcary 
gives this as a local name for the Goldeji Rod, 
See note to Golden Dust (3). 

Golden Grain. Great Mullein, Verbascum 
Tfiapsus (Devon). 

Golden King-cups. The Marsh Marigold, 
Caltha palustris. 

Golden Knob. The Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. 



126 

GOL EX Locks. (1) Several young people 
at Brompton Regis give me this as a local name 
for Buttercups of various kinds. See Goldi- 
locks (1). 

(2) A corresijondent at Membury (Devon) 
gives it as a local name for the Laburnum, 
Laburnum vulgare. 

Golden Midnights. A school-girl at Otter- 
hampton gives me this as a local name for 
" Fingers and Thumbs " Lotus corniculatus. 

Golden Moss. A correspondent at Queen 
Camel gives me this as a local narae for the 
Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 

Golden Nigger. A school-girl at Otter- 
hampton gives me this as a local name for the 
Sunflower, Helianthus annuus. 

Golden Nob. A variety of apple ; a kind 
of golden pippin (P. T. Elworthy). 

Golden Pussies (or Pussy Palm). Goat 
Willow or " Palm," Salix caprea. 

Golden Rain. A correspondent at Thorn- 
combe gives me this as a local nam.e for the 
Labuinum, Laburnum vulgare. 

Golden Rod. (1) The general English name 
for Solidago Virgaurea. 

(2) Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsvs. 

(3) A number of young people at Chew Magna 
give me this as a local nanae for the St. John's 
Woit, Hypericum ; a correspondent at Bradford- 
on-Tone definitely names the Square-stalked 
species, H. quadrangulum. 

(4) Several correspondents at Stour Provost 
(Dorset) give this as a local name for the Agrimony 
Agrimonia Eupatoria. 

(5) A correspondent at Stalbridge gives it as 
a local name for the Broom, Cytisus scoparius. 

Golden Rose. A school-boy at Evercreech 
gives me this as a local name for the Prinarose» 
Primula vulgaris. 

Golden Seal. A correspondent at Cutcombe 
gives me this as a local name for a flower " like 
the Dandelion, but branched and smaller flowers." 
Probably the Hawksoeard, C epis. 

Golden Slippers. A school-girl at Charlton 
Horethorne gives me this as a local name for the 
Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

Golden Sovereigns. A correspondent at 
Cam.eitofi gives me this as a local name for the 
Silverweed, Potentilla Anserina. 

Golden Stands. A correspondent at Doulting 
gives me this as a local name for the Buttercup 
(? Ranunculus acris). 

Golden Stars. (1) I have this from many 
parts of the district as a local name for the Lesser 
Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 



[27 

(2) Quite a number of young people at 
Bronxpton Regis give it as a local name for the 
Primrose, Primula vulgaris. 

Golden Sun. Several correspondents at Dun- 
ster give this as a local nanae for the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. 

Golden Trumpets. The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pseudo-Narcissus (South Petherton). 

Golden Watch-chains. A correspondent 
near Ilminster gives me this as a local name for 
the Laburnum, Laburnum vu'gare. 

Golden Water-lily. Correspondents at 
Staple Fitzpaine and in several parts of Dorset 
give me this as a local name for the Marsh Mari- 
gold, Caltha palustris. 

Golden Wings. Golden Rod, Solidago Vir-* 
gaurea (Wembdon). 

Goldilocks. (1) A fairly general name for 
the Wood Crowfoot, Ranunculus auricomus ; 
often given to other Buttercups also. 

(2) Aster Linosyris, which is a very rare plant 
in Somerset. Linnaeus gave it the generic name 
of Chrysocoma, which is derived from two Greek 
words, meaning " Golden locks," hence the 
popular name. " 

(3) An Evercreech school-boy tells me the 
name is given in that district to the Marsh 
Marigold, Caltha pah<stris. 

Gold Knobs. A name given to more than 
one species of Buttercup ; a correspondent at 
Thorncombe gives it as the local name for the 
Creeping Buttercup, Ranunculus repens. 

GoLDLOCK. Charlock, Brassica arvensis (Zeals, 
Wilts). 

Gold Locket and Chain. Several young 
people at Paulton give me this as a local name 
for the Laburnum, Laburnum v Igare. 

Gold of Pleasure. The English name for 
Camelina saliva, a plant of the Mustard family 
cultivated for the oil of its seeds. Sometimes 
called False Flax aad Oil-seed Plant. 

Gold Seed. Several young people at Dunster 
give me this as a local name for the Dog's-tail 
Grass, Cynosurus cristatus. 

Gold Star. Common Avens, Geum urbanum 
(Evershot). 

Gold Watch. A correspondent at Frome 
gives me this as a local name for the Large- 
flowered St. John's Wort, Hypericum calycinum, 
more commonly called in this district Rose op 
Sharon. 

Gold Watch and Chain. Labmnum, Laburnum 
vulgar e. See Watch and Chain. 



128 

GoLDY. Mrs. Day, of North Petherton, gives 
me this as a name for the Meadow Buttercup, 
Ranunculus acris. 

Golliwogs. Corumon Red Poppy, Papaver 
Bhoeas (Hatch Beauchamp and Camerton). 

Golliwogs' Heads. The seed case of the 
Poppy, see above (Paulton). 

Good Friday Flowbb. (1) The Moschatel, 
Adoxa Moschatellina, because it flowers at 
Easter. For many years I never heard this 
plant called by any other name (Castle Gary). 

(2) The Schoolmistress at Barrington tells me 
that the Passion Flower, Passiflora ccerulea, is so 
called in that neighbourhood. 

Good Friday Plant. A correspondent at 
Ilton gives me this as a local )iam.e for the Lung- 
wort, Puhnonaria officinalis. 

Good King Henry. (1) Mercury Goosefoot, 
Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus. Col. J. S. F. 
Mackenzie says "It is a good example of the 
pitfalls in finding out how plants have come by 
their names. Its second botanical name is Bonus- 
Henricus. The ' Bonus ' (good) was given to 
distinguish it from a poisonous (' Malus ') Henricus 
plant. Linnaeus < vidently took the plant-name 
from the Germans, who called it Heinrich, and 
Latinized it into Henricus. This, when translated 
into English, became Henry, as if it were a 
Christian name. Grimm says ' Heijirich ' is not 
a Christian name. It is a German word for what 
we in English call goblin. To make confusion 
worse confounded, someone has put in a ' King,' 
and the Good Goblin becomes Good King Henry." 

(2) A number of correspondents at South 
Petherton give me this as a local name for the 
leaves of the Dock, B imex obtusifoli s. 

Good Luck. A correspondent at Wells gives 
me this as a local name for the Wood Soirel, 
Oxalis Acetosella. 

Good Neighbourhood. (1) Mercury Goosefoot 
or Good King Henry, Chenopodium Bonus 
Henricus (Devizes). 

(2) Red Spur' Valerian, Kentranthns ruber 
(Devizes). 

Good Neighbours. A name commonly used 
in West Somerset for the Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus ruber. Mr. Edward Vivian tells me 
it is also used in the Trowbridge district. 

Good Night at Noon. Common Mallow. 
Malva sylvestris. 

Goody's Eye. See Clear Eye (2). 

GooKOO Buttons. Mr. W. S. Price (Welling- 
ton) gives me this as a local nanae for the burs 
of the Common Burdock, Arcti.rn mi.ius. See 
Cuckoo Buttons. 



129 

GooKOo Flower. See Cuckoo Flower. 

Goose and Gander. (1) Common Vetch, 
Vicia cracca (Wells). 

(2) Mr. W. C. Baker, late of Maunsel, gives me 
this as a local name for the Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica. Mr. W. D. Miller points out that the 
name dioica implies that the stamens and pistils 
are borne on different flowers, and generally (as 
in this case) on different plants, and this method 
of guarding against self -fertilisation on the x>art 
of the Campion may perhaps account for this 
local name. 

Goose and Goslings. (1) A correspondent at 
Rodden (near Frome) gives me this as a local 
name for several species of Orchis, particularly 
O. morio. It is also applied to the Early Purple 
Orchis, O. mascula. See Gander Gauze and 
Gandergosses. 

(2) Mr. T. \V. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that in 
other places the name is applied to catkins of the 
Willow, especially of Salix caprea. 

Gooseberry Pie. (1) Great Hairy Willow- 
herb, Epilobimn hirsidum ; more often called 
Apple Pie. 

(2) Rest Harrow, Ononis (Wells). 

(3) A correspondent at Bridgwater gives me 
this as a local name for the White Campion, 
Lychnis alba. 

Gooseberry Pudding. Several correspon- 
dents at Donhead (Wilts) give this as a local name 
for one or other of the species of Mallow, Malva. 

Goose Bill. (1) A common name for 
Galium Aparine ; more often called Goose- 
grass, which see. 

( ). A correspondent at Broadmndsor 
gives it a a local name for the Herb Robert, 
Geranium Bobertianum. 

Goose Chicken. A correspondent at Sidbury 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
catkins of Willow or Sallow. See Goslings (1). 

Goose-Flops. (1) The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pseudo-Narcissus ; a very common name in West 
Somerset. 

(2) Britten and Holland in their Dictionary of 
English Plant Names give this as a name of the 
Foxglove, Digitalis purpirea, ia Devonshire. 

Goose-Gander. Same as Goosey-Gander. 

Goose-Gog. A very general name for a 
Gooseberry ; in Wilts a green Gooseberry. 

Goose-Grass. (1) A very general name for 
the Bedstraw, commonly called Cleavers, 
Galium Aparine, from the fact of its being used 
as a food for young geese. 

(2) A number of correspondents give it as a 
name for the Silverweed, PotentiUa Anserina. See 
Gander-Grass. 



I30 

(3) Several correspondents at Neltleconibe 
give it as a local name for the Snakeweed, or 
Bistort, Polygonum Bistorta, of which Anne Piatt 
says the seeds are peculiarly nutritive to potdtry. 

(4) A coi respondent at Donhead (Wilts) gives 
it as a local name for the Common Tansy, 
Tanacetum vulgar e. 

(5) A dwarf Sedge, Carex hirta (F. T. 
Elworthy). Miss Ida Roper, F.L.S., points out 
that C. hirta grows from one to two feet high, but 
that C. humilis is a dwarf sedge. 

Goose Share. Same as Goose-Gbass (1). 
Mr. T. W. Cowar, F.L.S., writes me " GoosE- 
SHABE or GoosE-SHARETH is a corruption of its 
old name, Goose-heiriffe, A. Sax., gos-hegerife = 
goose hedge-reeve, i.e., the reeve that guards the 
hedge and prevents geese x^^ssing throu.gh 
(Turner's Herball Grateron). 

Goose Tongue. (1) Same as Goose-grass (1). 

(2) Several young people at Dunster give me 
this as a local name for the Yarrow, Achillea 
Millefolium. 

Goose-Weed. Same as Gander-Grass. 

GoosBWORT. A correspondent at Stockland 

(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 

Silverweed, Potentilla Anserina. See Gander- 
Grass. 

Goosey Gander. (1) A very common name 
throughovit the district for the Early Purple 
Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(2) S -veral correspondents in Dorset and 
Devon gi ve it as a local name for the W ild Hyacinth 
or Bluoljell, Scilla non-scripta. A name given to 
one of these plants is frequently applied also to 
the other. Compare Bloody Bones, Granfer 
Griggles, and Wild Hyacinth. 

Goosey-Goosey Gander. A variation of the 
last name (1) sent me by correspondents at Wells 
and Long Sutton. 

Goslings. (1) The large yellow catkins of 
the SalloAV, Salix caprea (Warminster). 

(2) Early Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Goss. In most districts Gorse or Go-s is the 
Fvxrze, Ulcx europ ens but in N.W. Wilts this 
name is given to the Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 
The compilers of the Wiltshire Glossary add that 
in this district " Gorse," Ulex, is always " Fuzz." 

Gossips. Early Pmxile Orchis, Orchis mascula^ 

Go TO Bed at Noon. Yellow Goatsbeard, 
Tragopogmi pralense, from the fact of its flowers 
closing at mid-day. More generally called John 
(or Jack) go to Bed at Noon. 

Go TO Sleep at Noon. Mr. W. C. Baker, late 
of Maunsel, gives me this as a local name for the 
Meadow Saffron, Colchicum autumnale. 



131 

GowEBXS. It would be interesting to know 
the extent to which this name (evidently a cor- 
ruption of Gowan) or anything like it is used in 
Somerset for the Daisy, Bellis perennis. I have 
the name only from a school-girl at Long Svitton, 
who has evidently heard it used in that district, 
but I imagine it is not frequently used, as a 
number of other corresiiondents in the same 
village do not give it. 

Grab. A wild or crab Apple ; a Seedling 
Apple-tree, Pyrus mains. 

Grace of God. (1) A correspondent at East 
Grinstead (Wilts) gives this as a local name for 
the St. John's Wort, Hypericurn. Mr. T. W. 
Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that this old name for the 
St. John's Wort is common in many places, and 
is n<jt confined to Wilts. He adds that the name 
is also given in some i^laces to 

(2) The Hart's-horn or Buck's-horn Plantain, 
Plantago Coronopus. 

Gracy Daisies. Daffodils, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narciss'js (West Somerset and Devon). 

Gracy Day. A Devonshire form of the above. 

Gramfer Greggle. The Bluebell or Wild 
Hyacinth ; Scilla non-scripia (G. P. R. Pulman)^ 

Gramfer (or Gramphy) Gbiggles. (1) A 
very common name, particularly in Dorset, for 
the Early Puriile Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

(2) Applied, less generally, in the same 
districts, to the Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, 
Scilla non-scripta. 

Gramfer (or Gramphy) Griggle-sticks. (1) 
Early Purijle Orchis, Orchis mascula (Yeovil and 
Evercreech). 

(2) Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta (Winsham). 

(3) Dr. Downes tells me that in the Ilminster 
district this name is given to the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. 

Gramfer Jan. B-ed Campion, Lychnis dicnca 
(Trowbridge and Lyme Regis). 

Grammer Greygle. His Honour J. S. Udal 
gives this as a Dorset name for the Bluebell, 
Scilla non-scripta, and it is also sent me by a 
correspondent at Chetnole. 

Gramophone Horns. (1) Honeysuckle or 
Woodbine, Lonicera Periclymenum (Evercreech). 
(2) Salpiglossis (Mvichelney). 

Gramophones. (1) Honeysuckle ; see 
above (1). 

(2) Nastmlium, Tropaeolunimaj s (Ilminster). 

(3) A correspondent at Timberscombe tells 
me the nanxe is there given to the Convolv\xlus, 
which may mean the Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia 
sepium, or the Field Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis, or both. 



132 

Gbampha-Gbiddlb - Goosey - Gander. Early 
Piirple Orchis, Orchis niascula. A name from 
Zeals (Wilts) recorded in the " Sarum Diocesan 
Gazette." 

Gbaimpy Griggles. Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta (Milborne St. Andrew). 

Grandfather Griggles. (1) Early Pmple 
Orchis, Orchis mascula (Yeovil, Horton, and 
Hawkchurch). 

(2) Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta (South Pether- 
ton). 

(3) A correspondent at Combe St. Nicholas 
gives it as a local nam.e for the Spotted Orchis, 
Orchis maculata. 

Grandfather's Beard. (1) Clematis or 
Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba, more often 
called OiiD Man's Beard. 

(2) Correspondents at Hawkchuxch (Devon) 
give it as a local name for a species of Horsetail, 
Equisetum (probably arvense). 

(3) The gall or bedeguar on the Wild Rose, 
more often called Bobin's Pincushion (Dray- 
cott). 

(4) Dr. Watson writes " This and other 
similar names, as Old Man's Beard, are often 
applied to a Lichen, Usnea, which hangs from the 
tree." 

Grandfather's Buttons. Marsh Marigold, 
Caltha palustris (district from Otterhampton to 
Nettlecombe). 

Grandfather's Clock. A correspondent at 
Dorchester gives this as a local name for the 
Thistle. 

Grandfather's Weather-glass. Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis (Axminster dis- 
trict). 

Grandfather's Whiskers. A variation of 
Grandfather's Beard (1) sent me from Yet- 
minster. 

Grandma's Daisies. Red Double Daisies, 
Bellis perennis (Horton). 

Grandma's Nightcap. (1) The Columbiae, 
Aqi'ilegia vulgaris. 

(2) Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium 
(Stockland, Devon). 

(3) A correspondent at North Cadbury gives 
this as a local name for the White Campion, 
Lychnis alba. 

Grandmother's Bonnet. A name far less 
frequently used than Granny's Bonnet for 

(1) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

(2) The Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellua. 

Grandmother's Night-cap. The Columbine, 
Aquilegia vulgaris, more generally called 
Granny's Night-cap. 



Grandmother's Spectacles. I wonder this 
appropriate name is not more generally given to 
the Honesty or Money in both pockets, Lwiaria 
biennis. I'have it from several young people 
at East Mark, but from nowhere else. 

Grandmother's Toe-nails. Correspondents 
at Uplyme give me this as a local name for 
" Fingers and Thumbs," by which I presume is 
meant the Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comiculatus. 

Granfer Giggles. The Rev. Jas. Coleman, 
rector of Allerton, gave this form in Notes and 
Queries November, 1877, as a S >merset name 
for the Orchis (? Orchis mascida). See also 
under Gramfer. 

Granfer Grigg. (1) A correspondent at 
Bruton gives me this as a local name for the 
Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. 

(2) A correspondent at Tisbtiry gives it as a 
local name for the Early Ptu-ple Orchis, Orchis 
mascida. See also under Gramfer. 

Granfer (or Granpy) Griggles (or Grey- 
gles). 

(1) Mos.t frequently the Early Purple Orchis, 
Orchis mascula, especially in Dorset ; but very 
often the 

(2) Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. 

(3) The Bed Campion, Lychnis dioica (Dorset). 
Mr. F. R. Summer hay es, of Milborne Port, gives 
Granfer Griggles as a local name for the 
Early Piu-ple Orchis (as in 1) and Granny 
Griggles for the Bluebell. A correspondent at 
Chilmc-rk (WiLs) tells me in that district the 
name Granfer Griggles is given to the Early 
Purple Orchis (as in 1) and Granmer Griggles 
to the Blueb3ll. [Mr. J. C Mansell-Pleydell says 
that in Dorset Nos. 2 and 3 are sometimes dis- 
tinguished by being called Blue and RED 
Granfer Greygles respectively. 

Granfer Griggle-sticks. Early Purple 
Orchis, Orchis mascida (Yeovil and some parts of 
Dorset). See also under Gramfer. 

Granfer Grizzle. Mr. H. A. Bending, of 
Shoscombe, gives me this as a local name for 
the Lady's-fingers or Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis 
Vidneraria. 

Granfer Jan. The Red Campion, Lychnis- 
dioica (Odcombe). See also under Gramfer. 

Granfy's Beard. A number of young people 
at Long Sutton give me this as a local name for 
the Clematis or Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba^ 

Granmer Griggles. The Bluebell, Scilla 
non-scripta (Chilmark, Wilts). See note under 
Granfer Griggles. 

Granny Bonnets. See Granny's Bonnets 
Granny Griggles. The Bluebell, Scilla non- 



134 

scripta (Milborne Port and Child Okefoid). See 
note under Granfer Griggles. 

Granny Jump Out of Bed. Monk's-hood, 
Aconitum Napellus (Deverill, Wilts). 

Granny's (or Granny) Bonnets. (1) A 
very general name for the Colvimbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris. Applied far less frequently to 

(2) Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellns. 

(3) Quite a number of young people at Paul- 
ton and one at Evercreech give it as a local name 
for the Meadow Grane's-bill, Geranium x)rateiise. 

(4) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (Sexev's 
School). 

(5) The School-mistress at Pawlett gives me 
this as a local name for the Snapdragon, Antir- 
rhinum majus. 

(6) A corresx)ondent at Winsham gives it as 
a local name for the Dead Nettle, Lamium. 

(7) A corresj)ondent at Bampisham (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for the Water Avens, 
Geum rivale. 

(8) Miss WTiittaker, of Ruishton, tells me that 
this name is also given to the Winter Cherry, 
Physalis Alkekengi. 

(9) Correspondents in Wilts and Dorset give 
it as a local name for the Larksimr, Delphinivrn 
Ajacis, 

Granny's Cap. (1) The Columbine, Aquile- 
gia vulgaris (Iwerne Minster, Dorset). 

(2) The Water Avens, Geum rivale (N.W. 
Wilts). 

Granny's Eye-glasses. A correspondent at 
Bruton gives me this as a local name for the 
Anemone (? Anemone nemorosa). 

Granny's Faces. Pansies, Viola tricolor 
(Fuiley). 

Granny's Gloves. Thy Foxglove, Digitalis 
purp rea (Dunke.ton). 

Granny's Needles. The Herb Robert, Ger- 
anium Bobertian.fm (Castle Cary). 

Granny's Night-bonnet. Aa PJvercreech 
school-boy gives me this as a local name for the 
Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

Granny's Nightcap. (1) A very popular 
name throughout the district for the Columbine, 
Aq ilegia v Igaris. 

(2) Applied less frequently, but still veiy 
commonly, to the Monk's-hood, Aconitum 
yapell -s. 

(3) A number of coi respondents in Dorset 
only give this as a local name for the Le-sser 
St itch wort, Stellaria graminea. 

(4) The Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa^ 

(5) The Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

(6) The Field Bindweed, Convolvul,,s arvensis 
(N.W. Wilts). 



135 

(7) Several correspondents in the Axminster 
district give it as a local name for the '• Deadly 
Nightshade," by which they probably me-an the 
Woody Nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara— this 
confusion of the two plants being very comnion. 

Other correspondents apply the name to the 
following plants in the di'^'tricts shown, but I 
gather it is far less generally given to these 
plants than to the seven stt ont above : — ■ 

(8) B rage, Borago officinalis {Fui ley). 

(9) S.iapiragon, Antirrhin'tm viaj'is (Wam- 
brook). 

(10) Herb Kobeit, Geranium Robertianum 
(Axmi aster). 

(11) Larkspm', Delphinium Ajacis (Gitlisham). 

(12) Day-lily, Hemerocallis (East Lulworth). 

(13) Wliite Campamila (Mr. W. C. Baker). 

Granny's Shoes. The Monk's-hood, Acoyii- 
turn Napellis (Puddletown, Dorset). 

Granny's Slipper. The Monk's-hood, as 
above (Symoudsbury, Dorset). 

Granny's Tears. A correspondent at Crew- 
kerne gives me this as a local name for the Hare- 
bell, Campanula rotundi folia. 

Granny's Thimbles. The Colmnbine, Aquile- 
gia vulgaris (Mr. W. C. Baker, late of Maimsel). 

Granny's Toe-nails. Same as Grand- 
mother's Toe-nails (Axminster district). 

Granny Thread the Needle. (1) A Yeovil 
lady gives me this as a local name for the Wood 
Anemone, Anemone nemorosa, but I have never 
heard it so used myself. I have heard the name 
given to 

(2) The Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum, 
as sent me by a correspondent at Stalbridge. 

Grapes. The Schoolm.aster at Batcombe gives 
me this as a local name for the Biting Stone-crop, 
Sed.im acre. 

Gra s Flower. (1) I have this name oDly from 
two school-girls at Wincanton, who teil me it is 
given in that neighbomhood to the Chickweed — ■ 
I presume Stellaria graminea, as suggested by the 
specific name. 

(2) Dr. Watson tells m that he has never 
heard this name used in the West of England, 
but has occasionally heard it used elsewhere for 
the Crimson Vetch ing, Lathyms NissoUa ; some- 
times called the Grass Vetch. 

Grass Polly (or Poly). (1) An old name 
for the Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum Salicaria, 
given me })y correspondents at Crewkerne and 
Rodnev Stoke. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me it is 
also applied to the Hyssoji-leaved Loosestrife, 
Lythrum Hyssopifolia. 



136 

Grass Waves. A school-girl at Paulton gives 
nie this as a local name for the Dog's Mercury, 
Mercurialis perennis, but ten other young people 
in the same school give it as Green Waves. 

Grassy Daisies. Mr. W. S. Price (Wellington) 
gives me this as a local name for the common 
Daffodil. See Gracy Daisies. 

Grazies. a Yeovil school-boy gives me this 
as a local name for the Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. See Crazies. 

Greater Celandine. This is the usua 
English nanae of Chelidonium majvs, of the 
Poppy family, and would not appear in this list 
but for the fact that a number of young people 
at MeUs tell me that the name is there give a to the 
Marsh Marigc Id, Caltha palustris. 

Great Morel (or Morelle). Several corres- 
pondents give me this as a local name for the 
Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna. It is a 
fairly well-known name, and is given on account 
of the dark ptirple beiries. 

Great Thunderbolt. An Evershot school- 
boy gives m.e this as a local name for the Great 
Water Plantain, Alisma Plantago-aqiatica. 

Greens. The coniprehensive nanae for any 
kmd of Kale or Turnip tops, but never applied 
to Cabbage or Cauliflower. 

Green Besom. Broom, Cytisus scoparius 
(West Somerset). See Besom. 

Green Eyes. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash 
(Dorset), gives me this as a local name for the 
Annual Knawel, Scleranthvs annu s, a small 
plant bearing green flowers found in cornfields, but 
noticed by few except the botamst. 

Green Grower. An Axminster correspondent 
gives nae this as a local name for the Wood Spurge, 
Euphorbia amygdaloides. 

Green Lily. Green Hellebore, Helleborua 
viridis (N.W. Wilts), 

Green Sauce. (1) The Common Soirel or 
Sour-d( ck, Riniex Acetosa (Devon). Mr. T. 
W. Cowaj), F.L.S., le.ls m that in the North 
" Green Sauce " means Sour-dock or Sorrel 
mixed with vinegar and sugar. 

(2) The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella (Taun- 
ton and Devon). 

Green Waves. Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis 
perennis (Paulton). See Grass Waves. 

Green-Wood. A correspondent at Fm'ley 
gives me this as a kcal name for the Broom, 
Cystisus scoparius. Dr. Watson -svrites " Green- 
weed is the name of a Broom-like herb. I suggest 
there has here been a corruption of Green-weed 
to Green-wood (this has occurred) and then an 
extension." 



'37 

Grey-Beard. Wild Clematis or Traveller's 
Joy, Clematis Vitalba, in seed (N.W. Wilts). 

Greygle, or Grbyg ^le. The Bluebell, Scilla 
non-scripta (Wilts and Dorset). 

Grey Millet. A number of correspondents in 
various parts of the district send me this name 
for the Common Gromwell, Lithospertwnn 
offichiale. 

Gribble. (1) A Wild Apple-tree, or one 
raised from seed. The fruit of the Wild or 
Seedling Apple-tree, Pyrus Mains. 

(2) Mr. W. S. Price tells me this is also the 
name c-f a cultivated variety of apple — a sweet, 
soft fruit, \Adth a slightly bitter flavom". 

( ) A young Blackthorn, or a Knobby 
Walking-stick made of it (Dcrset). 

(4) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that 
a former gardener of his (a Devonshire man) 
always called a shoot from a tree or a short 
cutting from one a " Gribble." 

Griggles. (1) The Blviebell, Scilla non- 
scripta (East Somerset and Dcrset). See Greygle. 

(2) The Earlv Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula, 
or Spotted Orchis, O. maculata (East Somerset 
and Dorset). 

(3) Smail Worthless Apples, remaining on the 
tree alter the croj) has been gathered in (N.W. 
Wilts). In some cider counties the boys who 
collect these apples after the principal ones are 
gathered call it Griggling. 

Grim the Collier. The Orange Hawkweed, 
Hieracium aiirantiacum. Dr. Prior says from 
the name of a humorous comedy popular in 
Qvieen Elizabeth's reign, " Grimm the Collier 
of Croydon " ; given to the plant from its black 
snmtty involucre. 

Grindstone Apple. The Crab Apple ; used 
to sharpen reap-hooks, its acid biting into the 
steel (Wilts). 

Grinsel. Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris (Trow- 
bridge). 

Ground Ash. (1) An Ash Stick gromng from 
the ground, and much tougher than a branch of 
the tree. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., gives me this as 
a local name for the Common Goutweed, jEgopo- 
diutH Podayraiia, and tells me that he had a 
gardener (a Devonshire man) who always called it 
Potash. 

Ground Furze. Mrs. Day, of North Petherton, 
gives me this as a name for the Rest Harrow, 
Ononis rep ens. 

Ground Ivy. This is the general English 
name for Nepeta hederacea, and would not appear 
in this Ust but for the fact that Miss Shute, late 



138 

of Oare, gives it to me as a local name for the 
Field BindAveed, Convolvulus arvensis. 

Ground Nut. Common Earth Nut, Cono- 
podi'im ma jus. 

Grouxd Pixe. a general English name for 
the Yellow Bugle, Ajnga Chamcejntys, sent me by 
a ntmiber of correspondents. Dr. Px'ior says this 
plant was the Forget-me-not of all the authors 
up to the beginning of the last cej,tm-y. 

Grouxd-swell or Grouxd-will. Mr. T. W. 
Cowan, F.L.S., gives me this as an old name for 
the Gromidse], Senecio vi'Igaris, and tells me that 
his gardener from Devon always called the i^lant 
Grouxd-swell. See note under Gruxdy 
Swallow. 

Groves. Duckweed, Lemna (llev. W. P. 
Williams). 

Grozex or Grozexs. This name for the 
Duckweed, Lemna, is given both by Jennings 
aud the Kev. W. P. Williams. It was sent me 
a few months ago by the Schoolmistress at 
Pawlett as a name still used in that neighbour- 
hood. 

Grumsbll. Rev. Hilderic Friend gives this as 
a Devonshire name for the Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officuiale. 

Gruxdy Swallow. A Taunton lady gives me 
this as a local name for the Groxmdsel, Senecio 
vulgaris. ]VIr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., writes me 
" Groundsel assimilated to groundsil = the 
thi'eshold of a door (Bailey) was originally 
ground-sa-alloic A. Sax. grund-suelge, from 
swelgan = to swallow or devoiir. Dr. Prior say.-? 
it is still called in Scotch and Prov. Eng. grundy- 
swallou: An old form of the word is groundsueU, 
as if that wheiewitli the earth teems. ' This 
groundsueU is an hearbe much like in shai^e \nto 
Germander.' P. Holland, Plinie's Nat. Hist. 
(1634), vol. ii., p. 238." 

GuiLLS. A lady at Compton (between Yeovil 
and Sherborne) gives me this as a local name 
for the Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum segeinm. 

Guilt or Guilty-Cup. See Gil-Cup. 

Guixea-Hex Flower. A correspondent at 
Dunster gives uie this as a local name for the 
Snake's-head, Fritilktrm Meleagris, but I believe 
the plant is very rare in Somerset, and is not 
found wild anywhere in the Dunster district. 

GuLTY-CuPS. A Devonshire name given tc 
several sx)ecies of Buttercups. Rev. Hilderic 
Fi'iend particularly names Banunclxs acris, and 
G. P. R. Pulman R. b dbos' s. 

Guxs. A correspondent at Donyatt gives me 
this as a local name for the Sheijherd's Purse 



139 

Capsella Bmsa- pastor is — no do\xbt owing to the 
explosive dispersal of the seeds. The name is 
sometimes given to other i^lants with explosive 
fruits. 

GussiPS. Mr. F. W. Mathews, of Bradford-oa- 
Tone, gives me this as a local name for the Early 
Pm-ple Orchis, Orchis mascula. See Gossips. 

Guzzi^e-Bbbry. Gooseberry (Wilts). 

Haavs. Fruit of the Hawthorn (Pulman). 

Hab-nabs. Fruit of the Hawthorn (Stoke- 
tmder-Ham). A corruption of Half-axd-Half-, 
which see. 

Hackymore. Knapweed, Centaurea nigra or 
C. Scabiosa (North Cadh\iry). 

Hag-rope. Wild clematis. Clematis Vitalba» 
whose tangled growth is much like cordage 
(West Somerset). Hag is probably a survival 
of the A.S. heg , haga, hedge. Dutch haag. 

Hag-thorn. Hawthorn, Crata^g s n on gyna 
<West Somerset and Devon). Mr. Elworthy 
says : "In this, there can be no doubt, we have 
the older form Tiaga, than the haiv of Lit. Eng." 

Hails or Hales. Fruit of the Hawthorn 

East Somerset and Dorset). 

Hair-bell. See Hare-bell. 

Hair-brush. The Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris 

Hairy Head. A correspondent at Stalbridge 
gives n\e this as a local name for the Knapweed' 
Centaurea nigra. 

Haivs. Haws. Berries of the Haw- 
thorn (West Somerset). Mr. Elworthy quotes, 
the popular belief : " We be gwain lo have a hard 
winter, the haivs be so plenty." 

Half-axd-Half. The fruit of t e Ha^^-thornr 
Vrata^g s nan gyna (Stoke-under-liam). 

Half-pexxies axd Pexxies. This is sent me 
from the neighbourhood of Honiton as a. Iccal 
name for the Wall Pennywort, Cctyledon Um- 
hilic. s-Veneris. 

Hallelujah. Wood Snrel, Oxalis Acetosella. 
See Allelulia. 

Hal.se. Hazel, Corylus Avellana. Mr. 
Elworthy says : "A hazel rod is always 
a halsen stick." It is from this that the village 
of Halse takes its name. 

Halves. Haws ; fruit of the Hawthorn. 

Haxds IX Pockets. Several correspondentt 
in Mid and East Somerset, i>aiticiUarly a- 
Sexey's School and Muchelney, give me this 
as a Iccal name f ( r the Virginia Creeper, Ampels 
opsis qvinqtejolia. Dr. H. C. Knight gives me 
the hiteresting cxplanp.tion " the jjetioles of 



140 

large leaves of Ampelopsis quinquejo ia are so called 
because in autumn they are used by children 
to whip the knuckles of others with the admoni- 
tion ' Hands-in-pockets.' " 

Hang-downs. Mrs. H. Day tells me that 
Crab Apples are kno\N-n by this name at North 
Petheiton. 

Hanging Geranium. Saxifraga sarmentosa, 
from the way in which it is usvially suspended in 
a cottage window ; also known as the Strawberry 
Geranium, from its strawbeiry-Iike runners 
(Wilts). See Aaron's Beard (2). 

Harchers. a correspondent at Ibberton 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

Hard Hack. (1 ) Mr. Edward Vivian and othe 
correspondents in the Trowbridge district give 
me this as a local name for the Greater Knapweed, 
Centaurea Scabiosa, and the Black Knapweed, 
C. nigra. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that the 
name is also given to the Tomentose Spira^i, 
Spircea tomentosa, an American plant grown in 
many gardens. 

Hard Heads. (1) A very general name 
throughout the disliict for the Knapweeds 
mentioned in the foregoing paragraph. 

(2) The flov/er -heads of the Ribwort Plantain, 
Plantago lanceolata, used as " soldiers " or 
" fighting cocks " by children everywhere (Devon). 

(3) Several young i^eople at Chew Magna 
give me this as a local name for the Darnel, 
Lolium perenne. 

Hard Irons, (li A correspondent at Leigh 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for a species 
of Centaurea, which, from her descrix)tion, I 
believe to be C. Scabiosa. Both this species and 
C. nigra are frequently known as Hard Heads or 
IronwEEd, and the above nanxe appears to be a 
local combination d the two. 

(2) Mr. T. W. C )wan, F.L.S., tells me that in 
the north this nanxe is given to the Corn Crow- 
foot, Ratiuncidus arvensis. 

Hare Bell. This is the general English name 
for Campanula rotundifoli<t, aird would not be 
included in this list but for the fact that cf>rres- 
pondents in Somerset, Dorset, and Devon give 
it as a local name for the Wild Hyacinth or 
Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. 

Hare's Beard. An old country name for the 
Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus, w\x\ch I 
gather from correspoirdents is si ill used in the 
Wimborne and Shtite (Devon) districts. The 
plant was also formerly called Bear's Beard. 
Dr Prior says it is perhaps a mistaken transla- 
tion of the Italian name iasso barbasso, as if 



1-1 1 

bearded badger, whicb is itseU a manifest corrup- 
tion of the Latin Thapsas Verbascum. 

Habb's Ear. (1) The general English name 
for Bupleurum rotundifoliimi, often called Thorow- 
wax. 

(2) The Hedge MusUird cr Treacle Mustard, 
' Erysimum oriental . 

Hare's Foot Clover. Hire's foot Trefoil is the 
general English name fcr Trifolium arvense, so 
called from its soft do^^'ny heads of flowers ; 
but both Mr. F. T. Ehvorthy and Rev. K. P. 
Murray give this as a West Somerset name. 

Hare's LiBTTUcb. A correspondent at Ax- 
minster gives me this as a local name for the 
Sow-Thistle, Sonchhs oleracevs. Anne Pratt says 
" The timid wild hare will creej) through garden 
hedge before its owner has waked up to the da^vn, 
and will there take a breakfast on the Sow- 
Thistle." 

Harb's Meat. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella 
(Wells). 

Hare's Paiacb. The Sjw- Thistle, Sonchus 
oleraceis. See Hare's Lettuce. 

Hare's Parsley. A school-girl at Draycott 
gives me this as a local name for the Hemlock, 
Coniurti maculatuni. 

Hare's Tail. The Hare's Tail Cotton-grass. 
Eriophorum vaginatum. 

Harry Dobs. Several young people at 
Thorne St. Margaret give me this as a local name 
for the Pink, Dianthus Caryophyllus. 

Harry Nettle. A correspondent at Leigh 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for the 
Betony, Stachys Betonica. Probably a corrup- 
tion of " Hairy Nettle," from the hairy or downy 



Hart Berry. The Whortle-berry, Vaccininm 
Myrtillus (East Somerset and Dorset). See 
Arts. 

Hart's Horn. A correspondent at Stoke St- 
Gregorv gives me this as a local name for " Herb 
Ivy," which is an old name for the Yellow Bugle 
(see Ground Pine) and also for the Buck's-horn 
Plantain, F:antago Coronopus. 

Hart's Skull. A correspondent at Chideock 
(Dorset) gives me this as a local name for " Blue 
Buttons," which may (or may not) be any one 
of the plants I have named under that heading. 

Hart's Tongue. The Common Smooth-leaved 
Fern, Phyllites Scolopendrium. In West Somerset 
more generally called Lamb Tongue. 

Harvest Daisy. A correspondent at Symonds- 
btiry (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the Ox-eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 



142 

Harvest Flower. A coi respondent at Chard 
gives me this as a local name for the Corn Marigold, 
Chrysanthemum segetum. 

Hasketts. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this 
as a Dorset name for Hazel and Maple bushes. 

Hasty Rog -^k. Miss Ida Roper, F.L.S., gives, 
me this as a Devonshire name for the Nipple- 
wort ; see below. 

Hasty Sargeant. The Nipplewort, Lapsana 
commtcnis (East Somerset and North Dorset). 

Haves. Haws. The fruit of the Ha^^'thorn 
(Dorset). 

Haw. a very general name for the fruit of 
the Hawthorn, Cratcegns monogyna. This name 
arose from the supposition. Prior says, that Haii-- 
thorn was the plant which bears haws, whereas its 
name really implies the thorn which grows in the 
haiv. hay. or hedge. A. Sax hcga. hegi. 

Hay-Maids (or Maidens). Ground Ivy, Nepeta 
hedeacea. " Hay " means hedge, and the " hay- 
maid^ens " are the plants which grow in the 
hedges. Used for making a medicinal liquor, 
known as " Hay -maiden tea." 

Hayriff. (1) An old narae for the Goose- 
grass or Cleavers, Galium Aparine. Mr. T. W. 
Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that in Glos. this plant is 
called Hairbve, and in the north Haibup, 
HaiROugh, or Hay-r ugh, which are corrupt 
forms of harij. O.Eng. hayryj, A Sax hegerije, = 
hedge-reaver or robber from its habit of laying 
hold of anything that touches it. Gei'ard says it 
was called " of som Philanthropos, as though he 
should say, a man's friend, bicause it taketh hold 
of mens garments." Herbal p. 964. 

(2) Rev. Hilderic Friend says that although 
in all his works of reference this name is given 
to the Goose-grass, when he has held up the 
Meadow-sweet, Spircea Ulmaria, and asked its 
name, he has sometimes been told it is Hayriff. 

(3) Dr. Prior says the name was originally 
given to the Burdock, Arctium 7ninus, but iti his 
day to the Goose-giass. It comes from the A.S. 
hege = hedge, and reafa, which means both a tax- 
gatherer and a robber, and Avas given to the 
Burdock on account of its habit of plucking wool 
from passing sheep. 

(4) A correspondent informs me that in Dorset 
the name is given to the Black Bindweed, 
Polygonum Convolvulus. 

Hay-Shackle. Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus 
Crista- gain. 

Headache or Headache Flower. (1) The 
Field Poppy, Papaver Rha^as ; from the effect of 
its odour. The poet Clare wrote 

Corn poppies that in crimson dwell. 

Called " Headaches " from their sickly smell. 



H3 

(2) The Heib liobeil, Gerayiiwn Rohertianum 
(Stoke-under-Ham and Closwoi-th). 

Heads and Tails. This is sent mo from the 
Honiton district as a local name for the Plantain^ 

He ARE-NUT. This is given as a Dorset name 
for the common Eai'th-nul, Conopodiinn majua, 
by His Honor J. S. Udal, wiio says hares are 
fond of its green leaves. 

Heart op Oak. The inner solid portion of 
the trunk of an oak tree (Mr. W. S. Price). 

Heart of the Earth. A correspondent at 
Stalbridge gives me this as a local name for the 
Self-heal, Prunella vulgaris. 

Heart-pansy. Rev. Hilderic Friend says 
" The shape of the Pansy loads the Devonshire 
folk frequently to call it Heart-Pansy, as well 
as Heart's-ease, or, as 1 have heard it pronounced, 
Heart-seed." Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells 
me that the corruption " Heart -seed " is used in 
Buckinghamshire as a name for the Pansy, 
Viola tricolor. 

Hearts. Whortleberries, Vaccinium Myrtillus 
(East Somerset and Dorset). 

Heart's Ease. A very general name for the 
Pansy, particularly the small wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis. The name was given to the plant 
because the old herbalists thought it a good 
cordial. 

Hearts on Strings. Dicenira spectabilis, 
kjiown also as Bleeding Heart, Locks and Keys, 
Lady's Locket, Lyi-e Flower, and by many other 
napaes. ' 

Heath. Mr. Elworthy says : " The only name 
for Calluna and Erica of all varities. In this 
(Wellihgton) district (the word) Heather is 
unknown. We have the well-known Long-heath 
and Smail-heath as described by Britten ex Lyte." 

Heath-urts (or Heath-Hurt-. Dr. Watson 
tells me that this name was given to him by a 
woman at Horner to whom he showed a piece of 
Crowbeiry, Empetrum nigrum, he had picked near 
Dxmkery. She added that in her young days 
children were told not to pick the berries as they 
were poison. 

Heather. Common Ling, Calluna vulgaris. 

Heather-bell. The Harebell, Campanula 
rotundijolia (Kimmeridge, Dorset). 

Heath-Urts. Dr. Watson tells me that a 
woman at Horner, near Dunkery, gave him this 
as the name of the Crowberry, Empetrum nigrum, 
and said she had always been told to leave them 
alone as they were x>oison, which is not the case. 
Dr. Watson says he has eaten lots of them, and 
that they form good food for grouse on the 



144 

Pennines. I believe in some parts of England 
they are called Health-berries. 

Heather Fue. A correspondent at East 
Haiptree gives me this as a local name for the 
Ootton-grass, Eriophorum. 

Hedge Bell. The greater Convolvulus or 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

HeiJge-hogs. (1) Correspondents at Od- 
combe and Lyme Regis give me this as a local 
name for the Shepherd's Needle, Scandix Pecten- 
Veneris. 

(2) Goose-grass, Galium Aparine (Ilton). 

(3) The seeds of the Burdock, ArcUum minus 
(Cm-ry Mallet). 

(4) The prickly seed-vessel of the Corn 
Butteijcup, Ranunculus arvensis (N.W. Wilts), 

Hedge Hyssop. (1) Common Milkwort, Polygala 
vulgaris. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me this 
jiame is also given to the Lesser Sktdlcap, 
Scutellaria minor. 

Hedge Lily. Same as Hedge-bell. 

Hedge Lovers. A correspondent at Stock- 
land (Devon) gives m.e this as a local name for 
the Herb Robert, Geranium Bobertianum. 

Hedge Peg (or Pick). The fruit of the Sloe, 
Pruniis spinosa (N.W. Wilts, also ij Hants). 

Hedge Poppy. Correspondents at Winsham 
and Axminster give nae this as a local name for the 
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. See 1 oppy. 

Hedge- SPECKS. (1) Mr. Edward Vivian 
(Trowbridge) gives me this as a local name for 
the berries of the Hawthorn, Cratcegus monogyna. 

(2) In North West Wilts the name is given 
to the Sloe. See Hedge Peg. 

Hedge Taper or Hag Taper. An old name 
for the Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus. See also 
Hig Taper. 

He-grass. Grass before mowing (Pulman)* 
In East Somerset the same as Ee-GRASS, i.e., 
grass after mowing. 

Hellum or Haulm. The dead stalks of peas, 
beans, potatoes, &c. Not applied to straw of 
any kind (Mr. W. S. Price). 

Helmet-flower. (1) Monk's-hood, Aconi- 
tum Napellus. 

(2) Dead Nettle, Lamium (Glastonbury). 

(3) The genus Scutellaria. 

Helrut. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this 
as a Portland name for the Herb Alexander, 
Smyrmium Olusatrum (possibly a corruption of 
Heal-root). 

Hen and Chickens. A name given to a 
number of different plants, but most generally 



M5 

in this district to 

(1) London Pi'ide, Saxijraga umbrosa. 

(2) TJie large double Daisy, Bellis perennis, 
garden variety ; and B. perennis prolijera. 

(3) The Houseleek, Sempervivum iectorum. 

(4) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

(5) The old-fashioned pot-plant, Saxijraga 
sarmentosa, often called Strawberry Plant or 
Mother of Thousands. 

(6) Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris 
(Wells). 

(7) Miss M. J. Shute, late of Oire, gives it 
as a local name for the Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 
Acetosella. 

(8) Correspondents at Dunster and Wid- 
worthy give it as a local name for the Herb 
Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

(9) In Devon, the Narcissus. 

Henbit. (1) The Henbit Dead-nettle, 
Lamium amplexicaule. 

(2) A correspondent at Rodney Stoke gives 
it as a local name for the Black Horehound, 
Ballota nigra. 

Hen Chicken. A correspondent at Bl ox- 
worth (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 

Hen Pennt, or Hen: Pennt Grass. The Yellow 
Rattle, Rhinanthus Crista-galli. 

Heps. Hips ; the fruit of the Dog-rose 
(Dorset). 

Herb Bennett. (1) Common Avens, Geum 
urbanum. The name is said to be a corruption 
of Herba benedicta, i.e., the blessed herb, because, 
according to an ancient writer, " where the root 
is in the house the devil can do nothing, and flies 
from, it ; wherefore it is blessed above all other 
herbs." 

I am indebted to Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., for 
the information that in some places this name is 
also given to the three following plants : — 

(2) Common Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

(3) All-heal, Valeriana officinalis. 

(4) Seif-heal, Prunella vulgaris. 

Herb Carpenter. An old name for the 
Common Bugle, Ajuga reptans, sent me by several 
correspondents. The plant owes this name to 
the fact that it was formerly greatly valued as 
an application to cuts and wounds. 

Herb Christopher. (1) Several corres- 
pondents send me this old name for the Baneberry, 
Actoea spicata, but I believe the plant is not 
fotmd in the counties with which I am dealing. 

(2) The name is frequently given to the Royal 
Pern, Osmunda regalis. 

Herb Eve. Another from of Herb Ivy, 
which see. 



146 

Herb Grass. Rue, Ruta graveolens ; evidently 
a corruption of Herb of Grace, which see. 

Herb Ivy. (1) An old name for the Yellow 
Bugle, Aj' ga Chama'pitys, sent nie by several 
correspondents, although I believe the plant does 
not cccur in this district. 

(2) The Buck's - horn Plantain, Plantago 
Coronopus. See Hart's-horn. 

Herb of Grace or Herb of Repentance. 
Rue, Ruta graveolens. Dr. Prior says this name 
is from the word rue, having also the meaning of 
repentance, which is needful to obtain God's 
grace ; a frequent subject of puns in the old 
draniatists. 

He mvist avoid the crimes he lived in ; 
His Physicke must be Rue (ev'n Rue for sinne) 
Of Herb of Grace, a cordial he must make ; 
The bitter cup of true repentance take-. 

J. Wither, Britain's Remembrance, 1628. 

Herb Peter. The Cowslip, Primula veris ; 
said to be from its resemblance to a bunch of 
keys, which is the badge of St. Peter. 

Herb Robert. (1) The usual English name 
of the Stinking Crane's-bill, Geranium Robertianum. 

(2) Rev. H. Friend says : "In Somersetshire 
the name of Herb Robert is often applied (o a 
member of the Sage tribe, Salvia coccinea, which 
bears very handsome scarlet flowers, and looks 
very much like a Foxglove or Gladiolus at the 
distance, as far as its shape and formation are 
concerned." 

Herbs. A term applied to any plant having a 
reputed medicinal value. 

Herb Trinity. (1) The Pansy, Viola tricolor 
from having thi'ee colom's combined in one flower. 

(2) The same name is also given to the 
Anemone and to the Clover on account of their 
having three leaflets combined in oner leaf. 

Herb True-love. The Herb Paris, Paris 
quadrifolia, sometimes called Four-leaved Grass, 
or True-love Knot. 

Herb Twopence. (1) A common name for 
the Moneywort, Lysimachia Xummularia, from 
its pairs of round leaves. 

(2) A correspondent at Stockland (Devon) 
gives it as a local name for the Pui-ple Loosestrife, 
Ly thrum Sali carta. 

Hethurts, i.e., Heath-worts or Whortle. 
Mr. W. D. Miller gives me this as a name used in 
the neighbomhood of Dunkery Beacon for the 
Crowberry. See Heath-urts. 

Hew-hiack. The stock or stem of the Wild 
Rose, Rosa canina, used for budding or grafting 
upon. Mr. W. D. Miller tells me that when he has 
been partridge driving he has been pointed to 
his stand by a beater as " behind thicce gurt 



147 

OoMACK," indicating a single rank bramble 
stem. See EwE Brimble. 

HiCKYMORE. Knapweed, Centaurea nigra or 
C. Scabiosa (North Cadbuvy). 

HiDDGY PiDDGY. A correspondent at Dalwood 
(Dt^von) gives m ' this as a local name for the 
Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica. See HoKY PoKY, 

lliG (or High) Taper. The Great Mullein, 
Vcrbascum TJiapsus. Probably from A.S. hege 
or }iega = a hedge, and taper, its stalks when 
dipped in grease being formerly used for burning 
(Prior). See nEDGE-T.\PEB and Candlewick. 

High Taper. The Great Mullein, Verbascum 
lliapsHS. 

Hill Poppy. Tlie Foxglove, DigUalis purpurea 
(Ncttlicombf and Stogursey districts). 

Hill-trot (apparently a corruption of 
Eltrot). (1) Gow-i:ta,vsniy, UeracleumSphondy- 

(2) Water Hemlock, CEnanthe crocata (S.W. 
Wilts, Charlton, and Barford). 

(3) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that in 
the New Forest this name is given to the Wild 
Carrot, Dauci's Carota. 

HiLP. The fruit of the Sloe, Prunus spinosa 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Hip. The fruit of the Dog-rose, Rosa canina. 

HoBBLY Flower. A correspondent at Mel Is 
gives me this as a local name for the Horse 
Chestnut, Msculus Hippocastanum. See below. 

HoBBLY Honker. The Horse Chestnut 
/Frome). See above. 

Hock-holler. Hollyhock, AUhaa rosea. This 
is also the name of a hamlet in the parish of West 
Buckland, near Wellington. 

Hog's Bean. A correspondent at Bishop's 
Lydeard sends me this old name for the Henbane, 
Hyoscyamus niger. According to Anne Pratt, the 
seed-capsule is shaped like a bean, and pigs are 
said to eat the plant. 

HoGWEED. Cow-parsnip, Heracleum Sphondy- 
liuyn ; from the fondness of hogs for its roots. 

HoKY-PoKY. A correspondent at Axminster 
gives this as a local name for the Stinging Nettle^ 
Urtica dioica. See Hiddgy Piddgy. 

Holland Smocks. Greater Convolvulus or 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

Holly Anders. A school girl at Long Sutton 
gives me this as a local name for the Holly-hock^ 
AUh(va rosea. 

Holly-hock. (1) This is the usual English 
name for the Rose Mallow, Althwa rosea. Mr. 
T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., \viites : " The old form of 



148 

the word was Holy-hocke, apparently so called 
because it was introduced from the Holy Land. 
' Holly ' has nothing to do ^vith the tree so called. 
* Hock ' is evidently A. Sax. hoc = the niallow, 
which is also called Hock-herb." 

(2) A correspondent at Hawkchui'ch (Devon) 
gives me this as a local name for the Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea. 

HoL>i. Mr. P. T. Elwoithy sayi " Txie 
Oommon Holly is always so cil'ed — not applied 
to any kind of oak." R^v. Wm. Baraes says 
"especially low and moi" pr'ckly holly, in dis- 
tinction from tn-ller and smoother leaved." 

Holm Oak or Holly Oak. Mr. T. W. Cowan, 
F.L.S., wates " Qierctis Ilex or Evergreen Oak. 
as if connected with holm, a water-side plant, 
from O. Eng. holme = the Holly, which is a 
corrupt form of holin, A. Sax. holen = Holly. 
Gerard says ' Ilex is named of some in English 
Holme, which signifieth Holly or Huluer.' " 

HoLBOD. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this 
as a name for the Oows.ip, Primula veris, in the 
Swanage district. 

Holy Herb. Common Verviin, Verbena 
officinalis. 

Holy Innocents. A correspondent at T.-ow- 
bridge gives me this as a local name for the Haw- 
thorn, Crataegus monogyna. 

Holy Pokers. Tnis i? given m? as a Devon- 
shire name for the Great Reed-mace, Typha 
latijolia, more commonly known as the Bulrush. 

Holy Thorn. See Glastonbury Thorn. 

Hom4:-bush. Holly. See Holm. 

Honesty. (1) Lunary, Lunaria biennis ; the 
general name for the plant which is frequently 
known as MONEY-IN-BOTH-POCKETS. 

(2) This name is sonaetimes given in N.W. 
Wilts to the Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba. 

Honey Ball. Buddleia globosa. 

Honey Bee. A correspondent at Axminster 
gives me this as a local name for the White Dead 
Nettle, Lamium album. See Bee-nettle and 
Honey-flower (1). 

Honey-bell. Both Mr. and Mrs. Lansdowue 
(Over Stowey) give me this a,s a local name for 
the Canterbury Bell, Campanula Media. 

Honey-bottle. (1) The Cross-leaved Heath, 
Erica Tetralix. In Wiltshire the name is given 
to 

(2) The Heather, Calluna vulgaris, and 

(3) The Furze, Ulex europceus. 

Honey Dew. A correspondent at Hillfarrance 
gives me this as a local name for the Stephanotis. 



149 

Honey-flower. (I) Wnite Dead Nettle^ 
Lamium album. South Petherton. 

(2) A correspo.ident at Colyton gives this as 
a local nam'? for the Meadow-sweet, Spiraea 
Ihnaria ; often called Honiey-sweet. 

(3) The general English name foi^ the genus 
Melianthus. 

Honey Plantain. Hoary Plantain, Plantago 
media (White's Bristol Flora). 

Honey Stalks. Several correspondents in the 
Yeovil and Martock district give me this name 
as being used locally for the common Red Clover, 
Trifolium pratense. It is used by Shakespeare, 
who speaks of 

Words more sweet and yet more dangerous 

Than baits to fish or Honeystalks to sheep. 

Honey-suck. S^e Honey-suckle (1) and (2). 

Honey-suckers. See Honey-suckle (2). 

Honey-suckle. (1) The general English 
name for the Woodbine, Lonicera Periclymenum. 

(2) A common name in East Somei-set and 
other parts of the district for the Red Clover, 
Trijolium pratense. 

The flowers of both the abo\'e plants contain a 
good deal of honey, which is sacked out by the 
bees ; and the fiore'ts of the latter are often pulled 
out and sucked by children for the sweet taste 
they yield. 

(3) Rev. Hild'^ric Friend gives it as a Devon- 
shire name for the Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia 
sepium. 

(4) In S.W. Wilts the name is given to the 
White Dead Nettle, Lamium album, the flowers 
of which are sucked by the children for the honey 
th'-y contain. 

(5) A correspondent at Stom- Provost (Dorset) 
gives it as a local name for the Bugle, Ajuga 
reptans. 

Honey-sweet. The Meadow Sweet, Spircea 
Ulmaria. 

HONITON Lace. (1) A number of corres- 
pondents in the Ciiard and East Devon district 
give me this as the local nam^ for the Upright 
Hedge Parsley, Caucalis Anthriscus. 

(2) Wild Chervil, Cht rophyllum temulum 
(Winsham). 

(3) Common H 'ralock, Conium maculatum 
(Winsham). 

Hood (or Hoop) Petticoat. Si'veral young 
people at Stockland (Devon) give me this as a 
ocal name for the Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcis9us. 

Hook -HEAL. An old name for the Self-heal, 
Prunella vulgaris, which would appear to be still 
used in many places, judging from the number 
of correspondents who have scat the name to me. 



I50 

The piant was very laigely used by the old 
herbalists for the healing of wounds inflicted by 
sickles, scythes, and other sharp instruments — 
hence the name. 

Hooks and Hatchets. Mr. H. A. Bending, 
of Shoscombe, gives me this as a local name for the 
seeds of the Maple, Acer campestre. 

Hop Clover. Black Medick, Medicago 
lupidina. Probably due to confusing this plant 
^vith the Hop Trefoil, Trifolium procumbens. 
The two plants are very similar, except when iii 
fruit, although the flowering heads of the Medick 
contain only about one-third the number of 
flowers of the Hop Trefoil. 

Hop o' My Thumb. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, 
Lotics corniculatus (Yeovil). 

(2) Heib Robert, Geranium Robertianum 
(Ilton). 

HoPTOPS. Mr. Edward Vi\ian (Trowbridge) 
gives me this as a very common local name for 
the tops of young nettles, iorm:rlv gathered and 
boiled by country people. Dr. Watson tells me 
that the tops of Hops are used in the same wa^' 
and make an excellent vegetable. 

Hornbeam. This is the general English 
name for Carpinus Betulus, sometimes called the 
Horse-beech ; but in West Somerset the Uame 
is commonly given to the Wych Elm, Uhnua 
glabra. 

Horse and Hounds. Miss Ella Ford, of 
Melplash (Dorset), gives me this as a local name 
for the common Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

Horse-Bane. The Fine-leaved Water Drop- 
wort, QSnanthe Phellandriiim. 

Horse-Buckle. A Salisbury correspondent 
gives me this as a Wiltshire name for the Cowslip, 
Primula veris. 

Horse Buttercup. A common name in Vv'est 
Somerset and Devon for the Marsh Marigold, 
Caltha jjalustris ; so called because it is " like a 
buttercup, only a large pattern." The prefix 
" Horse " in local names of flowers is frequent ly 
used to designate a larger or coarser kind, as 
distinguished from smaller species or varieties 
which also exist. 

Horse Daisy. (1) A very common name 
throughout the district for the Oxeye Daisy, 
Chrysanthemutn Leucayithemum. 

(2) A Tamiton correspondent gives it as a 
local name for the Scentless Mayweed, Matricaria 
inodora. 

(3) Most, if not all, of the Chamomiles ; Dr. 
Watson suggests chiefly to Matricaria Chamo- 
niilla and Anthemis C'ot'da. 

Horse Dashel. Spear Plume Thistle, Cnicus 
lanceolat ;s (Devon). 



i5f 

Horse Hardhead. The Black Knapweed, 
Centaurea nigra. 

HorseHoof. TheColtsfoot, Tussilago Farfara 
Horse Knobs (or Knops). The Black Knap- 
weed, Centaurea nigra (Dorset). 

Horse Mint. The usual name for the Wild 
Mint, common in marshy places, J/en^^o aquatica. 

Horse Mushroom. Agarics arvensis, a larger 
and coarser variety than the common Muslii^oom, 
A. campestris. Mr. Worthington G. Smith say« 
that the mushrooms cultivated by gardeners are 
a variety of the Horse Mushroom, and not of 
A. campestris, as is usually supposed. 

Horse-nut Tree. Mr. W. S. Price (Welling- 
ton) gives me this as a local name for the Horse 
Chestnut. 

Horse Parsley. (1) A correspondent at 
Stoke St. Gregory gives me this as a local name 
for the Alexanders, Smyrnium Oli'satrum. Dr. 
Watson suggests probably a mistake, as this is 
nearly always a seaside plant and is very rarely 
found inland. 

(2) A school-girl at Oakhill gives it as a local 
name for the Cow-parsnip, Heracleum Sphon- 
dylium. 

Horse PEPPERivnNT. This name is sometimes 
given in N.W. Wilts to the Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

Horse Radish. (1) This is the usual English 
name for Cochlearia Armoracia, which is not a 
native plant, but is frequently found wild in 
ditches and elsewhere, having escaped from 
cultivation. 

(2) Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash (Dorset), tells 
me the name is in that district given to the Wild 
Radish, Raphanus Raphanistrum. 

(3) The roots and leaves of the Monkshood, 
Aconitum Napellus, have often been mistaken for 
Horse Radish, and a number of deaths have 
occurred in consequence of its having been eaten. 

Horse Rhubu'b. Mr. Edward Vivian (Trow- 
bridge) gives me this as a local name for large, 
coarse Rhubarb. 

Horses and Chariots. (1) Mr. F. R. 
Summerhayes, of Milborne Port, gives me this as 
a local name for the Qiiaking Grass, Briza media. 

(2) A school-girl at Oakhill gives it as a local 
name for the Lupin, Lupinus (? albiis). 

Horse's Breath. A country name for the 
Rest Harrow, Ononis repens, sometimes caUed 
Stay-plough. It has been suggested that this 
name is due to the harder breathing of the horses 
as they endeavovu* to plough through the plant, j 

Horse-shoe. The Sycamore, Acer Pseudo- 
platamis (Barford St. Martin and S.W. Wilts). 



'52 

HoBSE-SHOE Flower (ov Leaf). A corres- 
pondent at Bloxworth (Dorset) gives me the 
former as a local name for one of the Crane's-bills, 
and a school -girl at Sampford Arundell gives the 
latter as a local name for a Geranium. 

Horse's Mouth. A school-girl at Long Sutton 
gives me this as a local name for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum majus. 

Horse's Tails. Several school-children at 
East Mark give me this as a local name for the 
common Sun Spurge, Enphorbia Helioscopia, but 
I fancy there must be some confusion here. 

Horse Thistle. Spear Plume Thistle, Cnicvs 
lanceolatus (West Coker). See Horse Dashel. 

Horse (or Hoss) Tongue. The Hart's Tongue 
Fern, Phyllitis Scolopendrium (Dorset). 

Horse Violet. (1) A name sent me by 
sevei'al school-children at Long Sutton and by 
correspondents in several parts of Dorset for the 
red or pink variety of the Violet, Viola odorata. 

(2) The Dog Violet, Viola canina. 

(3) The Wood Violet, F. Biviniana and V. 
sylvestris. 

(4) Rev. Hilderic Friend says: " Horse Violet 
is the local name in Somersetshire for the Pansy 
or Heart 's-ease." Viola tricolor, on account of the 
flower being a large kitid of violet. 

Hoss. See Horse and its compounds. 

Hot Cross Bun. A correspondent at Blox- 
worth (Dorset) gives this as a local name for the 
Spindle-tree, Evonymus europmns — probably from 
the shape and divisions of the berries. 

Hound's Tooth. Couch Grass, Agropyron repens 
(Compton, near Yeovil). 

House Leek. This is the general English 
jiame for Sempervivum tectorum, and would not 
be included in this list but for the fact that Mrs. 
Day, of North Petherton, gives it as a local name 
for the Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre, in connec- 
tion with which Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., kindly 
sends me the following interesting extract from 
Tui'ner : — " Sedum is called in greke Aeizoon, and 
the iyvst kynde and moste spoke of, of -wTiters, is 
called in englishe Housleke f r syngrene. The second 
kynde is called in English thryit or stoncroppe. 
The thyrd kinde is called in Englishe Mouse tayle 
or litle stoncroppe, and in duche Maur pfefEer. 
Al these kyndes growe on walles and houses." 

Hud. The shell of peas or beans. 

HuF Cap. A plant, or rather a weed, found in 
fields, and with difficulty eradicated ; giveii by 
Jennings, who does not further identify it. An 
East Somerset correspondent applies the word to 
tough clumps of grass roots and leaves occtu'ring 
on marshy ground. Holloway also gives Huff Cap 



153 

as used in Someisel, Xoifolk, and SufEolk to 
describe a blvistering, swaggering fellow. Mr. T. 
W. Cowan ,F.L.S., tells me it is the name of a 
species of Pear used in making perry, and that in 
Herefordshire the name Huff Cap is given to 
Couch-grass. 

HUGGY Me Close. A correspondent gives me 
this as a Dorset name for the Goose-grass, Galium 
Aparine. According to HoUoway, the name is 
used in Somerset for a fowl's merry -thought . 

HuLM. Holly, Ilex Aquifolimn (Odcombe). 
See Holm. 

HuLVEB. An old name for Holly. Hidfere, 
A.S. for Holly, occm^s in Chaucer. 

HuMACKS. Wild-briar stocks, on which to graft 
Roses (Rev. W. P. Williams). See Hewiviack. 

Humble-bee Flower. Bee Orchis, Ophrys 
apifera (Chet nole) . 

Hump-backs. A Hatch Beauchamp name for 
the Violet — presumably from the way the stalk 
bends near the flower. 

Humpy-Scrumples. Cow-parsnip, Heracleum 
Sphondylium (Devon). 

Hundreds and Thousands. (1) Ivy -leaved 
Toadflax, Linaria Cymbalaria. 

(2) House-leek, Sempervivum lector um, 

(3) Virginian Stock, Malcolmia maritima. 

(4) London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa. 

(5) r eruvian Heliotrope, HeUotropium peru- 
vianum (Camerton). 

(6) The seeds of tlic commo7i Sorrel, Rumex 
Acctosa. 

Hunters. Seeds of the common Sorrel, Rumex 
Acetosa (Stoke-under-Ham). ? A corruption of 
" Hundreds." 

HuBR Burr. The Burdock, Arctium minus. 

Hurtleberry. The Whortleberry, Vaccinium 
Myrtillus. 

Hurts. x\ contracted form of Hurtleberry 
(see above) ; apparently a corruption of the 
A.S. heorotberige, the " hartberry," from lieorot 
or heort = a heart. T. Fuller, in his Worthies, 
Devonshire, says " Hurlberries, in Latine 
Vacciyiia, most wholesome to the stomach, but 
of a very astringent nature ; so plentiful in this 
Shire that it is a kind of Harvest to poor people." 

Hurt Sickle. The Cornflower or Blue-bottle, 
Centaurea Cyanus, " because," says Culpepper, 
" with its hard wiry stem it turneth the edge of 
th<' sickle that reapeth the corn." 

Hyacinth. A well-informed correspondent at 
Watchet gives me this as a local name for the 
Yellow Flag, Iris Pseudacorus, but it is not easy 
to understand. 



154 

Hypocrites. This is sent me froiu Combe St. 
Nicholas as a local nanie for Dog Violets. Compare 
Deceiver. 

Ice-plant. (1) The common name for all 
varieties of JJ esembrya7ithe7n>nn,es^ecia.llj M . cryst- 
alli'im. 

(2) Applied also to other plants with fleshy 
leaves, especially to such as are glossy or look 
as though they had hoar-frost f)n them, such as 
Houseleeks, Stonecrops, &c. From several ]Darts 
of Somerset I have had this sent me as a local 
name for the Stonecroj), Sedum. 

(3) The Pennywort, Cotyledon Umbiliciis- 
Veneris (Awliscorabe). 

Indian Cress. A general English name for the 
Nasturtium. 

Indian Pink. Dianthus chinensis ; sometimes 
called French Pink and Chinese Pink. 

Indian Poppy. My Watchet correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the 

(1) Mountain Poppy, Meconopsis camhrica, and 
the 

(2) Yellow Horned Poppy, Glaucium flavum. 

Indian Shot. The general English name for 
the genus Canna. 

INGUN. Onion (F. T. Elworthy). 

ININ. Onion (Jennings). 

Ining (pronoimced Eye-ning). Onion (West 
Pennard). 

Innion. Onion. 

The late G. P. R. Pulman says : " The country- 
man illustrates the diversity of mental and moral 
characteristics in this way : — 

Def'ernce in taste as in opinion, 
Zum lik' a apple an' zum a innion. 

Innocent. (1) Lily of the Valley, Co7i- 
vallaria majalis (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

(2) Daisy, Bellis perennis (from a school-girl 
at Castle Cary). 

Mr. T. \V. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that iu 
Northamptonshire this term applied to flowers 
means small and pretty. 

Iron Flower. A school-boy at Winscombe 
gives me this as a local name for the Broad-leaved 
Garlic, Allium ursinnm. 

Iron Pear. White Beam, Pyrus Aria. Iron 
Pear Tree Farm, near Devizes, is said to take its 
name from this tree. (X.W. Wilts). 

Iron Weed. Greater Knapweed, Centanrea 
Scabwsa, and Lesser (or Black) Knapweed, C. 
nigra. Iron-hard, Yronhard (Gerarde), old Eng. 
Isenhearde, name for Centanrea nigra, corruption 
of Iron-head, another popiilar name for the same 
(Prior). Gerarde gives I'ronhard for Knapweed, 



155 

i.e., Knobweed, the same plant whicli has •' a 
s caiy head or k op beset with most sharpe prickles" 
(Herball). 

Israelites. Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as a ^local name for the 
Virginian Stock, Malcolmia maritima. Compare 
Children of Israel (1). 

Ivy Bells. Several young people at Batheal- 
ton give me this as a local name for the Marsh 
Marigold, Caliha palustris. 

Ivy Flower. The Spindle, Euonymus 
europcei'S (from a school-giri at Chewton Mendip). 

Jack Abed at Noon. A variation of Jack- 
GO-to-Bed-at-Noon (Allerford). 

Jack and Joan. Double Polyanthus (Ax- 
minster). 

Jack and the Beanstalk. Common Milk- 
wort, Poly gala vulgaris (lit on). 

Jack by the Hedge. (1) A very general 
name for the Garlic Treacle-mustard, Sisymbrium 
Alliaria. 

(2) Miss Parkin tells me that some of the 
school-children at Brompton Regis give this name 
to the Herb Robert, Geranium Rohertianum. 

Jack Flower. Herb Robert, Geranium 
Rohertianum (Tarrant Gmiville). 

Jack go to Bed. Yellow Goat 's-beard (Thorn- 
combe). See below. 

Jack go to Bed at Noon. (1) A very general 
name for the Yellow Goat's-beard, Tragopogon 
pratense. 

(2) The Common Star of Bethlehem, Ornitho- 
galum umhellatum. 

Jack Horner. Herb Robert, Geranium 
Rohertianum, (Chardstock). 

Jack in a Lantern. Cape Gooseberry, 
Physalis edulis or P. peruviana ; a tropical plant 
of the Nightshade family, bearing edible berries 
(Over Stowey). 

Jack IN the Box. (1) Wild Arum or Cxickoo- 
pint. Arum mac dat'im. 

(2) A correspondent at Plush (Dorset) gives 
it as a local name for the Figwort, Scroj)hularia. 

(3) Greater Stitchwoit, Stellaria Holostea 
(Ever shot). 

(4) Double Polyanthus (Muchelney). 

Jack in the Buttery. Biting Stoixecrop, 
Sedum acre. See Jack of the Buttery. 

Jack in the Green. (1) Wild Arum or 
Cnckoo-pint, Arum macAat im (Bradford-on- 
Tone). 

(2) The Polyanthus, particularly the " hoso- 
in-hose " variety. 



156 

(3) The Pheasant 's-eve. Adonis ami'ia 
(S.W. Wilts). 

Jack ix the Hedge. (1) Garlic Tieaclo- 
mustard (v Sauce-alone, Sisynibri m Alliaria. 

(2) The Keel Campion, Lychnis dioica (Ever- 
ci^eech). 

(3) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Ihninstei). 

Jack in the Lanterx. (1) The Red Cam- 
pion, Lychnis dioica (South Dorset). 

(2) A correspondent at Fivehead gives me 
this as a local name for the " Star of Bethlehem," 
by which she may either mean Ornithogalnni 
nmhellatum or possiljly the Gi eater Stitchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea, which is frequently caUed the 
" Star of Bethlehem " in Som.erset. 

Jack in the Pulpit. (1) A comm=>Ti name 
thioughout the district for the Wild Arum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Ar mi mac 'latnn ; called also 
Parson (or Priest) in the Pulpit. 

(2) A weil-infermed c<n"respondent ut Cameiton 
gives this a^ a Ircal name for the Anemone 
(? Anemone nemorosa). 

Jack Jump About. An old count ly name for 
the Biid's-foot Trefoil , Lotus comic 'kit us. 

Jack Jump Up and Kiss Me. An old name 
for the Pansy, Viola arvensis. 

Jack of the Buttery. Biting Slonecrop. 
Sedum acre. Dr. Prior says : "A ridiculous 
name that seems to be a corruption of Bot- 
theriacqi e to B. ttery Jack, the plant having been 
used as a theriac or anthelmintic, a,nd called 
Vermicularis, from its supposed viitue in destroying 
bots and other intestinal worms." 

Jack o' Lantern (or Lanthorn). (1) The 
Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa (Ubley and 
Fiddleford, Dorset). 

(2) Hemp Agrimony, Eupatori'im cannabinum 
(Miss Ella Ford, Me, plash). 

Jack Run Along by the Hedge. Garlic 
Treacle-mustard or Sauce-alone, Sisymbrium 
Alliaria (Wilts). 

Jack Run in the Country. Lesser Bind^veed 
Convolv l s arvensis. 

Jack Run in the Hedge. Greater Bindweed^ 
Calystegia sepi m (Kings Brompton). 

Jack's Cheeses, Seeds of the C< 'mmoii Mallow, 
Malva sylvestris. See Cheeses. 

Jack's Ladder. The Scarlei Runner, Phase- 
olus m'lltifioras (Dowlish Wake). 

Jack Snaps. The Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (South Petheiton and King's Brcmpton). 
See Snap-jacks. 

Jack Sprat. The Greater Stitchwort, as 
above (Barrjngton). 



'57 

Jacky (or Jacky's) Cheeses. See Jack's 
Cheeses. 

Jacob and Family. Several young people at 
Cut combe give me this as the local name of a 
flower which they can only describe as white aiid 
having 12 leaves. 

Jacob's Chariot. An old country name for the 
Monkshood, Aconit>itn Napell s. 

Jacob's Ladder. A name given to a number 
of different x>lants, but api)arently mt>;st gener- 
ally to 

(1) The Greek Vnlerian, Polemium ccenleum 
or P. album ; usually supposed to be so called 
from its siiccessive pairs of leaflets. 

(2) The Gladiolus, both cultivated and wild. 

(3) The Larkspm-, Delphinium Ajacis. 

(4) Solomon's Seal, Polygonalum multi- 
florum. 

(5) The Snapdragon, Antirrhimim ma jus 
(Watchet). •' 

(6) The Hollyhock, Althea rosea (South 
Petherton). 

(7) The Lupin, Lupinus (Sampford Brett). 

(8) The Balsam, Impatiens :\ oli-tangere (Chet- 
nole). 

(9) A correspondent at Stalbridge gives it 
as a local name for the " Spmge," Euphorbia 
(? species). 

Jam Tarts. (1) Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertiayium ; and 

(2) Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, Geranium molle. 
Both plants appear to be so named in the Crew- 
kerne and Chard district. 

(3) Common Fumitory, Fumaria officinalis 
(Corfe Mullen). 

Jan Gramfer. Red Campion, Lychnis dioica 
(from correspondents at Taunt on and Trowbridge) . 

Japanese Lantern. (1) Cape Gooseberry. 
See Jack in a Lantern. 

(2) Canterbviry Bell, Campanula medium 
(Bradf ord-on-Tone) . 

Japanese Rose. A correspondent at Compton 
(near Yeovil) gives me this as a local name for 
the Jew's Mallow, Corchorus olitorius, or C. 
capsularis, the Jute Plant ; an Asiatic plant 
of the Linden family. 

Japanese Tea Party. Miss Audrey Vivian, 
of Trowbridge, gives me this as a common name 
in that district for an Anemone, Anemone japonica^ 
Whioh grows in a semi-wild, or at least uncultivated 
condition, in her own and other gardens. 

Jaunders Tree. The common Barbary, 
Berberis vulgaris — from the yellow colour of the 
wood (West Somerset). 

Jaundice Berry. Same as Jaunders Tree. 



I5« 

Jelly-Flo WEB. (1) The coinmoii Wallflower^ 
Cheiranthus Cheiri. See Gilliflower. 

(2) The Stock, Matthiola incana (Dorset). 
Ofteji called the Stock Gillt-Flower. 

Jelly Stock. A school-boy at Muchelney 
gives me this as a local nanie for the Wallflower, 
Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

Jennet, Jenneting. The name of a well- 
known Early Apple, commonly said to mean 
June-eating. Known also as Lammas Apple (P. 
T. Elworthy). Mentioned by Tennyson in " The 
Blackbird " : — 

" Yet, tho' I spared thee all the spring, 
Thy sole delight is sitting still, 
With that gold dagger of thy bill. 
To fret the summer jenneting." 

Jenny Creeper. Moneywort, Lysimachia 
Nnmmularia. See Creeping Jennie (1). 

Jenny Flower. Herb Bobert, Geranium 
Bobertianum (Furley). See Jenny Wren. 

Jenny Grebn-teeth. A Watchet corres- 
pondent gives me this as a local nanae for ,a 
water-plant closely resembling hair. Dr Watson 
suggests probably an Alga, Cladophora glomerata. 
Dr. R. C. Knight says : " Appears to be one of 
the Water Milfoils, Myriophyllum species, if it 
is floating." 

Jenny Hood. Herb Robert (East Devon). 
See Jenny Wren and John Hood. 

Jenny Plant. A Taunton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Saxifrage (?) 

Jenny Wren. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Bobertianum ; a very common name in Taunton 
Deane. 

Jersey Lily. Vallota purpurea (F. T. 
Elworthy). 

Jerusalem Cowslip. Common Lungwort, 
Pulmonaria officinalis. See Cowslip of Bedlam. 

Jerusalem Cross. Lychnis chalcedonica. 

Jerusalem Seeds. Common Lungwort, Pul- 
monaria officinalis. Mr. Elworthy quotes one as 
saying : " My mother used to be ter'ble over they 
Jerusalem Seeds vor a arb." 

Jerusalem Stars. (1) The Scarlet Elf -cup 
Fungus, Geopyxis coccinea (Eist Somerset). 
(2) The CJineraria (Zeals, Wilts). 

Jesus' Fingers and Thumbs. A school-girl 
at Furley gives me this as as a local name for the 
Kidney Vetch, by which she probably means the 
Bird's-foot Trefoil. See God's Fingers and 
Thumbs. 

Jew-berry. A common mis-pronunciation 
of Dew-berry, which see. 



159 

Jew's Ear. (1) A general name for a tough 
but gelatinous fungus, Hirneola Auricula-Judce, 
which grows on elder and elm trees, and was 
formerly used as an ingredient in gargles aiid as a 
cure for drox)sy. A corruption of Judas-ear. 
" For the coughe take Judas eare, 
With the parynge of a i)eare." 

(Bale, " Three Laws of Nature, 1562). 
(2) The Scarlet Elf-cup, Geopyxis coccinea 
(Wincanton district). 

Jew's Ears. A correspondent at Pilton gives 
me this as a local name for Dicentra spectabilis ; 
often knowni as Bleeding Heart, Lyre-flower, 
Locks and Keys, &c. 

JiBBLBS. Yovmg Onions. See Chibble. 

JiLAFFEB. (The syllable aff sounded as in 
laugh). The Wallflower is known by this name in 
North Devon. See Gillifloweb. 

JlLLIFIiOWER. See GiLLIFLOWER. 

Jill-offer. (1) Stocks, Carnations, &c. 
(Pulman). See Gilawfbr. 

(2) Rev. Hilderic Friend says : " In Somerset 
the Ten-week Stock {Matthiola annua) is called 
Jlloffer." 

(3) The Wallflower, Cheiranthus Cheiri (Somer- 
set and Dorset). 

JiLOFFER Stock. Ten-week Stock (Ilminster) 

JiLLY Offers. The Wallflower, Cheiranthus 
Cheiri (East Mark). 

Job's Tears. (1) A fairly general name for 
the Flea-bane, Pulicaria dysenterica, from a 
tradition that the i^atriarch Job applied the plant 
to his boils and obtained relief. 

(2) The usual English name for the hard bony 
seeds of a Grass, Coix tachryma, from a fancied 
resemblance to tear-drops. ,; 

Joe Stanley. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum (from a correspondent at East 
Lul worth) . 

John go to Bed at Noon. (1) A very 
general form in Dorset for the Yellow Goatsbeard, 
Tragopogon pratense. See Jack-go-to-Bed-at- 
NooN. 

(2) Scarlet PimperAel, Anagallis arvensis (Miss 
Masey, Taunton). 

John Hood. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum (Wells). 

Johnny Cocks. This is given me from 
Thurlbeare and from several parts of Dorset as 
a local name for the Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mascula. 

Johnny Mountain. When I was a boy at 
Castle Cary I frequently heard this name applied 
to Fircones. See Dolly Mounter. 



i6o 

Johnny Pbick-Finger. Common Teasel, 
Dlpsacus sylvestris (Leigh, Dorset). 

Johnny Run the Street. A school-girl at 
East 3lark gives me this as a local name for 
" Bitty's Eyes," i.e., the Wild Pansy, Viola 
arte ns is. 

Johnny Woods. Red Campion, Lychnis dioica 
(Xetherbm-y, Dorset). 

John's Flower. A correspondent at Wam- 
brook gives me this as a local name for the 
Shining Crane's-bill, Geraniurn lucidum. 

John's Wort. Mr. Elworthy gives this as a 
common West Somerset name for the Dwarf 
Hypericum, H. perforatum, more generally known 
as the Perforated St. John's Wort. Most species 
of Hypericum are knoAvn by the general English 
name of St. John's Wort. Several botanists 
question the correctness of Mr. Elworthy's use 
of the term " Dwarf," and suggest instead 
'* Common " or " Dotted-leaved." 

Joint Weed. Cornfield Horse-tail, Equisetum 
arvense (West Somerset). Mr. Elworthy says : 
" This is the name used by ' ginlvokes.' ' Mares' 
tails,' ' Old man's beard,' are the common names." 

Jolly Soldiers. Early Pmple Orchis, O. 
niasciila (Colyford, Devon). 

Joseph and Mary. (1) A fairly general 
name for the Common Lungwort, Pidrnonaria 
officinalis, the flowers being of two colours, red 
and blue. 

(2) A school-girl at Bradford-on-Tone gives 
it as a local name for " Spotted Ferns," by which 
I believe she means the common Hart's-tongue. 

Joseph's Coat of Many Colours. Common 
Lungwort, Pidrnonaria officinalis, probably for 
the reason given under Joseph and Mary (1). 

Joseph's Flower. A name for the Yellow 
Goat's-beard, Tragopogon pratense, sent me from 
Wembdon and other districts. Rev. H. Friend 
says the name seems to owe its origin to pictures 
in which the husband of Mary was represented as 
a long-bearded old man. 

Jove's Nuts. Acorns. Rev. Hilderic Friend 
says : " In Somersetshire the Horse-daisy or 
Ox-eye is devoted to the Thunder god, a cm^ious 
circumstance when considered in connectioti 
with another fact, viz., that Acorns are there 
called Jove's Xuts. Now we all know that the 
Oak is emphatically Jove's tree, but how is it 
that in Somersetshire these two names, not to 
mentioj^i others bearing on ancient religion and 
mythology, live on when they have died out, or 
never existed, in other parts of England ? " 

Joy. Common Eyebright, Euphrasia officinalis 
{ Duuster). ^^ 



i6i 

Joy op the Mountain. Mrs. Day, of Xorlh 
Pethoilon, gives me this as n local name for the 
Mai'joraiu, Origanum vulgarc. 

Jubilee Hunter. Th(! Dewborry, Rxbus 
caesius (N,W. Wilts), 

Judas Tree. (1) The usual English uame 
for Cercis MUquastrum. Mr. Ehvorthy says : 
*' This tree, and not the elder, seems most AAddely 
tiaditional, as that on which .Tudas hanged 
himself. Elders, in this country at least, Avould 
hardly be suitable in size or strength for the 
purpose. 

(2) A correspondent at Martock gives it as a 
local name for the Tulip-tree, Liriodendron 
tulipifera. Pi-obably diic to a confusion of names, 

June Flower. Wild Beaked Parsley, Anthris- 
cits sylvestris (Brompton Kegis). 

JuNETiN. See Jennet. I am indebted to 
Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., foi- the following 
inter e ting note v — Jtmctin {i.e., Apple of June) 
seems to be corrupted from geniting, given by 
Bailey as " a sort of apple." Kettner, Book of the 
Table, spells it joanneting. The name reminds \is 
of the old custom of naming fruits and flowers 
from the festivals of the Church nearest to Avhich 
they ripened or bloomed. .June-eating or St. 
Johyi's apple makes its appearance about Mid- 
svimmer Day, or the feast of St. John Baptist. 

Jupiter's Beard. (1) The Houseleek, Sem- 
pervivum tectorum. 

(2) liev. Ililderic Friend says " The Anthyllis 
or Silver-bush, is commonly called Jupiter's 
Beard, both in England and Germany." It is 
also known as Jove's Beard ; the botanicarname 
is Anthyllis Barba-Jovis. 

Jupiter's Staff. An old name for the Great 
Mullein, Verbascuni Thapsus. 

KAancs or Kammick. The Rest -hai row, Ononis 
repens. 

Kearn. Seed that is l>egiiniing to form or 
set. Also used as a verb. " The wheat is kearning 
up airly " (Mr. F. W. Mathews). 

Kecker, Kecks, or Kecksy. The dried 
hollow stalk of the Cow Parsnip, Heracleuni 
Sphondyli'dH. Also apjilied to any dried hollow 
stalks as Hemlock, Cheivil, &c. See GlX. 

Kedlack, Kedlock, or Ketlock. Charlock or 
Wild Mustard, Brassica arvensis. Dr. Watson 
wTites me : — " Ketlock is a fairly general name. 
In the N. of England, where the old practice of 
rush-carts (a survival of the time when rushes 
were carried for carpeting the unfiagged floors of 
the chmch) is kex)t up, the body of the rush 
structure is filled in A\-ith ketlocks, chiefly Senecio 
Jacobcea." 



l62 

Keet Legs. A Sherborne correspondent gives 
me this as a local name for the Early Purple 
Orchis, Orchis masculo. I have nevei* known this 
as a local nam^, but Dr. R. C. Knight tells me 
it is given to this Orchis in Kent. It is also 
applied in that county to O. rnorio. Sometimes 
used in the form Skieet-legs. 

Kelp. Seaweed. Always so called — after a 
storm great quantities are often washed ashore ; 
this is gathered up and used for manure (F. T. 
El worthy). 

Kemmick. The Kest -harrow, Onoiiis repens. 
See Cammick and Kamics. 

Mr. F. T. Elworthy gives this as a West Somerset 
word meaning a flax-tield, and says it is rather a 
common name of a field. 

Kers. Several correspondents send this as a 
local pronunciation of Cress, in connection with 
which Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., kindly points 
out that Kerse was the Anglo-Saxon name for 
Water-cress, and quotes : — 

'• Men witen welle whiche hath the werse, 
And so to me nis worth a Kerse.'" 

(Gower, M.S., Soc. Autiq.). 

Kebsling. White Bvillace (Devon). 

Kerslins. Small Wild Plums ; called also 
Crislings (West Somerset). 

Kestin. a Wild Plum, Pru7ius Insititia (West 
Somerset). See Bullace. 

Kettle Cases. The Spotted Orchis, O. 
viacidata (Stiu'minster Newton). 

Kettles and Crocks. The seeds of the Box, 
Buxus sempervirens (East Mark). 

Kettle Smocks. (1) Mr. Edward Vivian 
(Trowbridge) gives me this as a common local 
name for the small Bindweed, Cotivolvulus 
arvensis. 

(2) A Stogiu'sey correspondent applies it to 
the Periwinkle, Vinca, to which I have also heard 
it applied in other districts. 

(3) Mr. W. C. Baker, late of Maunsel, gives it 
as a local name for the Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica. 

(4) A correspondent at Chilton Polden applies 
the name to the Woodbine, Lonicera Pericly- 
menum. 

Kex. (1) The dried hollow stalks of certain 
plants, especially Cow-Parsnip and Hemlock- 
See Gix and Kecks. 

(2) The Wild Carrot, Daucus Carota (Dorset). 
See Cax. 

Kexies. Ueudock, Conium maculatum (Wells;* 
See Kex. (1). 

Keyball. A Fircone. 



163 

Key Flower. (1) The Cowslip, Primula 
veris. 

(2) Correspondents at Taunton and Tatworth 
give it as a local name for the Primrose, Primula 
vulgaris. 

Keys. The winged seeds of the Ash, Maple, 
Sycamore, and Lime. 

Keys of Heaven. The Cowslip, Primula verisy. 
from the resemblance of its cluster of flowers to a 
bunch of keys. 

Kicks. Stalks of Wild Parsley (G. Sweet man) 
See Kecks. 

Kidney Weed (or Wort). Wall Pennywort, 
Cotyledon Umbilicus-Veneris, from a distant 
resemblance of its leaves to the outline of a 
kidney. 

Kids. Pods. Also used as a verb. " Beans 
be kiddin' well," i.e., the loods are filling (Mr. F, 
W. Mathews). 

KiLK. A number of school-children at Aller 
give m^ this as a local name for the Charlock or 
Wild Mustard, Brassica arvensis. 

King Charles' Oak. This name is frequently 
given by school-children to the Brake or Bracken, 
Pteris aquilina, for the reason that if the portion 
of the stem which grows just below the surface 
of the earth is cut across with a sharp knife the 
figure of an oak tree may be seen. 

King Cup. (1) A very general name for 
Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 

(2) Also given to several species of Buttercup, 
particularly to the Meadow Crowfoot, Ranunculus 
acris. 

(3) The Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 

(4) The Etuopean Globe-flower, Trollius 
europaeus (F. T. Elworthy). 

Probably 2, 3, and 4 are all due to confusion 
with No. 1. 

King Kongs. Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris 

(Oakhill and Crewkerne). 

Kings and Queens. Wild Arum or Cuckoo- 
pint, Arum maci'latum (Sexey's School and 
Stockland, Devon). More frequently called 
Lords and Ladies. 

King's Claver or Clover. Common Yellow 

Melilot, Melilot.'S altissima. 

King's Cross. The Wallflower, Cheiranthus 
Cheiri (from an Ilminster school-girl). 

King's Crown. (1) Red Clover, Trifolium 
pratense (Wiveliscombe). 

(2) The Guelder Rose, Viburnum Opulua 
(Cotswolds). 

(3) Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., tells me that 
in some parts the Melilot, Melilotus, is known by 
this name. 



i64 

King's Evil. Mrs. Day, «»1" North Pethei-ton, 
gives me this as a local name fur thi' Lt'ssor 
Celandine, Ranunculus Ficarm. 

King's Knobs. The Bulbous Butteicup, 
Ranuncnlus bulbosus. 

King's Spear. (1) The Daffodil, Xarcissxs 
Pseu do- Narciss us. 

(2) The Yellow Asphodel. Asphodels s lideus. 

King's Taper. Great Mullein, Vcrha8c>im 
ThapsKS. 

King's Wine-glass. The Tulip, Tulipa 
Gesneriana. 

Kiss and Go. The Mistletoe, ^^isch■m albtim 
(Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Kiss Behind the Garden Gate. London 
Pi-ide, Saxifraga umbrosa (S.W. Wilts, Somerset 
border). 

Kiss Behind the Pantry Door, lied Spin- 
Valerian, Kentranthus ruber (a correspondent at 
WeUs). 

Kisses. (1) The Goose-grass, GaUxvi 
Aparine. 

(2) The Burdock, Arctium minus, and 
particularly to the sticky seeds in each case. 

Kissing Kind. Red Spur Valerian, Kentran- 
thus ruber (Portland). 

Kiss Me. Rev. Hilderic Friend says he has 
heard the Herb Robert, Geraniuvi Robertianum, 
so called in Devon, and quotes Mr. Britten, who 
stated that in South Bucks this flower is known 
by the name of Kiss Me Love at the Garden 
Gate. 

Kiss Me and Go. The Southernwood or 
Boy's-love, Artemisia Abrotonum. 

Kiss Me Behind the Garden Gate. Wild 
Pansy, Viola arvensis (Devon). 

Kiss Me Love at the Garden Gate. (1) 
London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa (Devon). 
The name is frequently reduced to Garden 
Gate, which see. 

(2) Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis (Devon). 

Kiss Me Not. A correspondent at Dunster 
gives me this as a local nam.e for the London 
Pride, Saxifraga nmbrosa. 

Kiss Me Quick. This name is given to a large 
number of flowers, but most generally throughout 
Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts to 

(1) The Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber. 

(2) In Devon and West Somei'set most 
generally to the London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa. 

(3) The Pansy, both wild and cultivated, 
Violxi arvensis and V. tricolor (Tauhton and West 
Somerset). 



i65 

(4) Sweet Woodiiitt". Asperula odorata (North 
Somerset and Dorset). 

(o) Meadow-sweet, Spircvu Ulmariu (Odcombe 
and Biadford-on-Tone), 

(6) White Forget-me-not, Myosotw clissitiflora 
(ilba (Chew Magna). 

(7) The Herb Robert, Geranium Rohertmnum 
(Camerton, and Dorset and Devon). 

(8) Goose-grass oi- Cleavers, Galium Ajjarine 
(Sexey's School and Ciirry Mallet). 

(9) The Bm-dnck. Arctium minus (Sexev'ti 
School). 

(10) The Bladder Campion, Silene Mifolia 
(Over Stowey). 

(11) Love-lies-bleeding, Atnaranth"S caudatus 
(Odcom>)e and Broadstone). 

(12) Southernwood <»r Boy's-love. Artemisia 
Ahroton um ( Taunt on ) . 

Kiss Me Quick and Go. Southernwood or 
Boy's-love, Artemisia Abrotonum (Devon). 

Kiss the Gaiidex Door. Mr. F. W. Mathews 
tells me that in Mid-Dorset this name is given to 
the Red Spur Valerian. Kentranthus ruber, more 
commonly knoAvn as Kiss-Me-Quick. 

Kite's Pax. Spotted Orchis, Orchis maculata 

(S.W. Wilts, Farley). 

Kit Rux the Fields. An old name for the 
Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis. 

Kittens' Tails. Catkins of Hazel, Corylns 
Avellana (Charmouth). 

Kitty Keys. The red bunches of fruit of the 
Mountain Ash or Quickbeam, Pyrus Aucuparia 
(West Somerset). 

Kitty Rux the Street. Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis (Chilmark. Wilts). 

Kitty Two-Shoes. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus (Sherborne). 

Knee Holly, Holm, or Hulver. Old popiilar 
nam.es for the Butch t-r's Broom, Ruscus aculeatus. 

Knife and Fork (or Knives and Forks). A 
fairly common name for the Herb Robert 
Geranium Robertianum, imrticularly in the Taun- 
ton and West Somerset district. 

Knights and Ladies. A correspondent at 
Cerne Abbas gives me tliis as a local name for 
the Wild Aium. or Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum,y 
nior<! generally known as Lords and Ladies. 

Knobbed Stick. A schoolgirl at Paulton 
gives this as a local name for the single Tulip. 

Knobs (or Nobs). Apples (Thome St. Mar- 
garet). 

Knob-weed (or Knop-weed). Another form 
of the name Knapweed, Centavrca. 



r66 

Knot-grass. The genteel name for Polygonum 
uviculare ; more commoaly known as Man-tie 
or Tackeb-grass (F. T. Elworthy). 

Knot-weed, Common Knot-grass, as above. 
In some counties Centaurea nigra C. Cyanus and 
€. Scabiosa are called Knot-weed. 

Kbamics. The Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 
See Cammick and KA:MjvncK. 

Lace. (1) Wild Parsley (Bruton district). 
(2) Cnervil (Axminster district). 

Lace Curtains. Fool's Pars'ey, .Mhusa 
Cynapium (a school-girl at Ilminster). 

Lace Flower. (1) " Pig's Parsley," Caucalic 
Anthriscus (Fivebead). 

(2) Hemlock, Conium maculatum (Horton). 

Ladder Love. A correspondent at Ditcheat 
gives me this as a local name for the " Cornflower 
Knapweed," Centaurea Cyanus. 

Ladder to Heaven. An old country name 
for the Lily of the Valley, Convallaria majalis. 

Ladies and Gentlemen. (1) Wild i\xum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Anon tnaculatum, more often called 
Lords and Ladies. 

. (2) Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis (particularly 
Crewkerne district). 

Ladies in a Ship. Monk's-hood, Aconitum 
Napellus (Brompton Regis). 

Ladies in the Hay, Woodruff, Asperula 
odorata (Donhead, Wilts). 

Ladies in the Shade. The Fennel Flower, 
Nigella damascena, more commonly called Love 
IN A Mist (Martock). 

Ladies in White. London Pride, Saxijraga 
umbrosa (Wilts). 

Lad's Love. Southernwood, Artemisia Abro- 
tonum, more commonly called Boy's-love. 

Lady's. When this word forms part of a 
plant's name it naay be assumed that it refers to 
" Oiir Lady " — the Virgin Mary. In days of 
old. Monks and Nuns were fond of dedicating all 
sorts of flowers to her, but it is not always easy 
to see how the second part of the name applies. 

Lady Betty, Laurustinus (Lovington). 
Viburnum Tinus. 

Lady-bird. Scarlet Pimi^ernel, Anagallis 
arvetisis (Culmhead). 

Lady-bird's Rest. A school-boy at Ever- 
creech gives me this as a local name for the 
" Meadow Sage " but as this plant is extremely 
rare and does not grow anywhere near Ever- 
creech there is apparently some confusion of 



i67 

Jiame, Probably he means the Wood Sage, 
Teucrium Scorodonia, which is common in that 
district. 

Lady Eleven o'Clock. The Star- of B-tble- 
hem, Ornithogalum umbellatum. Sw '' Eleven 
O'CLOCK Lady." 

Lady in Stockings. Wiiite " Hose in Hose " 
Polyanthus (Maunsel). 

Lady in the Boat. Dicentra spectabilis, more 
commonly known as Lady's Lockets, Bleeding 
Heart, Lyre Flower, and many other names 
(Maunsel). 

Lady Janes. Herb Robeit, Geranium Robert- 
ianum (C^armouth district). 

Lady Lavinia's Dove Carriages. Monk's- 
hood, Aconitum Napellus (Rampisham, Dorset). 

Lady Mary's Tears. Miss Ida Roper, F.L.S., 
tells me that the Common Lungwort, Pulmonaria 
officinalis, is known by this name in Dorset. 

Lady Nut. Spanish Chestnut, Castanea vesca 
(East Somerset). 

Lady of Spring. Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Lady of the Lake. White Water Lilv, 
Nymphcea alba. 

Lady of the Meadow. Meadow-sweet, 
Spir cBa Ulmaria. More often called Queen op 
THE Meadow. 

Lady of the Woods. White Bircli, Beiula 
alba. 

Lady Ruffles. A schoo!-givl at East Mark 
gives me this as a local name for the " Cam- 
panula " (?) 

Lady's Bags. The Calceolaria (Ciiard). More 
often called Lady's Pockets. 

Lady's Balls. Black Knapvveed, Centaurea 
nigra (S.W. Wilts, Charlton). 

Lady's Bed. A correspondent at Axminster 
gives m- this as a local name for the Lady's 
Bedsti-aw, which see. 

Lady's Bedstraw. The general English name 
for Galiuvi verum. Dr. Prior says : " Fi-om its 
soft puffy floccrJeat rtems and golden flowers 
— a tiame that refers to ^traw having formerly 
been used for bedding, even by ladies of rank." 

Lady's Bonnets. The Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris (West Pennard), more generally called 
Granny's (or Grandmother's)^ Bonnets. 

Lady's Boots. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
comiculatus (Rev. H. Piiend). 



i68 

Lady's Bowkr. Wild C'lciimtis or Tiavolier's 
Joy, Clematis Vitalba ; moro often cplled Virgin's 
Bower. 

Lady's Brush and Comb. Common Toasol, 
Dipsacus sylvestris (Bradford -on-Tone). 

Lady's Brushes. Teasel, as above (East 
3Iark). 

Lady's Buttons. Greater Stitchwort, Stel- 
laria Holostea. 

Lady's Bunch of Keys. The Cowslip, 
Primula veris (VVivdiscombe). 

Lady's Candle. Great ^lullein, Verhascum 
Thapsus. See HiG Taper. 

Lady's Chain. Labtu-num (particalarly Dorset 
and Devon). More gentrally called Golden 
Chain. 

Lady's CHEivnsE. (1) Greater Convolvulus 
or Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia septum. 

(2) Greater Stitchwoit, Stellaria Holoslea 
(Bruton and Wincanton). 

(3) Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa (Win- 
canton). 

Lady's Cloak. Cuckoo-flower, Cardaniine 
pratensis (Sexey's School). More generally called 
Lady's Smock. 

Lady's Cushion. (1) The Sea-pink or Thrift, 
Stalice maritima. 

(2) Kidney Vetch. Anthyllis Vulneraria (S.W. 
Wilts). 

(3) Bird's- foot Tr^'foij, Lotus comicvlattts 
(Wilts and Devon). 

Lady's Ear-drops. (1) A vc-ry geiieral name 
for the Fuchsia. 

(2) A cori'espondent at Pilton gives it as a 
local name for Dicentra spectabilis. 

Lady's Finger (or Fingers). A name given 
to a number of different flowers, but most 
generally to 

(1) The Kidney- vetch, Anthyllis Vulnerarioi 

(2) Biil's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comiculatuSi, 

(3) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

(4) Early Pm-ple Oichis, Orchis mascula. 

(5) Wild Arum oi- Cuckoo-pint, Arum macu- 
laium. 

(6) Common Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris (Trow- 
biidge). 

(7) A .school-girl at Bradfocd-on-Tone gives 
it as a. local name for the Cinquefoil, 

(8) Tafted Horsj'-shoe Vetch, Hippocrepis 
comosa (N. and. S.W. Wilts). 

(9) Meadow Vetchling, Lathyrus pratensis 
(N. and S.W. Wilts occxsionallj ). 

(10) Slew's Glossary of Wiltshire Words |,ives 
it as a lo^al name for the " Wikl Calceolaria " (?) 



169 

Lady's Fingers and Thuivibs. Bii-d'^-foot 
Trefoil, Lotus cornlculatus. 

Lady's Garters. The common giulfn striped 
Ribbon Gras.-. Digraphis or Phalaris arundinacea. 
Kno.vn ilso ;is Lady's Laces and Lady's 
KiBANDS. 

Lady's Gloves. (1) Miss Ella Ford, of 
Melplasli, gives me this as a local nam<' for the 
Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus, and it is 
give-i in the Wiltshire Glossary as a name in S.W. 
Wilts for the " Greater Bird's foot," Lotus 
idiginosus. 

(2) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (Doi-set). 

(3) In some places the name is given to the 
Canterbiu-y Bell. Campanula media ; also to 

(4) Ploughman's Spikenard, Inula squarrosa. 

Lady's Grass. (1) Same as Lady's Garters. 
(2) xV Maize, Zea japonica (Rev. H. Friend). 

Lady's Hair. (1) Quaking Grass, Briza 
media (Watchet, Bradfoid-on-Tone, and Queen 
Camei). 

(2) Wall-rue. AsplenlumRuia-muraria (Rodnt-y 
Slok.). 

Lady's Hat-pins. Sevei-al young people in 
tlie Axmiijster uistricl give me this as a local 
name for the Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis. 

Lady's Heart. Dicentra spectabilis, known 
also as Bleeding Heart, Lady's Lockets, and 
by many other names. 

Lady's Keys. (1) The Cowslip, Primula 
veris (Sanipford Brett), The Cowslii) is also 
known by this name in Geriuany, 

(2) Tiie frait of the Sycamore, Acer Pseiido- 
platanus (Chiimark, Wilts). 

Lady's Knives and Forks. Common Club- 
moss, Lycopodium clavatum. Ver\ common on 
Dunkery aiul Porlcck HilJ. Known also as 
Stag's-horn Moss. 

Lady's Lace, (I) Fool's Parsley, JEthusa 
Cynapium (Sexey's School). 

(2) Ileilge Parsley, Cuucalis Anthriscus 
(Y...V. ;. 

(3) Hemlock, Conium mucalaUitn (Suulh 
Som«'l'set). 

Lady's Laces, (1) The Dodder, Cuscuta 
Epithymiim. 

(2) Same as Lady's Garters. 

Lady's Lint. The Greater Stitch woit , Stellaria 
Holostea. Britten says " probably from the 
white threads in the centre of the stalks " ; but 
others consider it more probably from the white- 
ness of the tlowers, like a patch of lint ready for 
a. wo and. 



Lady's Lockets. (1) Dicentra spedabilis. 
Known also as the Lyre-flower and Bleeding 
Heart. 

(2) Solomon's Seal, Polygonatum niuUiflorum 
(Compton, near Yeovil). 

(3) Honesty or Lunary. Lunaria biennis (West 
Bradley). 31oi'e generally called MONEY-IN-BOTH- 
Pockets. 

(4) Seeds of the Md,ple, Acer campcstre (Curry 
Millet). 

(.5)-*v,Coinmoii Fumitory, Fumaria officinalis 
(Barrington). 

Lady's Mantle. (1) The general English 
name for Alchemilla vulgaris. 

(2) Bitter-cress or Cuckoo -flower, Cardamine 
pratensis (Sexoy's School). 

(3) A correspo ident at "Wellington gives it 
as a local name for the Moschatel, Adoxa Moschat- 
ellina. 

(4) A school-boy at Ev^ershot gives it as a 
local nanie for the liibwort Plantain, Plantago 
lanceolata. 

Lady's Milk-cans. Wood Anemone, Anemone 
nemorosa (Stal bridge). 

Lady's Milking-stools. A school-boy at 
Stalbridge gives this as a local name foi the Lesser 
Stitchwoi t, Stellaria graminea. 

Lady's Navel. The Wall Pennywoit, Cotyle- 
don Umbilicus-Veneris. 

Lady's Needlework. (1) Red Spur 
Valerian, Kentranthxis ruber. 

(2) Snow on the Moimtain, Alyssum mariti- 
mum. 

(3) Woodruff, Asperula odorata. 

(4) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
.(Bi'idgwater and liton). 

(5) Mr. W. S. Price, of Wellington, gives it 
as a local nime for the Grarde i Scabious, Scabiosa 
atropurpurea. 

(6) Hemlock, Conium tnaculatum (Martock), 

(7) Garlic Treacle-mastard or Jack-by-the- 
Hedge, Sisymbrium Alliaria (Milborne Pox't). 

Lady's Nightcap. Gx'eater Bindweeil, Caly- 
siegia sepiurn. 

Lady's Petticoat. (1) Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nemorosa (Mere, Wilts). 

(2) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (Ever- 
shot). 

Lady's Pincushion. (1) Garden Scabious, 
Scabiosa atropurpurea (Mr. W. S. Price, Welling- 
ton). 

(2) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis (Curry 
Mallet). 

(3) Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria {Wilts). 

(4) Yellow Fumitory, Corydalis lutea (Devon). 



IjADy's Pockets. The Galceolaiia. 

Lady's Posies. Red Clover, Trijolium 
pratense (Cur.y Mallet). 

Lady's Pride. A school -girl at Chorch^tanton 
gives me this as a local name for the Ouckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis. 

Lady's Purse. (1) The Calceolaria (Bast 
Lydford). ., . . ■ ,r^ 

(2) The Columbine, Aquilegta vulgaris (Oerne 
Abbas). 

(3) Dicentra spectabilis (Bridgwater). 

Lady's Best. Another school-boy at Ever- 
creech gives me this ds a local name for the 
Sage " Meadow." See Lady-bird's Rest. 

Lady's Ribands. See Lady's Grass. 

Lady's Roses. A Taunton lady gives me this 
as a local name for the small Yellow Chrysan- 
themum. 

Lady's Ruffles. The double Wbite Narcissus 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Lady's Scent-bottle. The Stock, Matthiola 
(AUer school-boys). 

Lady's Seal. (1) Solomon's Seal, Poly- 
gonatum niultiflorum. 

(2) Black Bryony, Tamus communis. 

Lady's Shimmies. See Lady's Chemise (1). 

Lady's Shoe. (1) Common Fumitory, 
Fumaria officinalis (S.W. Witts). 

(2) A Wincanton school-girl gives this as a 
local name for the Lady's Smock, Cardamine 
pratensis. 

Lady's Shoes. The Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris (Nettlecombe and Bast Mark). 

Lady's Shoes and Stockings. Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

Lady's Slipper. A name gi\en to a number 
of different plants, but most ge lerally in this 
district to the 

(1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

(2) Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellus. 

(3) The Meadow Vetchling, Lathy rus praiensis 
(Wells, Castle Cary, and Wilts). 

(4) Meadow Buttercup, Ranunculus acrxs 
(sent me by x correspondent at Ottexford, and 
also recorded from Wells by Rev. R. P. Murray). 

(5) Foxglov*', Digitalis purpurea (correspon- 
dents at Yeovil and Axbridge). 

(6) Tufted norsc-.5hoi3 Vetch, Hippocrepis 
comosa (Wilts). . /^. •,. 

(7) Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (Chilton 
Polden and Trowbridge). 

(8) Broom, Cytisus scoparius (Ubley). 

(9) CilceoUrii (Wellington) 



(10) Liipiis, Lupinus (Martock). 

(11) Iris (WiveJiscombe). 

(12) Yellow Toadflax, Linar'm vulgaris (Mar- 
tock). 

(13) S.iapdiagoj), AntirrMnum majus (Gilling- 
ha-m). 

Lady's Smock. A lothci name r. liich is applied 
to sevfial dififeioot fjlants, but most generally to 

(1) The Common Bittei-ci-ess or Cuckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis. 

(2) A number of correspondents, chiefly in 
Dorset, but including one at Bradford-on-Tone^ 
give this as a local name for the Cuckoo-pint, 
Arum nmculalum. Hollow iy gives the name as 
being applied to this flower in Hants. 

(3) Greater Convolvulus or Hedge Bindweed, 
Calystegia sepium (fairly general). 

(4) Lesser Convolvulus or Bindweed, Co7i- 
volvulus arvensis (Melbury Osmond). 

(5) Greater Stitch wort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Lady's Sunshades. Lesser Convolvjlus, C'w?- 
volvulus arvensis. 

Lady's Taper. Gieat Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus. 

Lady'SjTears. Lily of the Valley, Convallaria 
niajalis (two correspondents in the Axminster 
district). 

Lady's Themble. (1) The Foxglove, Digi- 
talis j^if^^P^c^f^- 

(2) The pretty blue Harebell, Camjianula 
rotundijolia (West Som^erset). Rev. H. Friend 
says : " The flowers of the Campanula are called 
Lady's Thimbles around Martock and Yeovil," 
and again " Tiie Virgin is expected to repair her 
own clothes, for in Soniersetshire my friends told 
me that they found her in thimbles in the shape 
of the flowers of the Campanula." Mr. W. D. 
Miller suggests that the Campanula to which Mi'. 
Friend reters must be some other than C. rotim- 
difolia, which he tells me occurs very si:>aringly 
on Ham Hill, and is not recorded elsewhere in 
the neighbourhood of Martock or Yeovil. He 
adds, " It is far too lare a jjlant tf> have a pet 
name." 

(3) A school-girl at Otterford gives this as a 
local name for the Canterbury Bell, Campanula 
media. 

(4) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Lady's Thistle. The Milk Thistle or Vu-gin 
Mary's Tnistle, Silyhum .\Jarianutn, from a super- 
stitious belief that the numerous white spots with 
which the leaves are beautifully marked were 
caused by the falling of some droiis of the Virgin 
Mary's milk upon them. 



173 

Lady's Thumbs and Fingers. Coiiespon- 
-(lents at Stalbridge and Okeford Fitzpaine give 
this as the local name of the Bird's-foot Trefoil, 
Lotus corniculattis. More gonera.1 1 y ca,] lee] Fingers 
AND Thumbs. 

Lady's Tresses. (I) T*io goneiMl English 
name for the Orciiia group, Spiranthes, from the 
floweis on the spike being iik3 braided hair, 

(2) A lidy at Clifton several yeais ago gave 
me this a.^ a local name for tho Cuckoo-pint, 
Ar^im maculatum. It is difficult to see the reason, 
but she gi-ve a number of other names correctly. 

(3) A lady at Stalbridge gave me this as a 
local name for the Yellow Bedstraw, Galium 
verum. 

Lady's Umbrellas. (1) Greater Coii volvulus 
Calystegia sepium (Aller school-boys). 

(2) Lesser or Field Convohmlus, Convolvulus 
arvensis (Leigh, Dorset). 

(3) Wocdy Night -shade, Solayiuvi Dulcamara 
(Curry Mallet). 

Lady Whin. Aa old country name for tie 
Rest Harrow, Ononis repens. 

Lady Whit-smock. White Bro^ipton Stock 
(Mauzisel). 

Lamb in a Pulpit. Wild Aium or Cuckoo-pint , 
Aru7n maculattcm. Given by Rev. H. Friend on 
the authority of Britten. A lady at East Grim- 
stead, Wilts, gives me Lamb in the Pulpit as 
being used in that district. 

L.\jmbkins. Hazel Catkins (Barford St. Martin, 
Wilts). 

Lamb's Ears. (1) A school-girl at Queen 
Camel gives me this as a local name for the Red 
Dead >«etlle, Lanium purpureum. 

(2) A coirespondcnt at Wellington gives it 
as a local name for the Silver-weed, Potentilla 
Anserina. 

Lamb's Foot. Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vul- 
neraria (E vershot ) . 

_ Lamb's Grass. Spring grass ; early grass, as 
distinguished from ee-grass (Dorset). 

Lamb's Lettuce. (1) An old name for the 
Common Corn Salad, Valerianella olitoria. 

(2) A school-girl at Queen Camel gives it as a 
local name for the Nipi)leAvort, Lapsana com- 
munis. 

(3) A school -girl at Oake gives it as a loca 
name for the Salad Bm-net, Poterium Sanguisorha ^ 

Lamb's Quarters. (1) Common Goosefoot, 
Chenopodi um alb mn . 

(2) The Common Orache, Atriplex patula. 
Dr. Pi'ior tliinks this is perhai>s only Lam,mas 
quarter, called so from its blossoming about the 
1st of August, the season when the clergy used 
to get in their tithes. 



174 

Lamb's Tails. Catkins of almost every kind, 
but more particularly those of the 

(1) Hazel, Corylus Avellana. 

(2) Those of various kinds of Willow, Salix. 

(3) Those of the Alder, Alnus rotundifolia 
(Sampford Arundel). 

(4) Eibwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata 
(East Somerset). 

(5) In some places this name is given to the 
Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria, more often 
called Lady's Fingers. 

Lamb's Toe. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
cornicdatus. 

(2) Corresijondents at Taunton and Sampford 
^iiundel give it as a local name ici- the Kidney 
Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria, and Mr. T. W. 
Cowan tells me this is a well-known name for the 
plant in many places. 

Lamb's Tongue. (1) The Hoary Plantain. 
Plantago media, from the shape of the leaf. 

(2) The Ribwort Plantain, P. lanceolata. 

(3) Common Goosefoot, Chenopodiuvi album. 

(4) The woolly -leaved garden plant, Stachys 
lanata, often called Donkey's-eab and Mouse's- 

BAR. 

(5) The Hart's-Tongue Fern, Phyllitis Scolo- 
pendrium (West Sonierset). 

(6) A school-girl at Bradford-on-Tone gives 
it as a local name for the Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthu» 
Crista-galli. 

(7) Several school-girls at Horton give it as a 
local name for " Rabbits' ears " (?) Is this the 
same as No. 4 ? 

Lamb Tongue. (1) The usual name in West 
Somerset for the common Hart's-tongue Fern 
(F. T. El worthy)'. See Lamb's Tongue (5). 

(2) " A very common weed, Chenopodium 
urbicum. Always" (P. T. Elworthy) . The Rev- 
W. P. Murray suggests that this is a mistake 
for the Red Goosefoot, C. rubrum, as C. urbicum 
is very rare. Dr. Watson considers it most 
probable that C. album is the plant referred to. 

Lammas Apple. A weU-known early apple, 
so called from its ripening about Lammas Day, 
August 1st. Known also as Jenneting. 

Lammint. (1) A contraction of Lamb Mint, 
Mentha viridis (Rev. H. Friend). 

(2) Frequently applied to the Peppermint, 
Mentha piperita. 

Lamps of Scent. A Taunton lady gives me 
this as a local namy for the Woodbine or Honey- 
suckle, Lonicera Periclymeniim. 

Land Cress. (1) Several correspondents in 
Somerset and Devon give me this as a local name 
for the Common Winter Cress or Yellow Rocket, 
Barb area vulgaris. 

(2) Dr. Watson gives it as a local name for 
the Hairy Bitter-cress, Cardamine hirsuta. 



175 

Land Robber. "Butterdock (calKHi by the 
countrv people the hnul jobber)." Diogenes' 
Sandals, p. 135 (Wilts Glossary). Mr. T. W. 
Cowan teils me this no doubt lei'eis to Runiex 
ohtusifoliiis, of which one of the ccmmon names 
is Butter Dock or Batter Dock. Dr. Watson 
suggests it may refer to the Butterbuir. 

Lanterx Leaves. The late G. P. R. Pulman. 
gives this as a local name for the Ram's-claw 
Buttercup, Banunciilus repens. 

Larger Sunshade. Hedge Con\ olvulus, Caly- 
stegia sepium (Staple Fitzpaine). 

Lark-heel,. A lady at Compton (near Yeovil) 
gives me this as a local name for the Nasturtium. 
In other pla-ces the Larkspur, Delphinum, is some- ' 
timrs called Lark's-heel and Lark's-claw. 

Lark's-SEED. Greater Plantain, Plantaga 
major (Charlton, Wilts). 

Lark's-byes. (1) Correspondents at Brad- 
ford-on-Tone and Win?- combe give me this as a 
local name for the Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis. 

(2) Mr. W. C. Baker, late of Maunsel, gives 
it as a local name for the Germander Speedwell, 
Veronica Chamcedrys. mor.' generally called 
Bird's-eyes. 

Last Flower op Summer. Michaelmas Daisy, 
Aster Tradescanii (Camoiton). Compare Fare- 
well Summer and Summer's Farewell. 

Last Rose op Summer. Michaelmas Daisy, as 
above (Compton, near Yeovil). 

Laughter Bringer. Two Taunton ladies 
give me this as a local name for the Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis. 

Laurel Tiny. A correspondent at Glaston- 
bury gives me this as a local name for the Spurge 
Laruel, Daphne Latireola. Dr. Watson suggests 
there may be some confusion here, and tlrat the 
Laurustinus, Viburnvm Tims, is intended. 

Lauristina. Mrs. H. Day, of North Petherton, 
gives me this as a " Petherton " name for the 
Guelder Rose, Viburnum Opulus. 

Lavender. Several school-boys at Evercreech 
give me this as a local name for the " Pink 
Persicaria," no douht Polygonum Persicaria ; often 
known as Red Legs. 

Laver. The fronds of certain marine algae 
(seaweeds), used as food and for making a sauce 
called Laver Sauce. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me 
that Green Laver is Ulva latissima, and Purple 
Laver is Porphyra vhlgaris. Hr has seen both 
exposed for sale in Torquay and other places. 

Lavers. The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus^ 
(Dorset). See Lev vers. 



1/6 

Lawyer Weed. Tiiis strange name for the 
comiuu]! Buttercup is j^ivfii me by a school-boy 
at Draycott. 

Lay-a-Bed. The Uaudeliou, Taraxacum 
officinale (Evercreech). Sae Lie-a-bed. 

Lay'lock. a very general corruption of Lilac, 
Syringa vulgaris. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that 
the words " Sweet Laylocks bloomed " occur in 
the Scotch ballad, " 'Twas within a mile of 
Edinboro toon." 

Lazarus Bell. In some parts of Devonshire 
the Snake's Head Fi-itillary, Fritillaria Meleagris, 
is known by this name, and also as Leopard's 
Lily (which see). It is probable that both names 
come tlown to us from the days when leprosy was 
a common disease in this country and the leper 
or " lazar " had to carry a warning bell with him. 
The shape of the flower sonifivhat resembles that 
of a bell. 

Lazy-bones. The " Barren Strawberry 's 
(Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil), Potentilla sterilis 
(Miss Ella 'Ford, Melplash). 

Leathers. A Taunton lady gives me this as 
a local name for the Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 
See Levvers. 

Legwort. a correspondent at Wambrook 
gives me this as a local name for the Lesser 
Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria. 

Lemonade. Mr. F. R. Summerhayes, of Mil- 
borne Port, gives me this as a local name for the 
Agrimony, Agrimonia Ewpatoria, no doubt in 
consequence of the lemon-like perfume given off 
by the plant. 

Lemon Flower. The Agrimony, as above 
(South Petherton). 

Lemon Plant. The sweet-scented Verbena, 
Aloysia citriodora. 

Lent Cocks. An old name for the Daffodil, 
Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. " In allusion, it 
seems, to the barbarous custom of cock-throwing, 
which was prescribed by our forefathers for Lont, 
or rather for Shrove Tuesday. The boys, in the 
absence of live cocks to throw sticks at, practised 
the art of decapitation on the flower." 

Lenten Lily. A less common form of Lent 
Lily. 

Lent Lily. A very gcmeral name foi> the 
Daffotlil, Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus. 

Lent Pitcher. The Daffodil as above (West 
Som.erset and Devon). 

Lent Rose. (1) The Daffodil. See Lent 
Lily. 

(2) Also Narcissus biflonis. 



177 

(3) Two school-girls at Stockland (Devon) 
give me this as a local name for the Prinu'ose, 
Primula vulgaris. 

Lenty Cups. The Daffodil, Narcissus Pseudo- 
Narcissus (Bishop's Lydeai-d). 

Leopard's Bane. (1) The general English 

name for the genus Doronicum, j^articularly for 

D. Pardulianches. ^ . ^, tt i. 

(2) This name is sometimes given to the Herb 

Paris, Paris quadrijolia. 

Leop \b.d's Lily. The Snake's Head Fritillary 
Fntillaria Meleagris. Mr. R. J. King, in Trans. 
Devon Assocn., IX., 101-2, suggests the name 
is a corruption of Leper's Lily, and that Lazarus 
Bell is " Lazar's Bell," from its likeness to the 
small hell which the lazar was bound to wear 
on his person so that its tinkling might give 
warning of his approach. 

Leopard's Tongue. A school-girl at Chewton 
Mendip gives me this as a local name for the 
Hart's Tongue Fern, PhyUitis Scolojiendrium. 

Lest We Forget. A school-girl at Bradford- 
on-Tone gives me this as a local name for the 
Mignonette, Reseda odorata. 

Lever Blossom. This is sent me by a school- 
girl at East Mark as a local name for the Yellow- 
Flag, Iris Pseudacorvs. 

Levers. (1) Halliwell's Dictionary gives this 
as a Soiith of England name for the Yellow Flag. 
See above. It is sent me from several x>arts of 
Dorset . 

(2) A sj)ecies of rush or sedge (Rev. W. P. 
Williams). Dr. Watson says, '' Probably Carex 
acuUformis and C. nparia,"' and adds, "The 
name seems to refer really to the Yellow Flag, 
and to have been extended to other marsh plants 
having similar leaves." 

Levvers. (1) The Great Yellow Flag, Iris 
Pseudacorus (Somerset and Dorset). 

(2) A name given in some i^arts of Somerset 
to the Reed-mace, Typha latifolia, more commonly 
called Bulrush. Rev. Hildeiic Friend says 
" Since the name of Bulrush has been given to 
the Juncus by the people of Somersetshire, it " 
was necessary that they should designate the 
Reed-mace by some other name ;^ and they 
accordingly used the word LevverS." 

(3) A coarse marsh grass, Poa aquatica, often 
called Sword-grass or Withers (Somerset 
Marshes). 

Lick. A mispronunciation of Leek, common 
in Somerset and Devon. 

Lie-abed. (1) A number of young people at 
Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. See Lay-abed. 



I7S 

(2) An equal iiumbtTcfPaulton correspondents 
give the name to the Hawkbit. Leontodon. 

Life op Mak. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this 
as a Dorset name for the Spiderwort, Tradescantia 
virginica . 

Lightning Flower. An old country name for 
the Scarlet Field Pox)i)y, Papaver Rhceas, from a 
curious superstition among children that if they 
pick it and the petals fall off, as they are apt to 
do, the children are then liable to be struck by 
lightning. 

Lilac Flower. Two school-girls at Ilminster 
give nre this as a local name for the Water Mint, 
Mentha aquatica. 

Lily (or Lilies). (1) An Ilminster school-girl 
gives me this as a local name for the Purple Iris. 

(2) In S.W. Wilts the name is given to the 
Hedge Convolvulus, Calystegia sepiwrn. Compare 

BlXE-LILIES. 

(3) Wild Arum or Cuckoo-Pint, Arum macu- 
atum (Barfcrd, Wilts). 

Lily Coxfancy. A Martock school-boy gives 
me this as a local name for the Lily of the Valley, 
Conva lla r ia maja lis . 

Levipern- Scrimp, Limpeb-Scbimp, and Limpet- 
Scrimp. Three of the commonest forms of the 
most general name in West tiomerset for the 
Cow-parsnip cv Hogweed. Heraclenm Sphondylium. 
See Lumper-Scrump. 

Limpets- Crimp. A lady at Kilton gives me 
this as a local name for the common Duckweed^ 
Lemna minor. 

Linen Buttons. The Lily of the Valley,. 
Convallaria majalis (a school-girl at Ilminster). 

Lion's Foot. Common Lady's Mantle, Alche- 
milla vulgaris. 

Lion's Mouth. (1) A fairly general name for 
the Snap-dragon, Antirrhinum ma jus, which is also 
called in some parts of the country Lion's Leaf. 

(2) Yellow Toad-flax, Linaria vulgaris (Ax- 
minster district). 

Lion's Paw. Same as Lion's Foot. 

Lion's Snap. Two school-girls at Queen Camel 
give me this as a local name for the Yellow Dead 
Nettle, Lamiuin Galeobdolon. 

Lion's Teeth (or Tooth). (1) The Dandelion* 
Taraxacum officinale. The generic nanae of this 
plant was ftrmeily Leontodon, which is now 
reserved for the Hawkbit group, and which 
means Lion's Toc^th. The English narae. Dande- 
lion, comes frcm the French dent de lion, and 
m.eans the same. It is said that the plant bears 
an equivalent name in nearly every country in 
Europe. 

(2) A sciio '1-girl at Chewton Mendip gives it 
as a local name for the Wild Lettuce. Lactuca 
muralis. 



179 

Lion's Tongues. (1) Two school-girls at 
Upottery give this as a local name for the Yellow 
To&d-fi&:s., Linaria vulgaris. See Lion's Mouth (2). 

(2) A school-girl at Paulton gives it as a local 
name for the Hart's Tongue Fern, Phylliti» 
Scolopetidrium. 

Liquorice Plant. A correspondent at Dunster 
gives me this as a local name for the Common 
Rest-harrow, Ononis repens, which is frequently- 
known as Wild Liquorice. Anne Pratt says : 
' ' The long roots have the sweet flavour of liquorice, 
and are sucked both by children and coimtry 
labourers to quench thirst." 

Little and Pretty. (1) A common name 
in many parts of Somerset, particularly in the 
Eastern portion of the country, for the Virginian 
Stock, Malcolmia maritima. I also have the name 
from Dorset, Devon, and Wilts, but to nothing 
like the same extent as frona East Somerset. 

(2) London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa (chiefly 
in Dorset, but the Rev. H. Friend gives it as used 
in Devon). 

(3) A Yeovil school-boy gives me this as a 
local name for the Germander Speedwell, Veronica 
Chamcedrys, more commonly called Bird's-eye. 

(4) An Evershot school-boy gives it as a local 
name for the Corn Cockle, Lychnis Githago. 

Little Brushes. The Teasel, Dipsacus syl- 
vestris (two Bradford- on- Tone school-girls). 

Little Chickweed. This is sent me from 
seveial districts as a local name for the Pearlwort^ 
Sagina procumbens. 

Little Crane's-Bill. Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertiannm (two Paulton school-girls). 

Little Darling. Mignonette, both \vild. 
Reseda Ivtea, and cultivated, B. odorata. The 
name " Mignonette " is a French word meaning 
" little darling." 

Little Fair One. Common Broom. Cytisus 
scoparius (a school-girl at Hawkchurch, Devon). 

Little Forget-me-Nots. A Taunton lady 
gives nae this as a local name for the Field Scorpion- 
grass, Myosotis arvensis. 

Little Gossips. A school-girl at South Pether- 
ton gives me this as a local name for " Blue 
Butchers," i.e., the Early Piu-ple Orchis, O. 
mascula. See also Gossips. 

Little Honeysuckle. Red Clover, Trifolium 
pratense (Midsomer Norton). For the explanation 
of this name see Honeysuckle (2). 

Little Jack. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Bobertianuni (Hawkchurch, Devon). 

Little Jan. The Herb Robert, as above 
(Chardstock). 



I So 

Little Jane. The Scarlet Piiiipernel, Anagallis 
<irvc)isis (Colyton). 

Little Jex. The Ileih Koheit (Axiuinstei). 
See Little Jan. 

Little John. Greater Stitchwort, Stcllaria 
Holostea (Wincanton). 

Little Knock-a-Nidles. Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis (a school-gh-l at Chewtou MencUp). 

Little Lie-a-Bed. Connnon Groundsel, 
Senecio vulgaris (a school-girl at Paulton). Ap- 
parently to distinguish it from the larger flowers 
of Dandelion and Hawkbit mentioned under 
Lie- Abed. 

Little Open Stab. Common Daisy, BelUs 
perennis (several school-gii-ls at Paulton). See 
Little Star. 

Little Peep-Bo (or Little Peeper). The 
Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis (Dowlish 
Wake). No doubt from, the way in which it opens 
or closes its petals according to the state of the 
weather, from, which it has also earned the popular 
name of the Poor Man's Weather (.las- or 
Shepkebd's Barometer. 

Little Pinks. London Pride, Saxifraga uni- 
brosa (fromi a school-girl at Chewtion Mendip). 

Little Red Riding Hood. (1) The Red 
Campion, Lychnis dioica (East Mark and Ax- 
minster). 

(2) Another school-girl at East Mark gives 
this namie as being applied to the Ragged Robin, 
Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

Little Red Robin. Tii • Herb Robert, 
Geranium Rohertianum. 

Little Robin. The Herb Robert, as above 
(Devon). 

Little Rose of Sharon or Little Sharon's 
Rose. Several school-girls at Paulton give me 
this as a local name for one of the St. John's 
Worts, Hypericum. Dr. Watson says the name 
Avould probably be given to any of the St. John's 
Worts, but usually to the common one, H. 
perforatum. 

Little Shoe-flower. The Calceolaria (a 
Bradford-on-Tone school-girl). 

Little Star. (1) Com.mon Daisy, Bellis 
perennis (sevex'al school-girls at Oakhill). Com- 
pare Little Open Star. 

(2) Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor (a school- 
girl at Merriott). 

Little White Bells. Lily of the Valley, 
Convalliaria majalis (several school-girls at 
Paulton). 



Live for Ever. A Taunton gentleman gives 
lue this as a local name for the CvicUveed, Gnap- 
halmni uliginosurn. 

Live-long. A general English name for the 
Ori)ine, Sedum Telephium. 

Live Long and Love Long. A school-girl at 
Sampford Arundel gives me this as a local name 
for the 0)'pine, as above. 

Livers. (1) The great Yellow Flag, Iris 
Pseudacorus (Dorset). See Levers. 

(2) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris 
(Rampisham, Dorset). 

Loaves of Bread. Common Mallow, JIalva 
sylvestris (East Somerset and North Dorset). 

Lob-grass. Soft Brome-grass, Bromus hord- 
eaceus (West Som.erset). 

Lob-lollies. A school-girl at Furley gives 
me this as a local nam.e for " Love lies Bleeding," 
Amaranthus caudatus. 

Lockets and Chains. Dlcentr'a spedabilis 
(West Pennard). 

Locks and Keys. A very common name for 
tli(,- winged seeds of certain trees, pai-ticularly 

(1) The Ash, Fraxinus excelsior. 

(2) The Maple, Acer campestre. 

(3) The Sycamore, Acer Pseudo-pkdanus. 

(4) The Lime, THia vulgaris (Combe St. 
Nicholas), 

(5) The Early Purple Orchis, O. mascula 
(Bridgwater and Dulverton). 

(6)- The Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla 
non-scripta (Wiveliscombe, Bradford, and Maun- 
sel). 

(7) " Hii^s," the fruit of the Dog-rose, Rosa 
canina (Stogui-sey). 

(8) Dicentra spectabilis. The Wilts Glossary 
says this is the usual cottager's name for this 
plant throughout Somerset. 

(9) The Common Laburnum, Laburnum vuJgare 
(Wimborne). 

Loggerheads. Black Knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra. Dr. Prior says : " Prom the resemblance 
of its knobbed involucres to an ancient weapon 
so called, consisting of a ball of iron at the end 
of a stick." 

Loggerums. The North Wilts form of Logger- 
heads, as above. 

London Bells. Hedge Bindweed, Cahjstegia 
sepiuin (Upottery). 

London Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthe- 
mum Leucanthemuni (Crewkeme district and 
Dorset). 

London Pretty. Loiubm Pride, Saxifraga 
umbrosa (Leigh, Dorset). 



[82 

London Pride. (1) The general English 
name for Saxifraga umbrosa. 

(2) In West Somerset the Biting Stonecrop, 
Sedum acre. 

(3) Enchanter's Nightshade, Circaa lidetiana 
(Bridgwater and Taunton district). 

(4) Southernwood, Artemisia Ahrotonum 
(Trowbridge district). 

(5) Round-leaved Sundew, Drosera rotundi- 
Jolia (Childe Okeford). 

LoNESO^iB Lady. Bittercress or Cuckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis (East Devon). 

Long Beaks. Shepherd's Needle, Scandix 
Pecten-Veneris (Leigh, Dorset). 

Long-legs. Tlie Cowslip, Primula veris 
(school-boys at Aller). 

Long Purples. (1) Most commonly the 
Purjile Loosestripe, Lythrurti Salicaria. 

(2) The Foxglove, Digitalis purjnirea (West 
Somerset). 

(3) Early Purple Orchis, O. mascula (West 
Somerset and Devon ; rarely used). This is 
believed to be the Long Purples of Shakesi^eare's 
Hamlet (iv. 7). 

(4) The compilers of the Wilts Glossary state 
that Tennyson's " Long Purifies of the Dale " 
are the Tutted Vetch, Vicia cracca. 

Long Tails. This is given me as a local 
name for the Watercress, Radicula Nasturtium- 
aquaticum, at Laigh, Dorset. 

Looking-glass. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (Hammoon, Dorset). 

Look Up and Kiss Me. (1) London Pride, 
Saxifraga umbrosa (Devon). 

(2) The Wild Pansy or Heartsease, Viola 
arvensis. 

Loppy Major. The Burdock, Arctium minus. 

Lords and Ladies. (1) A very general 
name for the Wild Ai-um or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
niaculatwm. 

(2) Mr. and Mrs. Lansdowne, of Over Stowey, 
give me this as i local name for Irises. 

(3) Early Purx)le Orchis, O. mascula (Poole). 

Love. Goose-grass, Galium Aparine (Doult- 
ing). 

LovE-A-Li-DO. Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis. 
i(Wilts). See Love in Idleness. 

Love and Idols. Wild Pansy, as above. 
Occisionally applied to the garden Pansy also. 

Love Entangled. (1) Yellow Stonecrop, 
Sedum acre. 

(2) The Fennel-flower, Xigella 'amascena, 
more often called LoVE-lN-A-MlST. 



i83 

Love-grass. Eragrostis elegans. 

Love ix a Mist (ov in a Puzzle). Feimel- 
flowei', Nigella dainascena ; often called Devil 
IN A Bush. Dr. R. C. Knight tells me he has 
heard this plant called Love in a Mist when in 
flower, and Devil in a Bush when in fruit. 

Love in Idleness. An old name for the 
Pansy or Heartsease, Viola arvensis. Mr. James 
Britten kindly points out that this name does 
not mean what a present-day reader woidd 
naturally take it to m.ean, but it is equivalent to 
_" Love in Vain," by which old name the Pansy 
is still sometimes known. Shakespeare refers to 
it in bis ^Midsummer Night's Dream (Act 2, 
Scene 2) : 

Yet marked I where the bolt of Cupid fell, 

It fell upon a little western flower, 

Before milk-xvhite, now puri>le with love's 

wound. 
And maidens call it Lov^^-in-idleness. 

Love in the Midst. Another form of Love 
IN A 3IIST, which see. 

Love in Vain. The Wild Pansy or Heart- 
sease, Viola arvensis. 

Love Lies Bleeding. (1) The general Eng- 
lish name for Aniarantus caudatus. Mr. F. T. 
Elworthy says : "No other plant is known by 
this name among the i:)easantry, bet some varieties 
of Celosia aie beginning to be so called in gardens." 

(2) Frequently ai^i^lied to Dicenira spectabilis, 
more often known as the Bleeding Heart. 

(3) In Dorset the name is sometimes given to 
the Lunary or Money in both Pockets, Lunaria 
biennis. 

Love-man. An old English name for the 
Goose-grass or Cleavers, Galium Aixirine, from. 
its habit of clinging to the garments with which 
it comes into contact. 

Love Me, Love Me Not. (1) A Taunton lady 
gives me this as a local name for the common 
Daisy, Bellis perennis. 

(2) Dr. Watson writes, " The spikelets of the 
Rye Grass, Loliuni j^erenne, are i)ulled off wliilst 
saying ' Loves me, loves me not,' and this nam.e 
is sometimes applied to the plant." See Does 
My Mother Want Me ? 

LovENiDOLDS. Mr. Slow gives this form as 
the Wiltshire name for the Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis ; a corrui^tion of Love in Idleness. 

Lovers. Forget-me-nots, Jlyosotis (a Thome 
St. Margaret school-ghl). 

Lovers' Button - holes. Forgi'1-me-nots, 
Myosotis (Camerton) . 

Lovers' Joy. Forget-me-nots, Myosotis (Staple 
Fitzpaiue). 



i84 

Lovers' Kisses. Goose-grass or Cleavers, 
Galium Aparine (Camerton). 

Lovers' Knots. Goose-grass or Cleavers, 
Galium Aparine (Trowl^ridge). 

Lovers' Thoughts. Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis. 

Loving Andrews. KicharcL Jefteries in Ms 
" Village Miners " applies this name to the Meadow 
Craneshill, Geranimn pratense. 

Loving Idols. The Wild Pansy, Viola arvensis 
(Wilts). See LovE in Idleness.' 

Loving Lydles. Pansies, more especially the 
smaller varieties (Mr. Edward Vivian, I'rowhridge). 

LUMPER-SCRUMP or LUMPERN-SCRUiVIP. COW- 

parsnip, Heradenm Sphondylinm. (Tannton and 
West Somerset). 

LU3IPRUM SCRUMP. A Witlii<'l Flory fonn of 
the name given above. 

Lungwort. Great Mullein. Verhascum Thapsiis 
(Stalbridge). 

Lyre Flower. A name frequently given to 
Dicentm spectabilis, known also as the Bleeding 
Heart. Lady's Locket, and by many other 
poptilar nanres. 

Lyver. The late G. P. E. Pulmaii, of Crew- 
kerne, gave this as a local name for the Bulrush, 
Typha latifolia, and asked : " May this word 
have anything to do A\-ith the origin of ' Liver- 
pool ' ? The arms of that town are a 2^ool with 
rushes (lyvers) around it." See Levvers (2). 
Miss Ida M. Koi^er writes, " Liver is an imyginary 
bird, similar to the Phoenix, and as such is used 
in the arms of Liverx>ool. The city is more likely 
named from the Welsh Ller picll, signifying 
' place of the pool,' which became in the 3Ii*ddle 
Ages ' Litherpool 'I 

Mace. Mast. Acorns. Beech nuts are called 
Beech-mace. 

Maceys. Acorns (Wellington district). 

Macey-tree. The Oak (Sampford Arundel). 

Madarin. The Scentless 3Iayweed, 2Iatricaria 
inodora (Hamnioon, Dorset). 

Madder. Sweet Woodruff, Asperula odorata 
(N.W. Wilts). Ovir Wild Madder, Rubiu jwre- 
grina, i-^ a relalive of the Woodruff, and as a con- 
sequence the uauie may sometimes be given to 
the latter in error. 

Madder or Madders. 'J'he Stinking Chamo- 
mile, Anthcmis CoUda. 

Madnep. Ml . T. W. C'UWHii gives mo this as 
a name for the Oow-Parsiiip, Heracleum Sphondy- 
lium, u-ed by a gardener of his who came from 
Devonshire. 



i85 

Madbon. The Corn Feverfew, Chr>/santherniim 
Partheniuvi (Shaft esbvuy). 

Mad WORT. (1) Asperugo prooimhens, gener- 
ally known as German Madwort. 

(2) x^uy species of the genus Alysswm. The 
Rev. H. Friend says : " The Alyssum of the 
ancients was supposed to have the jjower of 
moderating and appeasing anger, and from this 
it seetns to have derived its name. Some have, 
however, taken the word to indicate that the 
plant cured hydrophobia and similar raging 
complaints ; on which account wo hear of it 
under the name of Madwort. 

(3) Frobalily sonietinies applied in eiror to 
the Wild Madder, Ruhia jJcregrina. See Catch- 
weed (2). 

Maesh. Moss (Wincanton district). See 
Mesh. 

Maiden. The Stinking Chamomile, Antheniis 
Cotula (Dtrsct). 

Maiden Pink. The general English name for 
Dlanthvs dcUoides. Dr. Prior says : '' A mistake 
for mead-pink ... a pink that grows in 
meadows." The plant is very rare in Somerset, 
and is not found in Dorset or Wilts." 

:M AID ens' Delight. Southernwood, Artemisia 
AbrofonKm ; more often called Boys' Love. 

Maidens' Ruin. Southernwood, Artemisia 
Ahrotonmiu Sometimes called l:>y tlie double 
nanie " Boys' Love and Maideas' Rnin " (Devon). 

Maid in the Meadow. A school -girl at Childe 
Okeford gives me this as a local nanie for the 
Bulbous Crowfoot, Ranunculus bulbosus. 

Maid op the MEADOW^ The Meadow-sweet, 
Spircea Ulmaria. More generally called Queen 
OP the Meadow. 

Maids. The " rose-eyed " flowers of the 
Primrose, Primula vulgaris (Sampford Arundel). 
See Boys and Girls. 

Maid's Hair. An old iianie for the Lady's 
Bedstraw, Galium verum. 

Maish Mallow. A corruption of Marsh 
Mallow, but often applied to the Common Mallow, 
Malva sylvestris (East Somerset and Wilts). 
Of. Mesh Mellish. 

Male. IMr. J. C. ^lansell-Pleydell gives this as 
a Dorset name for the Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. 

Male Lily. Lily of the Valley, Convallaria 
majalis (a school-girl at Rodney Stoke). Evi- 
dently a corruption of May Lily. 

Malice or Mallish. Common Mallow, Malva 
sylvestris. 



i86 

MAliLow-HOCK. Common Malknv, Malva syl- 
vestris (Wincantoii district). 

3IALLOW-ROCK. The Hoiiseleek, Setnpervivum 
ectoruni (Compton, near Yeovil). 

Mandrake. The Red-berried (or White) 
Bryony. Bryonia dioica. The fables and sxiper- 
stitions connected with this plant wotild fill 
several columns. It was said to shriek when 
pulled out of the ground. 

Man IX THE Pulpit. Wild Arum or Cuckoo- 
pint, Arum niaodafifm (a school-gul at Otter- 
hampton), more often called Parsox ix the 
Pulpit. 

Man Orchis. A common name in Soni'.'rset 
for the Twayblade, Listera ovata, probably due to 
confusion with the true Man Orchis, Aceras 
anthropophora. 

Max's White Kat. A number of school- 
children at Otterhampton give me tliis as a local 
name for the Garden LUy. 

Max^-tie. Common Knot-grass, Polygonum 
avicdare (Devon and West Somerset, but in the 
fetter district mere often called Tacker-grass). 

Mare-blobs. The Marsh Marigold, Cctltha 
palustris. Dr. Prior gives the derivation as 
mere = a maish, and bhb = a, bladder. 

Mare's Tail. (1) The general English name 
for Hippuris vulgaris. 

(2) In West Somerset, the Cornlield Horsetail, 
Equisetum arvense ; more often called in that 
part of the county Old Man's Beard or Joint- 
weed. 

Margret or Marguerite. Ox-eye Daisy, 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

Marram. The Common Soa-reed, or Mat- 
weed, Ammophila arenaria, whose many long 
roots serve to hold down and to bind together 
the sand of our dunes. 

Marsh Elder. Common Guelder Rose, Vi- 
burnum Opidus. 

Marsh Lilies. Marsh Marigold, Caltha palus- 
tris (Bath district). 

Marsh Mallow. Dr. Downcs tells me that 
tne Tiee Mallow, Lavatera arborea, is always 
known by this name about Ilminster, where it is 
often seen in cottage gardens, the leaves being 
used for poultices, &c., for bruises. 

Marshweed. The Marsh Horsetail, Equise- 
tum palustre. Referred to under this name in 
Blackmore's " Lorna Doone." 

Martha or Marthus. The Corn Chamomile, 
Anthemis arvensis. 



i87 

Mary at the Cottage Gate. Greater Stitcb- 
wort, Stellaria Holostea (a school-girl at Oakhill). 

Mary Buds. (1) An old name for the Mari" 
gold, Calendula officinalis. It was j)robably to 
this plant that Shakespeare referred when he 
said : 

And winking Mary-buds begin to ope their 
golden eyes. 

(2) Various kinds of Buttercup, Ranunculus. 

Mary Gold. Marigold, Calendula officinalis. 
Rev. H. Friend sa>'^ : " This pronunciation and 
spelling still linger among the common people, 
and ill fact many people of position and intelli- 
gence employ it." 

Mary Janes. (1) Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica (Thorne St. Margaret). 

(2) The Herb Robert, Geranium Bobertianum 
(East Devon). 

Mary's Gold. The Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. 

Mary's Tears. A Dorset name for the 
Common Lungwort, Pulmonaria officinalis. 

Mash Mallice. (1) Marsh Mallow, Althcea 
officinalis. 

(2) Often ai)i)lied to the Comimon 3Iallow, 
Malva sylvestris, some authorities say " in error," 
but Mr. James Britten tells me that others 
maintain the name is correctly given, because 
this plant was, and still is, used in making mashes 
in poultices. See Marsh Mallow. 

Mass or Mast. Acorns. 

Mather, Matherx, or Mathers. Stinking 
Chamomile or Mayweed, Anthemis Cotula (Dorset). 
Mr. T. W. Cowan gives me the following as some 
of the names applied to this plant in other xDarts 
of the country : — ^Mathes, Maithes, Mavin, 
Maythig, Mawthen, 3Iawther, Maisc, Meaden, 
Mayes, and Mothern. 

Mathern or Mauthern. Ox-eye Daisy, Chry- 
santhemum Leucanthemum (Wilts). 

Mawl-scrawl. a small shrivelled apple (F. 
T. Elworthy). The word is generally used in 
West Somerset as a local name for a Caterinllar. 

May. (1) Hawthorn, Cratcegus monogyna. 

(2) In Devon more frequently apiolied to the 
Lilac, Syringa vulgaris (also Brompton Regis). 

(3) In some parts of Devon the Laurustinus, 
Viburnum Tinus. 

(4) Rev. H. Friend also gives Arabis alpina 
" in Somerset especially." but there is evidently 
some mistake here, as the plant naured is only 
found in the Island of Skye. 

May Balls. A common name in Somerset 
and Dorset for the Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Opulus, particularly for the cultivate J double 
variety. 



1 88 

May Blobs. The Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. Dr. Watson writes me : — " Since the 
Marsh Marigold flowers chiefly in April in the 
South, the references to May suggest northern 
origins for these names. The plant has tisually 
finished flowering in Somerset before May, 
except on the moors, whicli have been under 
water till late in the spring." 

May Blossom. Sec May (1) and (2). 

May Blossoms. Liiy of tin- Valky, Con- 
vallaria majalis (Devon). 

May Bubbles. Tli" Marsh Maiigold, Caltha 
palustris. 

May Buds. Buttercup, Ranunculus (Martock). 

May Flower. (1) Hawthorn, Cratcegus 
monogyna. 

(2) Tlie Lilac, Syringa vulgaris (West Somerset 
and Devon). 

Mayflowers. (1) The Cuckoo-flower, Car- 
damine pratensis (Sexey's School). 

(2) Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris {T'n^ymvy^ 
Wilts). 

May Lily. Tlie Lily of the Valley, Convallariv 
majalis. ' 

May Pink. The Commou white garden Pink 
Dianthus caryophyllus. 

May-pole. A school-girl at Gittisham, near 
Honiton, gives me this as a local name for the 
GvK'ldei' Rose, Viburnum Opulus ; more often 
called May-rose. 

May Rose. The Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Opulus. 

"M-ATi Tassels. Tiie Guelder Rose, as above 
(Axbridge). 

May Tossels. The Guelder Rose, as above 
(Barrington). 

May Tosty. The Giu'lder Rose, as above 
(Som.erset). 

Maywort. Tne Cross-wort BedstraAV, Galium 
Cruciata. 

Mazearts. a school-gu'l at Colyton gives me 
this as a local name for the Wild Cherry, Prunua 
avium. See Mazzard. 

Mazzabd. The Wikl Cherry, Prunus avium ; 
also a kind of black cherry extensively cultivated 
in North Devon. Mr. Elworthy says : It is a 
common saying that to gather them you miust 
hold on with your nose and pick with both hands. 
Hence the ustial remark ujion a hooked nose 
* He've agot a nose fit for a Mazzard-picker.' ' 

Meadex. Stinking Chamomile, Anlhemis 
Cotula (Dorset). S.-e Mather. 



1 89 

Meadow Parsnip. Coav Parsnip, Heracleum 
Sphondylium. 

Meadow Pixk. (1) Ragged Kobin, Lychnis 
Flos-cacidi (Martock and Shute, Devon). 

(2) Cuckoo-flowei , Cardumine pTatensis (Stock- 
land, Devon). 

Mead WORT. The Meadow-sw.'et, Spircca 
Ulmaria. 

Measle-plower. The garden Marigold, 
Calendula officinalis, diied flowers of which have 
some reputation in Wilts as a remedy. Children, 
however, have an idea that they may catch the 
complaint from, handling the plant. 

Meatnut.— " Chestnuts are also called Meat- 
nuts, because they are \ised for food " (Rev. H. 
Friend, Devon). 

Meet Her (or Me) in the Entry. An old 
name for the Wild Pansy or Heartsease, Viola 
arvensis. 

Meet Me Love. In North Devon this name 
is given to the London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa, 
as a contraction of " Meet me. Love, behind the 
garden door " ; but the name is usually applied 
elsewhere to the Pansy. 

Men and Woihen. Wild Ai-um or Cuckoo" 
pint, Arum maculaticm (Sexey's School). 

Men of W\\r. The Ribwort Plantain, Plantago 
lanceolata (Durston). See Cock's Heads and 
Soldiers. 

Men's Faces. The Pansy, Viola tricolor 
(Evercroech). 

Merry. The Wild Cherry, Primus avium. 

Merry-goes. A school-girl at Membui'y 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
Periwinkle, Vinca. Mr. Jas. Britten suggests 
that this may be a corruption of Marigold, applied 
to the Periwinkle in error. 

Merry-go-Rounds. a Sherborne lady gives 
me this as a local name for the Marigold, Calendula 
officinalis. 

Mesh (from A.S. meos=moss). (1) Moss. 

(2) Lichens, Usnea, Bamalina, and Evernia, 
which grow plentifully on apple trees. 

Mesh-Mellish. Rev. H. Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire pronunciation of Marsh Mallow, 
Althaea officinalis. Cf. Maish Mallow. 

Meslin or Meslin-corn. A mixture of wheat, 
barley, and oats — 'Often sown upon odd corners 
for poultry or game (F. T. Elworthy). From 
the Latin miscellanea. " Take thee, therefore, 
all kinds of grain, wheat, and barley, and beans, 
and lentiles, and fitches, and put them all to- 
gether, and make bread of this mesline." Bp. 
Hall : Hani Texts ; Ezekiel iv., 9. 



190 

Mess-abed. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. Dr. Downes writes : — " A curious 
superstition prevails in western countries, even 
into Cornwall, that children who pick Dandelions 
will ' wet theu' beds.' This is no doubt con- 
nected with the old herbalists' view that the 
root ' makas an excellent decoction to promote 
imne.' " See PiSS-ABED. 

Mews. Moss. jMt. Elworthy tells us " Whit- 
droats' nestes bain't never a builded way Mews ; 
they always be a-builded Way motes o' hay like. 
Cuddlies now d'always make theirs way Mews." 

Mezajbd. Wild Cherry, Primus avium. (Ciiard- 
stock). See Mazzakd. 

Mice's Mouths. The Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris (S.W. Wilts). 

Michaelmas Crocus. Meadow Saffron, Colchi- 
cum autumnale. 

Michaelmas Daisy. (1) The general English 
name for the crdtivated Aster Tradescanti and 
other species of Aster. 

(2) The Sea Aster or Starwort, Aster Tripo- 
lium ; common in mud-banks along the coast and 
the salt marshes of Somerset. 

(3) The name is erroneously applied to other 
flowers as well, at an earlier season of the year, 
including the Feverfew, Chrysanthemum Parth- 
enium. Sae Midsummer Daisy (2). 

Middle Comprey. An old country name for 
the Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

MIDSU3EMER Daisy. (1) The Ox-eyi> Daisy, 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

(2) The Feverfew, Chrysanthemum, Parfhenium, 
in flower at this time of the year, but som,etim£S 
called Michaelmas Daisy through confusion. 

Midsummer Fair-maid. A lady at Compton 
(near Yeovii) gives me this as a local nam.e for the 
Thrift, Statice maritime. 

MIDSUM3IER Lily. The White Lily, Lilium 
candidum (Mr. W. C. Baker). 

MidsUjMMEB Man. A lady at Chilmark (Wilts) 
gives me this as a local name for the Broom-rape, 
Orobanche. 

MiDSUMiiER Men. (1) The Orpine or 
Livelong, Sediim Telephium, from an ancient 
custom of girls to try their lovers' fidelity with 
it on MidsuEomer-eve, as described in Brand's 
Popular Antiquities. Hannah More relates of 
a young country gu-l, that she would never go to 
bed on Midsummer-eve without putting up in 
her room a piece of the plant called Midsummer- 
men, as the bending of the leaves to the right or 
to the left would indicate the constancy or faith- 
lessness of the object of her thoughts. 



191 

(2) In Wilts the name is given to a variety 
of the Red Orpine, Sedum Faharia. Dr. 
Watson wi'ites : — Sedtim Telephium and S. 
Fabaria are critical species only distinguished by 
botanists (and there are differences of opi^nion 
even amongst them). They both iisuallv have 
ptxrple flowers. The Red Orpine is merely the 
plant with the usual colom'ed petals. The name 
is doubtless given indiscriminately to Sedum 
Telephium and S. Fabaria in both counties. 

(3) A correspondent near Martock gives it 
as a local name for the Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus I'uber. 

MiGWORT. Common Wormwood or Mugwort, 
Artemisia vulgaris (Hammoon, Dorset). 

Milk Cans. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (Trowbridge). 

MiLK-FLOWEB. Evening Campion, Lychni* 
alba (Charlton All Saints, Wilts). 

MiLKiES. Cuckoo-flower, Cardamine pratensis 
(Exmoiith). 

Mllkixg Maids. Cuckco-flower, as above 
(Bromf)ton Regis). 

MiLK-]ViAiDS. A name applied to a number of 
different flower^-, but most generally throughout 
this district to 

(1) The Cuckoo-flower or Lady's Smock, 
Cardaynine pratensis. 

(2) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 

(3) The Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa. 

(4) The White Campion, Lychnis alba. 

(5) Several correspondents give this as a local 
name (Dorset) for Meadow Saxifrage, Saxiiraga 
granulata. Mr. W. C. Baker applies the name 
to Saxijraga media, which is a native of the 
Pyi-enees, sometimes grown in English gardens. 

(6) A lady at Colyton gives it as a local name 
for the Milkwort, Polygala vulgaris. 

Milk Stools. Flowers of the Box, Buxus 
sempervirens (Plush, Dorset). 

Milk Thistle. (1) The general English name 
for Silybuni Marianum; rare in Somerset. 

(2) Very commonly applied to the Sow Thistle, 
Sonchus oleraceus. 

Milk Weed. Common Sow Thistle, Sonchus 
oleraceus (West Somerset). 

Milk Wort. (1) Various species of Spurge, 
particularly the Sxm Spurge, Euphorbia Helio- 
ecopia, and the Petty Spurge, E. Peplus. 

(2) The Sow Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus (Miss 
Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Milky Dashel. Common Sow Thistle, Son- 
chus oleraceus (West Somerset and Devon). 
-Uso the Sharp Fringed Sow Thistle, aS^. asper, 
both species being common and not usually 
distinguished except by botanists. 



192 

MiLKT DiCEL. Sow Thistle, as above (Sto- 
giu'sey). 

MUiKY DiSLE. Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale 
(Rev. H. Friend, Devon). 

i MiLKYMAiDS. Cuckoo-flower, Cardamine 2^ra- 
tensis (Devon). 

Millbb's Delight. A correspondent at Cerne 
Abbas gives nae this as a local name for the Corn 
Bhie-))()ttle, Centaurea Cyanus. 

Miller's Stab. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (tAVO school-girls at Queen Camel). 

Mill Mountain. Ground (or Purging) Flax, 
Linum catharticum. 

Mind Youb Own Business. This appears to 
be the usual name in the Yeovil and Mudford 
district for a small spreading plant which Dr. 
Watson tells me is Helxine Solierolii. He knows 
no common English name for the plajit, but has 
heard it called Ai"tillery -plant in mistake for the 
true Artillery-plant, Pilea. A gardener living 
near Yeovil told me he knew the jilant only by 
the name of Olivbb Cbomwell's Cbeeping 
Companion. Mr. W. D. Miller describes it as an 
intolerable weed. 

Mischievous Jack. Common Chickweed, Stel- 
alria media (Ilton). 

Miss Modesty. (1) Common Daisy, Bellis 
perennis (a Yeovil school-boy). 

(2) The Violet, Viola odorata (a school-girl 
at Shaftesbury). 

Miss Scenty. The Violet, as above (a school- 
boy at Evercreech). 

Mock. A tuft of grass. Mr. Elworthy says . 
" In pasture land the cattle usually leave tufts 
or patches of the ranker herbage ; these are always 
called Mocks." Rev. Wm. Barnes (Dorset) 
defines it as "a tuft of sedge or a root or stump 
of a c\\t-ofl bush." Mr. F. W. Mathews writes : 
" In soggy commons one steps from tussock to 
tussock of grass ; these are always named 
Mocks." 

Mock Obange. The general English name 
of Philadelphus coronarius, a plant with large 
creamy wiiite flowers, with a x>owerful odour, 
somewhat resembling that of Orange-blossoms, 
cultivated in shrubberies and cottage gardens., 
Very generally called Syringa. 

Modest Maiden. The Violet, Viola odorata 
(two Ilminster school-girls). 

MoGVUBD. The usual name in West Somersec^ 
for the Com.mon Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris. 

Moll o' the Woods. Wood Anemone 
Anemone nemorosa (Fiddleford, Dorset). 



193 

MoLY. Correspondents at Coinpton (tiear 
Yeovil) and Stockland (Devon) give me this as 
a local name for the Wild Garlic or Ramsons,. 
Allium ursiniDn. Tne common nam^ in some 
parts foi- Allium Moly. 

Dr. Prior says Moly is the nam- of a plant in 
Homer's Odyssey, and occasionally introduced 
into modern poetry as in Milton's Comus. p. 63(5, 
b\it not identified with any known species ; the 
Eiicyclopesdic Dictionary, however, states Homer's 
Moly is Allium magicum. 

Money. (1) Yellow Battle, Rhinanthus 
Crista -gain (Siioscombe). 

(2) Honesty, Lunaria biennis (West Somerset 
and East Devon). 

Money Bags. Common Shepherd's Purse. 
Capsclla Bursa-pastoris, of which Anne Pratt 
says : " Its numerous fifit seed-pouches charac- 
terise the plant ; and they are sufficiently like 
a rustic flat leather purse to have obtained* for it 
not only its English name, but the synonyms by 
which it is known in country places almost through- 
out Europe." The mediaeval purse, which hung 
from the girdle, was shaped just like the fruit of 
this plant. 

Money Box. Two school-girls at Horton give 
me this as a local name for the Figwort, Scrophu- 
laria. 

Money Flower. Honesty, Lunaria biennis 
Money in Both Pockets. (1) A very 
general name for Honesty or Lunary, Lunaria 
biennis, from the transparent, pm'se-like seed- 
pods, which contain the seed on both sides of a 
dividing membrane. 

(2) Several correspondents in both Somerset 
and Dorset give this as a local name for Phlox, 

(3) Seeds of the Mai:)le, Acer campestre (Curry 
Mallet). 

(4) Common Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Money in Every Pocket. Honesty. More 
generally called Money in Both Pockets. 

Money Plant. (1) Honesty, as above ; 
particularly in Devon. 

(2) Penny Cress, Thlapsi arvense. This plant 
owes its general English name to the fact that its 
seed vessels are about the size of the old English 
silver pennies ; when these coins were in common 
use the name was expressive, but it is scarcely 
understood now. Doubtless the name Money 
Plant, which is sent me from Durston and other 
places, is due to the same reason. See Money 
Tree. 

Money Pockets. Honesty or Lunary, Lunaria 
biennis (Ilminster district). 

Money Tree. A school-girl at Widworthy 



194 

{near Honiton) gi\es me this as a local name for 
the Penny Cress. See Money Plant (2). 

Money Wort. A vory general name for the 
Creeping Loosestrife, Lysimachia Nummularia 

Monkey Bells. A school-girl at South 
Petherton gives me this as a local namj for the 
Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 

Monkey Chops. (1) Snapdragon, Antir- 
rhinum niajus (Mid. and Estst Somerset). 

(2) Two Evercreech school-boys give m^ tliis 
as a local name for the Ground Ivy, Ncpeta 
hederacea. 

(3) Prom Evercrecch also I have the name 
as being applied to the " Musk," by which is 
probab.y meant Mimulus Langsdorffii, but 
possibly M. moschatus. 

Monkey Cups. " WiUl Musk," Mimuhis 
Langsdor_ffii (L-igh, Dorset). 

Monkey Faces. (1) Garden Pansy, Viola 
tricolor. 

(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (Mii- 
borne Port). 

(3) Tae Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus 
(West bury, Wilts). 

Monkey Flower. (1) A very general name 
for various si)ecies of Mimulus, and particularly 
for the hand-om ■ Yellow Mimulus Langsdorffii, 
which is now found in many of our streams and 
di'iChes, but is a comparatively recent arriva,l 
from North America. 

(2) Tne Snaj)dragon, Antirrhinum majus (Shep- 
ton Maliet and Oakhill). 

(3) Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea (Stok'- 
under-Ham). 

Monkey Jacks. Same as Monkey Flower 
(1) (Beaminster). 

Monkey Jaws. Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Linaria 
Cymbalaria (Stratton-on-the-Fosse). 

Monkey Mouths. (1) The Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria 
(High Ham). 

Monkey Musk. (1) Sama as Monkey 
Flower. 

(2) The Wilts Glossary says : " The large 
garden varieties of Mimulus, which resemble 
the true Musk, but are scentless, and therefore 
merely Monkey (i.e. mock, spurious) musk " 
(N.W. Wilts). Dr. Watson points out that this 
suggested derivation is an error. The name 
Mimnli's means " little ape," and refers to the 
shape of the corolla. 

(3) Rev. H. Friend gives it as a Devonshire 
name for the Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus, 
and I also have the name in this connection from 
a school-girl at Oakhill. 



195 

Monkey Noses. Th'> Snapdragon, Antirr- 
hinum majus (Cliideock, Dorset). 

Monkey Nut. M?adow Grass, Poa annua, 
eaten by boys for its nut-lik:^ flavour (S.W. 
Wilts). 

Monkey Plant. (1) Sani-3 as Monkey 
Flower. 

(2) The garden Mimulus (Wilts Glossary). 

(3) Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthus Crista-galli 
(Dorset). 

Monkey Puzzle. A very general name for 
the 0/iilian Pine, Araucaria imbricata. Tjie tree 
is often grown in shrubberies and gardens, and 
owes its popular name to the fact that its crowded 
and twisted branches make it practically im- 
possible for a monkey to climb them. 

Monkey's Hood. The Monks-hood, Aconitum 
Napellus, is sonaetimes so-called in Devon, and it 
has* been suggested that this is due to the reten- 
tion of the old possessive " Monkeshood." 

Monkey Sticks. Two school-girls at Oakhill 
give me this as a local nam.e for the Snapdragon* 
Antirrhinum majus. 

Monkey Tree. (1) Sam3 as Monkey 
Puzzle. 

(2) The Sumach, Rhus (Harnham, Wilts). 

(3) Mr. Edward Vivian (Trowbridge) tells 
me that in that district the name is frequently 
given to several species of Cactus, or any prickly 
foreign tree. 

Monk's Head. Tiie Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale (Taunton and Trowbridge). 

Monk's Rhubarb. A general English name 
for the Alpine Dock, Rumex aljpinus. See Gabden 
Patience. 

MoNNiES. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum 
Leucanthemum (Stogursey). 

Monthly Rose. A general name for any 
one of the many varieties of China Rose which 
bloom continuously throughout the season. Rev. 
H. Friend gives it as being applied in Devon 
more particularly to Rosa indica. 

Moocher. The fruit of the Blackberry, Rubus 
jruticosue (Wilts). 

Moon Daisy. A very general name through- 
out the district for the Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum Leucanthemum. 

MoON-FLOWER. (1) Mr. and Mrs. Lansdowne, 
of Over Stowey, give me this as a local name for 
the Hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna. 

(2) Honesty or Lunar y, Lunaria biennis 
(Beaminster). See Moon-Wort. 

(3) Same as Moon-Daisy (a Dunster school- 
girl). 



196 

Moon's Eye. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum 
Leucanthemum (a Minehead school-girl). 

Moon-wort. (1) The general English name 
for the Pern, Botrychium L'lnaria. 

(2) Honesty, Lunaria biennis. Soe Moon- 
Flower (2). 

Moor. The several branching roots and 
rootlets of a tree which grow out from the Moot. 
Mr. Elworthy quotes one as saying " We've a 
chopi)ed off the Moors, but we shant never beat 
thick there Moot abroad 'thout we puts a bit 
o' powder in un." See More. 

Moot. The entire root of a tree, including all 
Moors or branching rootlets. When a tree ia 
felled all that remains in the ground is called the 
Moot. 

Mop. a tuft of grass (Rev. W. P. Williams). 

Mops. A Thorncombe correspondent gives me 
this as a Devonshire name for the Greater Knap- 
weed, Centaurea Scabiosa. 

More. The root of a flower or of a sm.aU 
plant ; a single root of a tree (Rev. Wm. Barnes). 
Dr. Do-mies writes " Mores is a general term, 
for roots in the West of England, even roots of a 
tooth ! " See Moor. 

Morning Glory. (1) Hedge Convolvulus or 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepiiim. 

(2) Field Convolvulus or Lesser Bindweed,. 
Convolvulus arvensis (much less frequently). 

(3) A very general name for the cultivated 
climbing Convolvulus, Ijoomoici 'purpurea. 

Morning Stars. (1) Several young people 
at Dunster and others at Cut combe and Hatch 
Beauchamp give me this as a local nam.e for 
Chi-y^ant hemums . 

(2) A school-girl at Ilminster gives me this 
as a local name for the Snowdrop, Galanthus 
nivalis. Dr. Dowaes suggests probably in con- 
fusion with the Star of Bethlehem, Ornithogalum. 

(3) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Shaftesbury). 

Moses' Blanket. Great Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus (Ubley). 

Moses in the Bulrushes. (1) Several 
school-boys at Evercreech give me this as a local 
name for the Arrowhead, Sagittaria sagittijolia. 

(2) His Honour J. S. Udal gives this as a 
Dorset name for the Spider wort, Tradescantia. 
virginica. 

(3) A Dorset lady tells me this is a Dorset name 
for a kind of Iris. 

Moss Roses. A school-girl at Doulting gives 
me this as a local name for the Scarlet Elf-cup 
Fungus, Geopyxis coccinea, often growing in 
mossy twigs. See Elf-cup. . 



197 
Mote. A single Straw or single stalk of Hay. 

Mother Carey's Chicken. A lady living 
near Taunton gives nie this as a local name for 
the Double Daisy. See Hen and Chickens (2). 

Mother Daisy. As a boy in East Somerset 
I seldom or never heard the Ox-eye Daisy, 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemiim, called by any 
other name than this. 

Mother Die. A Bridgwater school -mistres 
gives me this as a local name for the " Wild 
Parsley " (?) ; known also by the school-children 
in that district as Pickpocket. 

Mother Mary's Milk. A Martock lady gives 
me this as a local name for the Common Milkwort, 
Poly gala vulgaris. 

Mother of Millions. The Ivy-leaved Toad- 
flax, Linaria Cymbalaria. See below. 

Mother of Thousands. (1) The Ivy-leaved 
Toadflax. See above. 

(2) Yellow Corydalis, Corydalis lutea. The 
Rev. H. Friend gives this as a Somerset name, 
and it is sent me from Bradford-on-Tone and 
other places. 

(3) Mr. F. T. Eiworthy gives this as a West 
Somerset name for the " Creeping Campaniila " 
(?), and a correspondent at Hatch Beauchamp 
gives it as a local name for the " Campanula." 
Dr. Watson \^'i'ites me that Mr. Elwoithy's 
Campanula is not a British species, but is a jjot- 
plaiit often grown in company with Saxifraga 
sarmentosa (6), and the name Mother of Thou- 
sands, which is usually given to the lattei-, has 
been applied to the former through confusion. 
Mr. W. D. Miller suggests that Mr. Eiworthy 's 
plaiit is Wahlenbergia hederacea. 

(4) Two school-girls at Stower Provost (Dorset) 
give it as a local name for the Common Yarrow or 
Milfoil, Achillea Millefolium. 

(5) The Virginian Stock, Malcolmia maritima 
(Wilts and Dorset). 

(6) The rambling pot plant, Saxijraga sar- 
mentosa ; known also as Spider-plant, Straw- 
berry Plant, Aaron's Beard, Poor Man's 
Geranium, &c. 

(7) Mr. Edward Vivian (Ti'owbridge) gives 
it as one of several local nam.es for London Pride, 
Saxifraga umbrosa. 

Mother Shimbles' Snick Needles. Greater 
Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea, a name recorded in 
the Sarum Diocesan Gazette as used at Zeals. 

Mother's Night-caps. Greater Convolvulus, 
Calystegia sepium (a school-girl at Stockland, 
Devon). 

' Mother Thread My Needle. Herb Robert. 
Geranium Robertianmn (Dit cheat). 



198 

Mother Thyme. Wild Thym-, Thymus Ser- 
pyllum. One of the old English names for this 
plant was " Mother of Thyme." 

Motherwort. (1) The usual English namie 
for LeonuTus Carcliaca, which is, however, rare 
in Somerset. 

(2) Correspondents at Stoke St. Gregory and 
Rodney Stoke give me this as a local name for 
" Wild Arrach," by which I presume they mean 
the Wild Orache, Atrijylex ]X(tula. 

Moth Plant. A Taunton lady gives me this 
as a local name for the Great Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus. 

Mountain Ash. The general English name 
for Pyrus Aucuparia. Mr. Elworthy says : " Very 
common tree in the district, thus called by the 
people of the better class. Among the labouring 
class it is always Quick-beam." Mr. W. S. Price 
tells me it is also called Bug-beam in West 
Somerset. 

Mountain Mint. Common Calamint, Cala~ 
mintha montana. 

Mountain Mist. A school-girl at Axbridge 
gives me this as a local name for Heather, Calluna 
vulgaris. 

Mountebanks. A Taunton correspondent 
writing in our " Notes and Queries " columns 
in 1902 gave this name and Johnny Mountains, 
as the two names by which he had most frequently 
heard Fircones called in Taunton and other 
parts of Somerset. See Dolly Mounter and 
Johnny Mountain. 

Mournful Bell op Sodom. A lady at Mar- 
tock gives me this as a local name for the Pritillary 
or Snake Lily, Fritillaria Meleagris. S?e Droop- 
ing Bell of Sodom. 

Mournful Widow. A fairly general name 
throughout the district for the Field Scabious, 
Scabiosa arvensis. Also the garden va.riety, 
Scabiosa atropurpurea. 

Mourning Bride. A lady at Damerham (Wilts) 
gives me this as a local name for the Scabious, 
Scabiosa arvensis. Sse Mournful Widow. 

Mourning Widow. (1) His Honour J. S. 
Udal gives this as a Dorset form of the above 
name for the cultivated Scabious, Scabiosa 
atropurpurea. 

(2) A lady at East Grimstead (Wilts) gives 
me this as a local name for the Meadow Crane's- 
bill, Geranium pratense, but M'\ James Britten 
tells me the plaat to which the name is usually 
given is the Dusky Crane's-bill, G. phceum. This, 
however, is very rare a.s a wild plant, and whea 
found wild it is almost invariably an escape 
from some garden. 



199 

Mouse-ear. (1) The old English nam- of 
the Myosotis, now known as the FoRGET-acs-NOT. 
Tno Icittei- name was not ai>plied to this plant 
until 90 or 100 years ago. The name FoRGET- 
ME-NOT was previously given to the little Blue 
Spcedwjil (now known as Bird's-EYES, and to 
th" Ground Pine, Ajuga Chamcepitys, because 
of its unpleasant taste which was long-enduring. 
Mouse-ear is an exact translation of the Greek 
Myosotis, which was given to the plant 1,850 years 
ago by JDioscorides, and which it still bears as 
its botanical name. 

(2) Several species of Chickweed, the genus 
Cerasiium, are generally known by the name of 
Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

(3) The Common Mouse-ear Hawkwaed, Hier- 
acium Pilosella. 

MousER- WITHY. A kind of willow, which 
grows in hedges or dry places. It makes capital 
binds from its toughness, and is much sought after 
by thatcners (F. T. El worthy). Mr. F. W. 
Mathews tells mi- the rind is grey mouse colour. 

Mouse's Ears. (1) Same as Mouse-ear (1). 

(2) Tne wnite-ieaved garden variety of 
Stachys lanata. See Donkey's Ear (1). 

Mouse-tail. (1) The general English name 
of Myosurus minimus. The generic name derived 
from the Greek, means " mouse-tail," and the 
plant is known by an equivalent name in many 
of the countries of Europe. 

(2) Various species of Plantain, Plantago 
(Yeovil and South Somerset). 

(3) In somi' places the Biting Stonecrop, 
Sedum acre is known by this name. 

Mowing Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthe- 
mum Leucanthemum (Sexey's Scnooi and Queen 
Camel). 

MuGGBT-ROSE or MUGGETS. The Guelder Rose,. 
Viburnum Opulus (Somerset and East Devon), 
Mr. W. S Price tells me that the latter form is the 
general mime for the Guelder Hose in West 
Somerset . 

Mugs Without Handles. An Evercreech 
school-boy gives me this as a local name for the 
Canterbury Bill, Campanula media. 

MuGWORT. Txie general English name for 
Artemisia vulgaris, and somstimes given to ^4. 
abrotonum, commonly known as Boy's-love. 

Mums. A common contraction for " Chrysan- 
themums." 

MUNCORN. Va.rious kinds of grain sown 
together. See Meslin. 

MusHEROON. Mushroom. Always pronounced 
as three =.yllables, with the final " n " distinct, 
piovJng how much more conservative of imported 



words the diakct is than the litevavy language. 
Old Frer.ch mo"Scheron. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells 
}ae " Musheroii " occurs in Pal.-grave, 1530. 

Mustard Tips. A Yeovil school-boy gav.' 
me this as a local name for the Black M.-dick, 
Medicago lupulina, or the Hop Trefoil, Trifolium 
procurnbens. It is probable that the nam,- is 
applied to botla plants. 

Mutton Chops. The young toj);:; or shoots 
of the Goosefoot, Chenopodium, sometimes boiled 
in the sprixig foi- food (Rjv. W. Barnes, Dorset). 

Mutton Dock. Mercury Goosefoot or Good 
King Henry, Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus (Bour- 
ton, Dorset). 

Mutton Tops. White Goosefoot, Chenojmdium 
album (Allerford and Dorset). See Mutton 
Chops. 

My Lady's Ear-drops, The Fuchsia (S^aith 
Petherton). See Ear-drops and Lady's Ear- 
drops. 

My Lady's Grass. Striped Ribbon Grass, 
Phalaris arandinacea form variegata. 

My Lady's Lace. Miss Ida Roper givt-s me 
this as a Dorset name for tlie Onervil, foiiueily 
known to botanists as Chcerophijll <m syloestre, 
but now as Anthriscts sylvestris. 

My Lady's Smock. A lady at Lyme Regis 
gives me this as a local name for the Cuckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis ; more generally called 
Lady's Smock. 

Nails. Common Daisy, Bellis perennis (Mere . 
Wilts). 

NaILWORT, An o d English nam' for 
Whitlow-grass, Erophlla. Anne Pratt says : 
" Tne name of Wnitlow-grass, as well as 
that of Nailwort, points to the opinion of our old 
herbalists, that the acrid juice of these plants, 
mingled with milk, cured whitlows ; though, 
probably, tiie efficacy of the rem:dy belonged to 
the milk only, hot milk being still used in cases 
of whitlow." 

Naked (or Nakey) Boys. (1) Meadow 
Saffron or Autumn Crocus, Colchicum autumnale. 

(2) A correspondent at Dorchester gives me 
this as a local name for the " Water Anemone " by 
wh'ch Dr. Watson tells ue is almost certrinly 
meant Banuncdus flintans, a large-fli wered 
Water Ciowfoot, w'hich is plentiful in the Dor- 
chester .stve.'ims. 

Naked Jacks. Autumn Crocus, as above (1). 

Naked Ladies. (1) One of the commonest 
names for the Meadow Saffron or Autumn Crocus, 
Colchicum autumnale, due to the flowers springing 
uj) On long slendei' stenas, with an apparently 



■entire absence of leaves. 

(2) The Cuckoo-flower, Cardamine pratensis 
Over Stowey). 

Naked 3Iaiden. Two Ilminster school-girls 
give me this as a local name for the Snowdrop, 
Galanthus nivalis. 

Naked Men. A Dorset form of the name 
Naked Ladies (1). 

Naked Nannies. Several young i:)eople at 
Oakhill give me this as a local name for the Early 
Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

Naked Nanny. The autumn Crocus, See 
Naked Ladies (S. W. Wilts). 

Nancy. (1) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (East Somerset). 

(2) The Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa 
(Sherborne). 

Nancy Pretty. (1) Probably a corruption 
of " None so loretty." Virginian Stock, Mal- 
colmia maritima. 

(2) In Dorset and Devon, London Pride, 
Saxifraga umbrosa. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me 
this name is also used in Scotland and in Bast 
Yo-kshire. 

Nanny Goats' Mouths. Ivy-leaved Toadflax, 
Linaria Cymbalaria (Shute, Devon). 

Nasty Urchins. A school-children's play 
upon the nanu Nasturtium ; sent me from 
Dunster and other i)laces. 

Nation Grass. A name given on the Somerset 
border of S.W. Wilts to the Tufted Hair-grass, 
Deschampsia ccespitosa ; probably an abbrevia- 
tion of Carnation-grass, which see (3). 

Naughty Man's Cherries. The poisonous 
fruits of the Deadly Mightshade, Atropa Bella- 
donna. See Devil's Cherries. 

Naughty Man's Play-thing. The Common 
Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica. Called also 
Devil's Play-thing. 

Navel-wort. (1) The Wall Pennywort, 
Cotyledon Umbilicus-Veneris. 

(2) Mr. Edward Vivian (Trowbridge) tells 
me this name is also given to the Hound '=-tongue, 
Cynoglossum officinale. 

Neck-weed. A cant name for the Hemp, 
Cannabis sativa, as fi:.rnisliing halters for the 
gibbet. See Gallow-GRASS. 

Needle Cases. A corresj)ondent at Plam- 
moon (Dorset) gives me this as a local name for 
the Comfrcy, Symphytum officinale. 

Needle Chervil. Miss Audrt^y Vivian (Trow- 
bridge) gives me this as a common local name 
for the Shepherd's Needle, Scandix Pecten- 
Vcneris. 



202 

Needle Furze or Whtx. Petty-Wbin, Genista 
anglica 

Needle Gbeexweed (or Greenwood). Petty- 
whin, as above. 

Needles and Pins. (1) Common Futze, 
Ulex eiiropccus (a school-gii'l at Oakbill). 

(2) Wild Pansy ov Heartsease, Viola arvensis 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Nelson's Bugle. A scbool-gh-l at East Haix>- 
tree gives me this as a local aame for the Common 
Bugle, Ajuga re-ptans. 

Nemminy or Nenemy. A very frequent form 
of the nam.e Anem.one. 

Nep. Cat-mint, Nepeta Cataria. See Cat-Nep. 

New-mown Hay. (1) Sweet Woodruff, Aspe- 
rula odorata (Thuribear and Stoke St. Mary). 

(2) Meado-\\ Sweet, Spiraea Ulmaria (Shepton 
Mali el). 

(3) Yellow Rattle, Rhinantlms Crista-galli (a 
Cre\?kPiii3 school-girl). 

Dr. Watson tells m3 this term is also applied 
to a number of other jjlants, and he advised tha 
omission of the three example-:' I have given. 

New YEiVR's Gift. Winter Aconite, Erayithis 
hy emails. 

Nigger-heads. Black Knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra (Forton). 

Niggers. Hoary Plantain or Lamb's Tongue, 
Plantago media (Wellow). 

Nigger's Heads. Hoary Plantain, Plantago 
media (Alfington, Devon). 

Night Bonnets. Red-berried Bryony, 
Bryonia dioica (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Night Caps. (1) Greater Bind.veed, Caly- 
sepiiim. 

(2) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. See 
Granny's Nightcap (1). 

Nightingale. Greater Stitchwoi-t, Stellaria 
Holostea (S.W. Wiits, Hants Border). 

Night-shade. A correspondent at Broad - 
winsor gives me this as a local name for the 
Periwinkle, Vinca. Dr. Watson thinks this is an 
error due to confusion. 

Night-shirts. Greater Convolvulus, Caly- 
stegia sepium (Yeovil and Ilminster). 

Night Violet. Butterfly Orchis, Habenaria 
virescens (N.W. Wilts ; Sarum Diocesan Gazette). 

Nimble Tailor. A well-known and prolific 
variety of field-pea (F. T. Elworthy). 

Nip. Catmint ; see Nep. 

Nipper-nut. A school-girl at Sampford Arun- 
del gives me this as a local name for the Tuberous 



Pea, Lathyrus montanus, the nut -like tuberous 
roots of which a,re nutritious and palatable, and 
are often eaten by children. 

Nit Clickers. Several young people at Me lis 
give me this as a local name for tJie Greater 
Convolvuius, Calystegia sepiiim. 

Nits. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Leigh -on -Mendip). 

Noah's Ark. (1) In this district most 
generally applied to the Monk's-hood, Aco7iitum 
Napcllus. 

Other correspo7idents apply the name to 

(2) Various species of Campanula (Camerton). 

(3) The Lupin, Lupinus (Hatch Beauchamp). 

(4) The L.irkspur, Delphinium, (Chetnole, 
Dorset). 

(5) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (Win- 
frith). 

Nobody's Flower. A correspondent at Sxlis- 
bui y gives m,' tlas as a local nam? for the Marigold, 
Calendula officinalis. 

Nobs (or Knobs). Apples (Thome Si. Mar- 
garet and Sanipford Ai-undel). 

None So Pretty. (1) Virginian Stock, Mal- 
colmia maritima. 

(2) London Pride, Saxifraga timbrosa. 

Nonesuch. The cultivated Scarlet Lvjhais, 
Lychnis chalcedonica. See Flower op Bristowe. 

Non-such. (1) A general name for Blac^ 
Me('uck, Medicago lupulina. Mr. F. T. Eiworthy 
said : " A kind of green fodder, but I am unable 
to identify it 3lecXrly. I have heard ' Lucerne ' 
{Medicago saliva) so named, but Prior gives 
Medicago lupulina, and Britten ctccepts his 
autJiority." 

(2) Also a variety of table api)le. 

Noon Peepers. A correspondent at Breamore 
(Wiits) gives me this as a local name for the Star 
of Bethlehem, Ornithogalum umbellatum. See 
Twelve O 'Clocks. 

Noon-tide. Yellow Goat's-beard, Tragopogon 
pratense (Brompton Regis and Evershot). More 
oftefl called Jack (or John)-go-to-Bed-at-Noon. 

Nose-bleed (1). Common Yarrow or Mil- 
foil, Achillea Millejolium, so called becai se " the 
lpau(!s bemg put into the nose do cause it to 
blccde " (G.rarde, Herball, p.915). 

(2) A coi-respondent at Thorncombe gives 
it as a local name for the Hemlock, Conium 
maculatum. 

Nose-smabt. The Nasturtium (Compton, near 
Yeovil). 

Nose-tickler. The Nasturtium (Stratton-on- 
the-Fosse). 



204 

NosB-TWiTCHEB. The Nasturtium (Dorset). 

NUFFIN-IDOLS. A N.W. Wilts uoiTuption of 
Love-in-Idlenbss ; the Wild Pansy, Viola 
arvensis. 

NuMPEB Nell. Mr. Edward Vivian (Trow- 
bridge) gives rae this as a local name for an old- 
fashioned, if not obsolete, \ariety of apple, grow- 
ing to a large size. 

NuMPiNOLE. The Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis 
arvetisis (N.W. Wilts). Mr. (J. T. Onions w.-ites 
" No doubt due to progressive corraption of 
Pimpernel, through som^ form iik3 pi)npernoirl, 
wnich is apparently a Yorkshire form." 

Nun of the Fields. This is the French name 
for ;i white variety of the Harebell, Campanula 
rotundijolia. It has been sent me by several 
correspondents as a local name for the Harebell, 
without reference to colour, but if the name is 
used in this district at all I imagi le it has been 
taken from the French. 

Nutmeg Grater. A Martock lady gives me 
this as a local name for a variety of the scented 
Geranium. 

Oak. The Rev. Hilderic Friend says he has 
been astonished to find how frequently the Maple, 
Acer campestre, is called " Oak " in Devonshire. 
Mr. T. W. Cowan tells m? that Dog Oak is a 
common name for Acer campestre, which I find 
is also called " Oak " in West Somerset. 

Oak-fern. Tnis is the genn-al English name 
for Phegopteris Dryopteris, but in mar y parts 
of Somerset it is applied to the common Bracken, 
Pleris aquilina, for the reason that if the stalk is cub 
across n-ar the root there are dark markings on 
the section, wixich strongly resemble a "very 
symmetrical o?i.k tree. 

Oak Maceys. Acorns (Wellington district). 

Oak Nuts. Acorns (Draycott). 

Oaky-marbles. Dry gall-nuts of oak, fre- 
quently used by children as substitutes for stone 
marbles. 

Oat-grass. Narrow-leaved perennial Oat» 
Avena pratensis (West Somerset). This local 
name for this grass is given by the B,^v. R. P. 
Murray, and has been sent me by several covre— 
pondents in West Somerset, but Dr. Watson 
writes me thr)t he has n^ver seen Avena pratensis 
in that part of the county, and there is only one 
record for it, and even that is a doubtful on^. 
He says Trisetum flavescens and Arrhenathernm 
elatius, which miglt be confused with it, are 
common. 

Oil-seed Plant. Mr. T. W. Cowan gives me 
this as a popular name for Gold of Pleasure, 
Camelina saliva. Sometimes called False Flax. 



205 

Old Granny's Slipper Sloppers. Mecadow 
Vetchling, Lathyrus pratensis (East Dorset). 

Old Lady's Bonnet. The Columbino, Aqui- 
legia vulgaris (an liminster school-girl). 

Old Lady's Lace. Wild Parsley or Chervil, 
Anthriscus sylvestris (Yeovil). See My Lady's 
Lace. 

Old Lady's Night-cap. The Canterbury Bell, 
Campanula media (Alier). 

Old Lady's Smocks. Greater Convolvulus 
or Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia septum (Zeals 
Wilts). 

Old Maid. The Wall -flower, Cheiranthiis 
Cheiri (Bishopswood). 

Old Maid's Basket. The Co'umhin?, Aqid- 
legia vulgaris (Glastonbury). 

Old Maid's Flower. The Pansy, Viola 
tricolor (South Petherton and Stalbridge). 

Old Maid's Last Friend. The Pansy, as 
above (Axminster), 

Old Maid's Scent. A school-boy at West 
Coker gives me this as a local name for the " Wild 
Pyr. thrum," by which is almost certainly m^ant 
the Feverfew, Chrysarilhemum Parthenium. 

Old Man. (1) A general name throughout 
the district for the Southernwood or Boy's-love, 
Artemisia Abrotonum. 

(2) Several correspondents in the Stockland 
and Kilt on district give it as being used in that 
neighbourhood for the Rosemary, Rosmarinus 
officina lis. 

(3) The Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis 
(S.W. Wilts). 

(4) In some places this name is given to the 
Wild Clematis or Traveller's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba, more often called in this distinct Old 
Man's Beard. 

Old Man's Baccy. A correspondent at East 
Harptree gives me this as a local name for Dock 
leaves, but it apx)ears to me more appropriate 
to Burdock or Coltsfoot. 

Old Man's Beard. (1) A name given 
throughout the greater part of Somerset and 
Dorset, as well as other parts, to the Wild Clem- 
atis or Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba, on 
account of the long feathery awns which follow 
the flowers and remain on the rambling stems 
for months. Mr. Elworthy said he had never 
heard the Clematis so called in West Somerset. 

(2) The Cornfield Horse-tail, Equisetum 
arvoise (West Somerset) ; called also in the same 
district Mare's-tail and Jointweed. 

(3) A fairly general name for the bushy 
bedeguar or " Robin's Pincushion," frequently 
found on the Dog-rose. 



2o6 

(•1) Soxitlievnwood o:- Boy's-Iove, Artemisia 
Abroionum (Dorset and Wilis). 

(5) A number of young people at Tiio-n' St. 
Margaret give ni^ this as a local name foi- " Water- 
grass." Probably either Phalaris arundinacea o: 
Phragmites covimunis >^^hen in seed. 

(7) Onj of the many popular nam s for 
Saxifmga sarmentosa. Sje Aaron's Beard (2). 

(6) Meadow-sweet; Sinrcea Ulmaria (a schoo.- 
girl at Ottej'hampton). 

(8) S?e Grandfather's Beard (4). 

Old Man's Bread and Cheese. Common 
Mallow, Malva sylvestris (Ubley). S^e Bread 
and Cheese (2). 

Old Man's Buttons. (1) The Marsh Mari- 
go'd, Caltha palustris (South and East Somerset 
and Do set). 

(2) Applied also to several species of Butter- 
cup, Ranunculus. 

(3) Bui-i's of the Burdock, Arctium minus 
(Membury, Devon). 

Old Man's Clock. Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale (St our PiOvo;t, Dorset). 

Old Man's Face. (1) The Pansy, Viola 
tricolor. 

(2) The Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus 
(Stockland, Devon). 

Old Man's Flannel. Great Mullein, Ver- 
bascum Thapsus. 

Old Man's Flowers. A correspondent at 
Barvington gives uu this as a local name for 
flowc-vs something like the Eltrot, Heracleum 
Sphondylium, having long, hollow, hairy stems, 
and growing with buttercups. 

Old Man's Friend. Scarlet Pimpern i- 
Anagallis arvensis (a school-girl at Mucheinsy). 

Old Man's Glass Bye. Scarlet Pimpern?!, as 
above (Staple Fitzpaine). 

Old Man's Hat. The Garden Lily (a school- 
girl at Otterhampton). 

Old Man's Looking-glass. A number of 
young peoijle at Paulton give me this as a local 
name fov the Scarlet Pimi)ern:^l, Anagallis arvensis; 
no doubt through confusion with Old (or Poor) 
Man's Weather-glass. 

Old Man's Night-cap. (1) Greater Con- 
volvulus oi' Hedge Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

(2) Lesser Convolvulus or Field Bindweed, 
Convolvulus arvensis. 

Old Man's Pepper. (1) Common Yarrow, 
Achillea Millefolium. 

(2) Several young people at Evershot give me 
this as a local name for the Salad Burnet, Poterium 
Sanguisorba. 



Old Man's Pepper-box. Sn^'oz—wo ■! Yanow, 
Achillea Ptarmica (Wambiook). 

Old Man's Pulpit. Wild Arum or Cuckoo- 
pint, Arum maculatiim (Combe St. Nicholas). 

Old Man's Shirts. Greater Convolvulus, 

Cahjstegia sepium (Yetminstcr). 

Old Man's Snuff-box. A puffball fungus, 
Lycoperdon. See Devil's Snuff-box. 

Old Man's Weather-glass. A fairly general 
name tlirougliout the district for the Scarlet 
Pimpernel, A7iagallis arvensis. 

Old Man's Whiskers. Several co-respondents 
in the Ilminster district give me this as a local 
nam>> fo.* the Wood Horsetail, but as this plant, 
Equisetum sylvaticum, is very rare in the county 
I imagine there is some confiision of the species. 
Dr. Dovvnes suggests the plant intended is E. 
maximum. 

Old Men's Beard. Same as Old Man's 
Beard (2). 

Old Men's Buttons. Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris. 

Old Men's Matches. A correspondent at 
Coombe Bissett (Wilts) gives me this as a local 
name for the " Scarlet Cup lichen," Cladonia 
coccifera. 

Old Men's Trousers. A covrespondent at 
Pawiett gives me this as a local nam- for the 
Iris. 

Old Mother Thy]me. Wild Thyme (Dun?ter). 
See Mother Thyjie. 

Old Rock. A corruption of Old Rot (which 
see), sent me from Pawiett and other places. 

Old Root or Old Rot. Rev. Wm. Barnes 
gives this as the Somerset form of Eltrot, which 
he defines as " The stalk and umbel of the Wild 
Parsley." But Eltrot is the usual name in 
East Somerset fo.- the Cow-parsnip, Heracleum 
Sphondylium. 

Old Rot. A number of correspondents in the 
noithern part of Som-rset give me this as a local 
name for the Cow-parsnip, Heracleum Sphon- 
dylium. Probably another form of Eltrot, 
which see. 

Old Sow. The Wilts Glossary gives this as 
being used rarely in N. and S.W. Wilts for 
Melilolus ccerulea, from its peculiar odour. It is 
not easy to anderstand this, as Mr. T. W. Cowan 
points out the common name of Melilotus cosrulea 
is Sweet Trefoil, for which t)LD Sow is hardly 
appropriate. 

Old Uncle Harry. Mugwoit, Artemisia 
vulgaris (Winsham). 



208 

Old Woman's Bonnet. (1) The Columbine, 
Aquilegia vulgaris. More often called Granny's 
Bonnet. 

(2) Greater Convolvulus ov H-xIge Bindweed, 
Calystegia sepium (Martock and East Devon). 

(3) Canterbury Bells, Campamda media (Chew- 
ton Mendip). 

(4) Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa -pa storis 
(Winsham). 

(5) Water Avens, Geum rivale (Mere, Wilts). 

Old Woman's Eye. The Periwinkle, Vinca 
(Fontmell Parva, Dorset). 

Old Woman's Needle-work, Red Spur 
Valerian, Kentranthus ruber (Taunton). Sec 
Lady's Needlework (1). 

Old Woman's Night-cap. (1) Greater Con- 
volviilu'^;, Calystegia sepiutn. 

(2) The Monk's-hood, Aconiium Napellns 
(Brompton Regis). 

(3) Cantcrburv Bells, Campanula media 
(Alter). 

(4) A schoo'.-girl at Buckland St. Mary gives 
it as a local name for the Deadly Nightsha.de, 
which I have no doubt is an error for the Woody 
Nightshade, Solanifm Dulcamara. See Granny's 
Nightcap (7), 

(5) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (East 
Devon), 

Old Woman's Penny, Honesty or Lunary, 
Lunaria biennis (a correspondent at Wincanton). 

Old Woman's Petticoats. The Poppy, 
Papaver Rhceas (Long Sutton). 

Old Woman's Pin-cushion. The Spotted 
Orchis, Orchis maculata (S. W. Wilts), 

Old Woman's Purse, The Calceolaria, 

Old Woman's Toe-nails, Bird's-foot Trefoil, 
Lotus corniculatus (Axminster), 

Old Woman Threading Her Needle. The 
Herb Robert, Geraniuyyi Robertianum (East 
Somerset), 

Oliver Cromwell's Creeping Companion, 
A name given me by a Yeovil gardener for the 
small spreading plant Helxine Solierolii, which 
Dr. Watson tells me is sometimes called (in error) 
Ai^tillery-plant, and which Dr. R. C. Knight tells 
me is also called Australian Moss. See Mind 
Your Own Business. 

Oller. The Alder, Alnus rotundifolia . 

One Berry, An old country name for the 
Herb Paris, Paris quadrifolia. 

One I Eat, A gentleman living in Yeovil 
gives me this as a popular name for the Straw- 
berry Tree, Arbutus Unedo. Obviously a trans- 
lation of the specific name Unedo. 



209 

One O'clock. (1) A very common name 
throughout the district for the Dandelion, Tarax- 
acum officinale. 

(2) Tlie Star of Bethlehem, Omithogalum 
umbellatum. 

(3) The Yellow Goat's-beard, Tragopogon 
pratense (B?adford-on-Tone). 

(4) The Co.t's-foot, Tussilago Farfara (Lyd- 
ford-on-the-Fosse). 

(5) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Membury, Devon). 

One O'clock, Two O'clock. Seed-head of 
Dandelion (Clapton-in-Gordano). 

One, Two, Three. Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale (Wambrook). No doubt from counting 
the number of i^uffs required to blow away all 
the seeds. 

Onion Couch. Dr. Watson writes :— " Tnis 
is a name given at Staplegrove to a kind of grass 
with little underground bulbs. I have not yet 
had the grass brought for examination, but it 
may be a form of Arrhenatherum elatius or Phleum 
pratense.'' 

Onion Flower. The Broad-leaved Garlic, 
Allium ursinuni. 

Onion Stinkers. Broad-leaved Garlic, as 
above (a school-boy at Evercreech). 

Open and Shut. The Star of Bethlehem, 
Omithogalum umbellatum (Martin, Wilts). 

Open-ass. A common name throughout the 
distiict for the M..diar, Mespilus germanica. 
Mr. Elworthy says : " The common and usual 
namy among the working-class, and it appears 
to be a siu'Vival, not perhaps of the fittest accord- 
ing to modern taste, but of a very early period." 

Open-eye. Common Daisy, Bellis perennis 
(Dowiish Wake). 

Open Jaws. The Snapdragon, Antirrhinum 
majus (Camerton). 

Open Mouths. Snapdragon, as above (Long 
Sutton). 

Open Star. The Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum Leucanthemum (school-children at Paul- 
ton). See Little Open Star. 

Orange Blossom. (1) Same as Mock Orange. 

(2) A school-girl at Ilminster gives me this 
as a local name for the Lesser St. John's Wort (?). 

Organ, Orgin, or Organy. (1) Penny- 
royal, Mentha Pulegium. Mi-. Elworthy says : 
" Usual name of this herb, which is much grown 
as a flavouring. The name Penny-royal is un- 
known. It is chopped small and put into a 
mess called ' Tea kettle broth,' wbich is also 
often called ' Organ Broth.' " Rev. H. Fi-iend 



«ays : " It is perhaps as well here to obsei'Ve that 
though Origane, Orgaine, Oi^gany, or Organ, as 
the word is variously spelt and pronounced, 
corner from the classical languages (Lat. origanum) 
and refers to the plant Marjoram, y^t in Devon- 
shire, wiiere the people speak of Organs, Organ- 
tea, Organ-broth, they mean P^nny -royal. Mrs. 
Palmer, in " Devonshire Courtship," says " I'd 
make it treason to drink ort but organ tey." 

(2) Marjoram, Origanum vulgare. 

Obl. The late G. P. R. Pulman gives this 
a local name in the Crewkern.^ and Axminster 
district for the Alder, Alnus rotundifolia. 

Ostrich Plumes. A scbool-girl at Dunster 
gives me tiais as a local name for the Aster. Mr. 
W. S. Price tells me it is a gardener's name for 
a special variety of Aster. 

Our Lady's Basin. An old country name 
for the Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris, from the way 
in which the leaves unite rountl the stem to form 
basins, which are generally found to contain 
•water and drowned insects, on which the plant 
feeds. 

Our Lady's Candle. The Great Mullein, 
Verbascimi Thapsus. 

Our Lady's Flannel. The Great Mullein, 
as above. 

Our Lady's Heart. On,^ of the many popular 
names for Dicentra specta bills (Martock). Ofttn 
called Bleeding Heart, Locks and Keys, 
Lady's Locket, Chinaman's Breeches, Lyre 
Flower, &c. 

Our Lady's Night-cap. The Greater Con- 
volvulus, Calystegia sepium. 

Our Lady's Smock. The Greater Convolvulus, 
as above. 

Our Lady's Thimble. The Harebell, Cam- 
panula rotundifolia. See Lady's Thimble (2). 

OwLER. Miss Audrey Vivian (Trowbiidge) 
gives me this as a local nanae for the Poplar or 
Aspen. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me the name is 
quite common in the North for the Alder tree. 

Owls' Eyes. A correspondent at Bradford- 
on-Tone gives me this as a local mime for the 
Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis, more often 
called Poor Man's Weather-glass. In Herts 
it is known as " Adder's Eyes." 

Oysters. (1) Rev. Hilderic Friend says 
fircones are known by this name in Devon, be- 
cause the scales with the seeds nearly enough 
resemble oyster-shells to suggest the name. 

(2) Lilac blossom, Syringa vulgaris, is called 
*' Oysters " in the neighbourhood of South 
Molton. 

(3) From several parts of Wilts, Dorset, and 
West Sonaerset this is sent me as a local name 
for the A^ter ; no doubt a corruption. 



Paigle. The Cowslip, Primula veris. 

Paint Brushes. (1) The Pemvinkle, Vinca 
(School children at Horton and Hatch Beau- 
champ) . 

(2) Fruits of the Goat's beard, Tragopogon 
pratense (Curry Mallet), 

(3) The Knapweed, Centaurea nigra (East 
Devon). 

(4) The Creeping Spike-rush, Eleocharis 
paldstris (Charlton All Saints, Wilts). 

Painted Ladies. Pink and ^Yhite Sweet Peas 
{Wilts). 

Painted Lady. (1) London Pride, Sazifraga 
iitnbrosa (a school-gul at Oake). See Pretty Lady. 

(2) The Striped Crane's-bill, Geranium ver- 
sicolor (Devon). This is an escape from gardens, 
fouT.d m several districts in West Somerset. 

Palm. (1) This name was given by our 
rustics to almost any species of Willow or Sallow 
Salix, when bearing catkins, which were formerly 
gathered by them and used as " Palm " on Palm 
Sunday. 

(2) In addition the late G. P. R. Pulman 
gives it as being applied to the catkins of the 
Hazel, Corylus Avellana, in the Crewkerne and 
Axminster district, and the Rev. H. Piiend as 
being applied to the Yew, Taxus baccata in 
Devon. 

Pai>mer. a North Dorset form Df the name 
Palm, applied to the Sallow (Leigh). 

Palsy-wort. An eld country name for the 
Cowslip, Primula veris. 

Pancake-plant. Common Mallow, Malva 
sylvestris (Stalbridge and East Devon).^ See 
Pans and Cakes. 

Pancakes. The Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon 
Umbilicus-Veneris, from the shape of its leaves. 

Pane. His Honoui- J. S. Udal gives this as a 
Dorset name for the Parsnip. 

Pans and Cakes. A school-girj at Queen 
Came] gives this as a local name for the Common 
Mallow, Malva sylvestris. See Pancake-plant. 

Paper Beech. Common Birch, Betula alba 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Parachutes. (1) A name applied in many 
parts of the district to the seeds of the Thistle or 
Daadelion on account of the parachute-like 
pappus which is attached to them. 

(2) The Periwinkle, Vinca (Camerton). 

(3) Canterbury Bells, Campatiida media 
(Furle>). 

Paradise Lily. A school -girl at Dra^cott 
gives me this as a local name for the Poppy, 
Papaver Bhoeas. 



212 

Paradise Plant. Common Mezereon, Daphne 
Mezereum. Rev. H. N. Ellacombe, rector of 
Bitton, said (1869) " the usual name for the shrub 
in these parts is the ' Paradise Plant.' " 

Parasols. (1) Lesser Convolvulus or Field 
Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis. 

(2) The Salad Burnet, Poterium Sanguisorha 
(Little Langford, Wilts). 

Park Leaves. Common Tutsan, Hypericum 
Androso^mnm. Dr. Prior thinks this, as well as 
its French synonym parcoeur ( = by heart) are 
no doubt corruptions, with reference perhaps 
to its perked (or prickled) leaves. 

Parrot'sBeak (or Bill). A popular English 
name for a ]Sew Zealand plant, Clianthus puniceus ; 
so called from its cuived upper i)etal. 

Parsley Fern. (1) The general English 
name for the fern Cryptogranime crispa, which 
Dr. Watson tells me dots not occur in Somerset, 
but is found in N. Devon. It was found near 
Simonsbath in 1872, but is probably extinct 
there now. 

(2) The Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, from the 
resemblance of its leaves to parsley. 

Parson and Clerk. The Wild Arum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum. More often 
called Parson in the Pulpit. 

Parson in the Pulpit. (1) A common name 
throughout the district for the Wild Arum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum. 

(2) The Rev. H. Friend says the name is also 
given to the Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellus. 

(3) A corresiDondent at Plush (Dorset) gives it 
as a local name for the Polyanthus. 

Pasment. Parsnip (G. P. R. Pulman). See 
Passment. 

Pasmet. Parsnip (Wilts). 

Pa'son in the Pulpit. See Parson. 

■ Pasque-flower. A name popularly given to 
almost any species of Ayiemone blossoming about 
Easter, but more particularly to the Dane-flower, 
A. Pulsatilla, of which this is the general English 
name. 

Passment. Mr. F. T. Elworthy gives this as 
a very common corruption of Parsnip in West 
Somerset. See Pasment. 

Passion Flower. (1) The general English 
name for the Braziiianplant,Passi_^raccBr»iea,said 
to have been first found by Jesuit missionaries. The 
whole plant wasemblematicaltothem, and was thus 
explained : — " The leaves represented the spear 
which pierced oiu" Savioxu^'s side ; the tendrils, 
the cords which bound His hands, or the stripes 
with which He was scourged ; the ten petals, the 
ten apostles who deserted Him ; the pillar in the 



213 

centre of the flower, the cross or the pillar to 
which He was bound ; the stamens, the hammers ; 
the styles, the nails ; the inner circle around the 
central j)i]lar, the crown of thorns ; the radius 
round it, the nimbus of glory ; the white in the 
. flower is an emblem of purity ; the blue, a type 
of Heaven." 

(2) Miss Ella Ford (Melplash) gives this as a 
local name for the Anemone. See Pasque- 
flower. 

Patience. (1) Monii's Ehubarb, Bumex 
alpinus. See Garden Patience. 

(2) The Patience Dock, Rumex Patientia, so 
called from the slowness of its ox)eration as a 
m.edicine. 

Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that this name is 
probably derived from the French lapace (Latin, 
lapathium) = sorrel ; misunderstood as la patience. 
He quotes from Cotgrave, who gives Lapace^ 
as a name for "the ordinary or sharjj-pointed 
dock," and Lapas or Patience for " Monk's 
Rhewbarb." 

Pattens and Clogs. (1) Bird's-foot Trefoil, 
Lotus coryiiculatus. 

(2) Less frequently, the Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris. 

Patty Carey. A Wiltshire corruption of the 
name Hepatica. 

Paul's Betony. Miss Ella Ford (Melplash) 
gives me this as a local name for the Germander 
Speedwell, Veronica Chamaedrys ; this is appar- 
ently due to conf vision with the Common Speed- 
well, V. officinalis, to which the name was formerly 
ax)piied. 

Peace and Plenty. — Miss Masey, of Taunton, 
gives me this as a Somerset name for the London 
Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa. The compilers of the 
Wiltshire Glossary give it as being applied in 
S.W. Wilts to a " kind of small double white 
.garden Saxifrage." 

Peach Bells. The Peach-leaved Bell-flower, 
Campanula persicifolia (Rev. H. Friend). 

Peagles. a form of the name Paigles, used 
in many parts of Somerset and Dorset for the 
Cowslip, Primula veris. 

Pea Thatches. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus (Wells). 

Pecksins. Dr. R. C. Knight writes : — " The few 
apples left in an orchard after the picking is 
completed. It is used in two ways : — (i) Ther's 
a vew Pecksins left, (ii) Oh ! lef ' they vur 
Pecksins. I feel convinced that the derivation 
of this word is to be found in this latter render- 
ing = ' Leave them for the pixies,' which would 
be only a particular case of the very general 
belief of other days that the jjixies mast be pro- 
vided for." See PiXY Hoarding and Pixy- word. 



214 

Pedlar's Basket. The Ivy-leaved Toadflax, 
Linaria Cymhalaria. 

Pee-abed. The Dandelion, Taraxaoim 
officinale. See Piss-ABEd. 

Peep o' Day. A Martock la,dy|gives me this 
as a local name for an early Spring flower, yellow 
and white, having smooth leaves. 

Peg-wood. The Spindle-tree, Euonymvs 
eiiropcei'S (Stockland, Devon). See Skiver 
Timber. 

Pella Mountain. An old English name for 
the Wild Thyme, Thymus Serpyllum. 

Pennies and Half-pennies. (1) Yellow 
Rattle, Bhinanthus Crista-galli (Shoscombe). 

(2) A school-boy at Bradford-on-Tone gives 
me this as a local name for the Moneywort,. 
Lysimachia Nummiilaria. 

Penny Flower. The Wall Pennywort, CotyU' 
don Umbilicus-Veneris. 

Penny Grass. Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthu» 
Crista-galli. 

Penny Hats and Penny Leaf are both Devon- 
shire names for the Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon 
Umbilicus-Veneris. 

Penny Pies. A fairly general name through- 
out the district for the Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon 
UwJbilicus-Veneris. 

Penny Rattle. Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthxis. 
Crista-galli (Tat worth). 

Penny Winkle or Penny Winks. A common, 
corruption of Periwinkle. 

Penny- wort. (1) The Wall Pennywort, 
Cotyledon Umbilicus-Veneris, from the shape of 
its leaves. 

(2) The Common White -rot, Hydrocotyle vul- 
garis, sometimes called Marsh Pennywort. 

Pepper Box. Mr. F. W. Mathews, of Brad- 
ford-on-Tone, gives me this as a local name for 
the Yebow Rattle, Rhinanthus Crista-galli. 

Pepper Boxes. Common Red Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas (Hatch Beauchamp) ; no doubt from the 
way in wiiicn the ripe seeds are shaken out from 
capsule. 

Pepper Pots. Puff-balls ; any fungus of the 
genus, Lycoperdon (Sexty's School). More gener- 
ally called Snuff-Boxes. 

Periwinkle. A correspondent at Charmouth 
gives me tins as a local name for the Blue-bell, 
Scilla non-scripta. 

Peter's Pence. Honesty or Lunary, Lunaria 
biennis (Bloxworth, Dorset). 



215 

Pewterwobt. Miss Audiy Vivian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as a local name for the 
Horse-tail. I find that both this name and 
that of ScoURiNG-RUSH were formeily given to 
any species of Equisetum, but particularly to- 
E. hyemale (the Rough Horse-tail), owing to their 
being much used for polishing pewter dishes and 
scrubbing wood. The stems contain silica. 

Pheasant's Eye (1). The general English 
name for the genus Adonis. 

(2) In West Somerset, the Evergreen Alkanet, 
Anchusa sempervirens. Often called also Water. 
Forget-me-not. 

(3) The " Pheasant's Eye " Narcissus, Nar^ 
cissus poeticus. 

(4) The garden Pink, Dianthus Caryophyllus. 

(5) A correspondent at Ubley gives this as 
a local name for the Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis 
arvensis. 

Pick. The fruit of the Sloe, Prunus insUUia 
(Wilts). 

Pick- POCKET. A name applied to a large 
number of different plants, but mo it common y 
throughout this district to 

(1) The Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa - 
pastoris. It has been suggested that " pick '^ 
is a corruption of " pix " or " pixie," but 
Mr. Jas. Britten writes me " Oh no ! ! it relates 
to a Well-known ' game ' or see below " for 
another suggestion under Pick-Purse. See also 
a note under Money-bags. 

(2) Several correspondents give this as a 
local name for the Greater S-itchwo:t, Stellaria 
Holostea, and the Rev. H. Friend suggests that 
in Somerset the name is frequently given to this 
plant. 

(3) From all parts of the district I have had 
sent me the names of different numbers of the 
Parsley family to wiiich this name is given. It 
appears to be applied almost indiscriminately 
to plants of this class. 

(4) The Hem'ock, Conium maculatum (Watchet 
and Martock). 

(5) Garlic Tre?-,cle-mustard or Jack-by-the- 
Hedge, Sisymbrium Alliaria (East Devon). 

(6) Ivy -leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cynibalaria 
(Sexey's School). 

(7) The Schoo'.ma,ster at Batcombe gives me 
this (and Bird's-eye) as a local name for Bux- 
baum's Speedwell, Veronica Toumefortii ; no 
doubt applied also to the Germander Speedwell, 
V. Chamcedrys. 

(8) Yellow St on ^ -crop, Sedum acre (Kim- 
meridge, Dorset). 

Pick-purse. The Shepherd's Purse, Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris. Dr. Prior says : " From its 
robbing the farmer by stealing the goodness o£ 
his land." See Pick-Pocket (1). 



2l6 

Pie Cress. Marshwort, Apium nodiflorum 
tDevon). See Pigs' Cress (2). 

Pie Dishes. A correspondent at Charmouth 
gives rae this as a local name for the " Ice Plant," 
by which I presume is intended som3 species of 
Mesembryanthemnm. 

Pierce-snow. The Snowdroj), Galanthus 
nivalis (Stalbridge). See Snow-piercbr. 

PiFFERiDGE BuSH. A lady at Compton (near 
Yeovil) gives me this as a local name for the 
-Barberry, Berberis vulgaris. 

Pig Ales or Pig Alls. The fruit of the 
Ha^i:horn, Cratccgi'S monogyna. 

Pig Berries. The fruit of the Hawthorn, as 
above (East Somerset and Wilts). 

Pig Daisy. Common Fleabane, Pidicaria 
dysenterica (Leigh, Dorset). 

Pig Dock. Fool's Parsley, ^Ethusa Cynapi'im 
(Dm^ston). 

Pigeons. The winged fruit of the Sycamore* 
Acer Pseudo-platanus (Sexey's School). 

Pigeon's Foot. A Bridgwater schoolmistress 
gives me this as a local name for the Ranunculus. 
Mr. T. W. Cowan writes m? : " Geranium colum- 
barium is tiie nima foi^ Pig.ion's-foot. Crowfoot 
is a common n^me fo. many species of Ranun- 
culus." But I gather from Mr. F. W. Mathews 
that in West Somerset the name Pigeon's-foot 
is sometimes applied to the Upright Meadow 
Crowfoot, Ranunculus acris. 

PiGGLES. Another (but much less common) 
form of Paigles, which see. 

PiGGY-WiGGY. The S lap-dragon. Antirrhinum 
majus (Litton). 

PiG-LiLiES. Wild Arum or Cuckoo-x)int, Arum 
Tnaculatum (Sampford Arundel). 

Pig Nut. The Earth Nut or Hog Nut, Cono- 
podium majus. 

Pig o' the Wall. The Snap-dragon, Antirr- 
hinum majus (Brut on). 

Pigs' Ailes. See Pig Ales. 

Pigs' Berries. See Pig Berries. 

Pigs' Bubble. A common name in West 
Someiset and East Devon for the Cow-parsnip, 
Heracleum Sphondylium. 

Pigs' Chops. (1) A fairly common name for 
the Snap-dragon, Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) The Yellow Toad-flax, Linaria vulgaris 
(Mid-Somerset). 

Pigs' Cole. Cow-parsnij) or Hogweed, 
Heracleum Sphondylium (Devon). 



217 

Pigs' Cress. (1) Stinking Chamomile or 
Mayweed, Anthemis Cotnla (Winsham). 

(2) Several young people at Stockland (Devon) 
give me this as a local name for " Brook-lime," 
but in view of the confusion to which reference 
is made under that heading I cannot pretend to 
identify the plant. Dr. Watson writes me : 
" Brooklime, Marshwoi-t, and Water-cress are 
often associated. The reference is probably to 
Marshwort, Apium nodiflorian, which is some- 
times called Pie-cress in Devon, because it is 
pied with W -.t, r-cress. 

(3) The Nipplewort, Lapsana communis (A 
school -boy at Evershot). 

Pigs' Daisies. The Stinking Chamomile, 
Anthemis Cotula (North Dorset). 

Pigs' Ears. Sedum acre and other species of 
Stonecrop ; on account of the thick fleshy spikes 
which serve for leaves. 

Pigs' Flop. Cow-parsnip or Hog-weed, 
. Eeracleum Sphondyliuni (East Devon). See 
Pigs' Bubbles. 

Pigs' Flower. The Stinking Chamomile, 
Anthemis Cotula (North Dorset). 

Pigs' Food. Cow-parsnip or Hog-weed, 
Eeracleum Sphondyliuyn (Dorset). 

Pigs' Hales, Haws, Heels. Hells, or Isles. 
The fruit of the Hawthorn, Cratccg fs nionogyna. 

Pigs' Mouths. (1) The Snap-dragon, Antirr- 
hinum ma jus. 

(2) Yellow Toadflax, Linariu vulgaris. 

Pigs' Nuts. (1) The Common Earth-nut or 
Hog-nut, Conopodi'im majus, for which pigs are 
fond of grubbing. 

(2) The Horse Chestnut, .^sc^dus Hippo- 
castanum (East Somerset). 

(3) Acorns (Martock). 

Pigs' Parsley. (1) This neme is applied 
somewhat loosely to various members of the 
Parsle^ family , but most commtmly to the 
Upright Hedge Parsley, Caucalis Anthriscus. 

(2) In Dorset the name is sometimes given 
to the Wild Carrot, Daucus Carota. 

Pigs' Parsnip. Cow-parsnip or Hog- weed, 
Eeracleum Sphondylium (West Somerset). 

Pigs' Pears. Fruit of the Hawthorn, Cratcegus 
nionogyna (Stogursey). See PiGSY and Pixie 
Pears. 

Pigs' Rhubarb. Greater Burdock, Arctium, 
majus (Hammoon, Dorset). Dr. Watson writes : 
" Is not this more likely to be the Butterburr, 
Petasites ovatus, which is often called, or rather 
mis-calied, "' Wild RhuVjarb." The plant men- 
tioned, Arctium majus, is not likely to be differen- 
tiated by yoiu" correspondent from A. minus, and 
is very much rarer." 



2l8 

Pigs' Sn^outs. The Snax^-dragon, Antirrhinnm 
rtiajus (Chilton Polden). 

PiGSY Pears. Fruit of the Hawtho-n (Kilt on 
and Pawlett district). See PiGS' Pears and 
PrxY Pears. 

Pig-weed. (1) White Goosefoot, Cheno- 
podium album (Alleiford). 

(2) Tne Comfrev, Symphytum officinale (N.W. 
Wilts). 

Pilewort. a very genera! name for the 
Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria, from an 
old belief, based on the doctrine of signatures, 
that a decoction prepared from this plant would 
cure haemorrhoids. 

PiMROSE. A very common mis-pronunciation 
of Primrose, thi'oughout a great part of the 
disti'ict. 

Pinch Me Tight. A school-girl at Dunster 
gives me this as a local name for the Orchis 
(? Orchis mascula). 

Pincushion. A name given to a number of 
different plants, but most generally throughout 
this district to 

(1) The Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis, and 

(2) The Garden Scabious, S. atropurpurea, 
the white stamen? of which have mucli the 
appearance of the heads of pins sticking out of 
a velvety cushion. 

(3) The Devit's-bit Scabious, ,S'. Succisa 
(Bradf oi'd-on-Ton?) . 

(4) The Sea-pink or Thrift, Statice maritima. 

(5) The Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris (Shoi- 
combe). 

(6) A school -girl at South Petherton gives 
it as a local name for the Anemone. 

(7) Pink Persicaria, Polygonum Persicaria (a 
school-boy at Evercreech). 

(8) Tlie Double Red Dait,y (several school- 
girls at Fault on). 

(9) Bu'd's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comiculatus 
(Dorset). 

(10) The Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria 
(S.W. Wilts). 

(11) Yellow Fumitory, Corydalis lutea (Devon). 

Pincushion Flower. The Scabious. See Pin- 
cushion (1) and (2). 

PiNEY. A mis-pronunciation of Peony, com- 
mon throughout tiie district. 

Pink and White Silk. Half-a-dozen Paulton 
school-girls give me this as a local name for Apple 
blossom, Pyrus Malus. 

Pink Beauty. Sweet William, Dianthus 
barbatus (many school-children at Wembdon and 
Axbridge). 



219 

Pink Bebd's-eye. Herb Robert, Geranium 
Eobertianum (a school-girl at Lottisham). 

Pinkies. Red Clover, Trifolium pratense 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Pink More. A rough kind of grass in the 
meadows which cattle refuse ; probably some 
kind of Carex (Wilts Glossary). 

Pink Pinapores. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
'Robertianum (Stoke Abbott, Dorset). Compare 
Dolly's Apron and Print Pinafore. 

Pink Weed. Common Knot-grass, Polygonum 
aviculare (Leigh, Dorset). 

Pins and Needles. (1) Various species of 
Thistle. 

(2) Common Furze, Ulex europceus (East 
Harptre ). 

(3) Fiuit of Shepherd's Needle, Scandix 
Pecten-Veneris (Curry Mallet). 

(4) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Shoscombe). 

(5) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis (Brad- 
ford- on-Tone). 

(6) London Pride, Saxifraga vmbrosa (Stal- 
bridge). 

Pins' Heads. Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Pipes. Acorns (Hatch Beauchamp). No 
doubt in consequence of the cups witb stalks 
attached being used as imitation pipes. 

Pipe-tree. Correspoadents in Dorset and 
Devon send me this name for the Lilac, Syringa 
vulgaris. 

PippLAR. A mis-pronunciation of Poplar, at 
one time very frequently heard in Somerset. 

PiPSY Pears ( = Pixy Pears). In the Watchet 
district applied to both Hips and Haws, i.e., the 
fruits of the Wild Rose and of the Hawthorn. 
Several correspondents in the Bridgwater district 
give it as a local name for the latter onh . 

Piss-a-Bed. A very general name for the 
Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. The plant is 
said to have a name equivalent to this in every 
langxxage in Europe. Also in most languages a 
popular name meaning " lion's tooth." Our 
English name Dandelion is a corruption of the 
FieWh dent de lion. See Mess-a-Bbd. 

Pitcher. A Willow Plant (Rev. Wm. Barnes). 
Mr. T. W. Co,van says " a pollard willow." 

Pixies. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Devon). In some parts of that county the 
children believe they will be pixy -led if they 
gather this flower. 

Pixy Hoardings. The small apples left on 
the trees after the " hoard fruit " has been 



220 

gathered. Some apples are sure to be over- 
looked in the picking, but these must be left 
untouched, for ill-luck would surely follow any 
person who was so greedy as to leave no fruit 
at all for the pixies or fau'ies. Many old-fashioned 
folk in West Somerset make a point of leaving 
a few apples on every tree in the orchard for the 
" little folk." See Pecksins. 

Pixy Pears. Applied to both Hips aud Haws. 
See PiPSY Pears. 

Pixy Rings. The green rings so --)tten seen in 
pastures are supposed to be pixy rings, round 
which the little jieople dance on moonlight nights. 
See Fairy Rings. 

Pixy Stools. Toad-stools. 
Pixy's Umbrellas. Toad-stools. 
Pixy Word. A West Somerset form of Pixy- 
boax'd. See Pixy Hoardings. 

Plenty. Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre (Mel- 
plash, Dorset). 

Ploughman's Weather-glass. Scarlet Pim- 
pernel, Anagallis arvensis (S.W. Wilts). More 
generally called PooR Man's (or Shepherd's) 
Weather-glass. 

Plume Feathers. Pampas Grass, Gynerium 
argenteum (Sampford Arundel). 

Plum Pudding. Red Campion, Lychnis dioica 
(A Crewkerne school-girl). See Puddens. 

Poison Berries. Fruits of various plants, 
usually of a bright colour, such as 

(1) Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
mac^datum. 

(2) Black Bryony, Tamus communis. 

(3) Stinking Iris, Iris fcetidissima. 

(4) Mountain Ash, or Rowan, Pyrus aucu- 
2>aria. 

Poison Daisy. Stinking Chamomile or May- 
weed, Anthemis Cotula (Yeovil). 

Poison Fingers. Wild Arum or Cuckoo pint, 
Arum maculatum (Dorchester). 

Poison Root. Wild Arum, as above (X.W. 
Wilts). 

Pokers. (1) The Great Reed-mace, Typha 
latifolia ; commonly called Bulrush. 

(2) Wild Arum or Cuckoo i)int, Arutn macula- 
tvni (North Petherton). 

(3) Red Hot Poker, Tritoma or Kniphofia. 

Pokeweed. Chickweed, Stellaria media (Comp- 
ton, near Yeovil). 

Pole Reed. The Common Reed, Phragmites 
communis (West Somerset). These long stout 
reeds are sometimes used instead of laths for 
making ceilings. The local name may be a 



corruption of Pool-reed, just as Bull-rush is said 
to be of Pool-iush. 

Policeman's Buttons. The Marsh Marigold, 
Caltha palustris. 

Policeman's Helmet. The Monk's-hood, _ 
Aconitum Napellus (A Martock school-boy). 

Pollard Flowers. Common Lime or Linden, 
Tilia vulgarift (Stoke Abbot, Dorset). 

Polly Anders or Andrews. A play upon 
the name Polyanthus ; in some partfe of Somerset 
api^lied also to the Auricula. 

Polly Baker. Several school < hildren at 
Aller give me tliis as a local name for the Ragged 
Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

Polly Nut. The Sweet Chestnut, Castanea 
vesca (Queen Camel). 

Polly Pods. Honestv, Lunaria biennis (A 
school-gi-1 at Little Toller, Dorset). 

Pond Lily. The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacoms 
(East Devon). 

Ponies' Tails. The Greater Plantain, Plantago 
major (Devon). 

Poor Heads. A number oi school-children at 
Otterhampton give me this as a local name for the 
Reed. (? si)ecies.) 

Poor Jane. (1) The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Rohertianum (Sampford Arundel). 

(2) The Red Campion, Lychnis dioica (Thorne 
St. Margaret). 

(3) The White Campion, Lychnis alba (Wel- 
lington district). 

Poor Jan's Leaf. The Houseleek, Semper- 
vivum tectorum. Rev. Hilderic Friend made 
enquiries with regard to this plant through the 
Western Antiquary, and received a reply from 
Edward Capern, who said that a lady, a native 
of Ashford, North Devon, informed him that she 
had often heard the Houseleek called " Poor 
Jan's Leaf." The people have great faith in 
the healing properties of the plant, whence its 
peculiar designation. 

Poor Man's Baccy. Mr. F. W. Mathews tells 
me that the Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara, is often 
kno^\^l by this name from its frequent use in the 
old countryman's pipe. 

Poor Man's Beer. Common Hop, Humulns 
Lupulus (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Poor Man's Brush. The Teasel, Dipsacus 
sylvestris (Furley). 

Poor Man's Flannel. Great Mullein, Verbas- 
cxim ThapSHS. 

Poor Man's Friend. Traveller's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba (Yeovil), more often known in that part 
of the county as Old Man's Beard. 



Poor Man's Geranium. One of the many 
names given to the pot-plant Saxifraga sar- 
meyitosa. See Aaron's Beard (2). 

Poor Man's Orchid. (1) A name commonly 
applied to the Spanish Iris, bnt extended also to 
other species, both cultivated and wild, 

(2) Flowers of the gsnus Schizanthus. 

Poor Man's Parmacetty. The Shepherd's 
Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris. Parmacetty is a 
corruption of the Latin sperma ceti, = whale's 
sperm, " the sovereignst remedy for bruises." 
The name is said to be a joke upon the Latin 
name bursa, = a purse, which to a poor man is 
always the best remedy for his bruises. See 
Money-bags. 

Poor Man's Pepper. (1) Salad Burnet, 
Poterium Sangxisorba (Melplash, Dorset). 

(2) Marsh Valerian, Valeriana dioica (Tisbury). 

Poor Man's Purse. Shepherd's Purse, Cap- 
sella Bi'rsa-pastoris (Watchet). 

Poor Man's Tobacco. Colt's-foot, Tussilago 
Farfara (South Petherton). Cf. Poor Man's 
Baccy. 

Poor Man's Weather-glass. The Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis, from its habit of 
closing its flowers before rain. 

Poor Oats. Wild Oats, Avena fatua (West 
Somerset). 

Poor Robert. The Herb Robert, Geranium, 
Bobertianr-m (East Devon and Evershot). 

Poor Robin. (1) The Herb Robert, as above. 

(2) A Devonshire name for the Red Campion, 
Lychnis dioica, com.monly known in Somerset as 
Robin Hood. 

Pop-bell. The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea 
(Winsham). 

Pop-bladders. The Foxglove, as above (Mel- 
plash, Dorset). 

Pop Corns. The Spindle-tree, Euonymus 
europceus (Bradford-on-Tone). 

Pop Dock. The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea 
(West Somerset). 

Pope's Hood (or Ode). An old English name 
for the Monk's-hood, Aconitum Napellus. 

Pop Guns. (1) The Foxglove, as above. 

(2) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
( Clapton -in -Gordano), more commonly called in 
this district Snap- jacks. 

(3) The Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia 
(Milborne Port). 

(4) Seeds of the Plantain, Plantago (Bridg- 
water). 

Pop-jack. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea (Bridgwater). See Snap-jack. 



223 

Poppers, Poppies, or Pops. (1) The Fox- 
glove, Digitalis purpurea, so called because 
children " pop " the flowers in the same way 
they would pop a blown-otit paper bag. Dr. 
Downes tells me that the first of these names is 
given in the Herbal of Turner, Dean of Wells, 
in the 16th century. 

(2) The Bladder Campion, SUene latifolia 
(N.E. Somerset and S.W. Wilts). Also " popped " 
bv children as described above. 

'(3) The Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(West Wilts). 

Poppy Dock. The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea 
(West Somerset). 

Pops. See Poppers. 

Pop Shells. A n\imber of school-children at 
Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
berries of the Ivy, Hedera Helix. 

Pops Ups. A school-girl at Chardstock gives 
me this as a local name for the Crocus. (? The 
Meadow Saffron, Colchicum autumnale, frequently 
called Upstarts.) 

Posy. The garden Peony, from its size (Wilts 
Glossary). 

Potash. Mr, T. W. Cowan tells me he formerly 
had a gai'dener from Devonshire who always 
called the CorQm.oii Goutweed, ^^gopodium 
Podagraria, by this name. 

Potatoes in the Dish. This name is sent 
me by two correspondents at Marshwood (near 
Charmouth), one of whona applies it to the 
Sun Spm-ge, Euphorbia Helioscopia, and the other 
to the Wood Spurge, E. amygdaloides. 

Pots and Kettles. Fruit of the Box, Buxus 
sempervirens (Barford St. Martin, Wilts). 

Poverty. (1) The Rest Harrow, Ononis 
repetis, from the fact that the plant grows on 
poor soil and the farm,er who has a good crop 
of Rest Harrow will always remain poor. 

(2) Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus Crista-galli 
(Combe St. Nicholas). This plant is a partial 
parasite, and obtairis some portion of its nourish- 
m.eiit by fastening its suckers on the roots of 
grass and other plants growing n-.ar and robbing 
them of theu- sap. 

Poverty Grass. A school-girl at Bishops- 
wood gives tne this as a local name for the Plan- 
tain. 

Poverty Weed. Yellow Rattle (Chard dio- 
trict). See Poverty (2). 

Power-Wort. Several correspondents send 
me this as a name for the Lesser Celandine, 
Banunculus Ficaria. 

Preacher in the Pulpit. Wild Arum or 
Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum. 



224 

Pretty and Little. A Devonshire name for 
the Virginian Stock, Malcolmia maritima ; more 
generally called Little and Pretty. 

Pretty Betsy. A name given in many parts 
of Dorset to the Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber (Dr. Watson). 

Pretty Betty. London Pride, Saxijraga 
iimbrosa (Beaminster). 

Pretty Lady. London Pride, as above 
(Trowbridge). 

Pretty Nancy. (1) Greater Stitchwort, Siel- 
laria Holostea. See Nancy. 

(2) London Pride, Saxijraga umbrosa (Rodden, 
near Frome). 

Pretty Willie. Sweet William, Dianthus 
barbatus (Pawlett). 

Prickly Bee-hives. The Common Teasel, 
Dipsacus sylvestris (A school-girl at Alfington, . 
Devon). 

Prickly Coats. The Spear Plume Thistle, 
Cnicus lanceolatis (Leigh, Dorset). 

Prickly Ghost. Common Furze, Ulex 
europoeus (Leigh, Dorset). " Ghost " is a further 
corruption of goss = gorse. 

Prick Madam. (1) An old country name for 
the Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre ; said to be a 
corruption of the French name, Trique Madame, 
for Triacque a ma dame, cvS it were " Lady's- 
treacle." 

(2) A well-informed correspondent at Compton 
(near Yeovil) gives this as a local name for the 
Houseleek, Sempervivnm tectorum, but if the 
name is so used in that district it would appear 
to be due to confusion with No. 1. 

Pbick-wood. (1) The Spindle-tree, E'l/on^/mMS 
europceus, in consequence of its wood being used 
for making skewers. Also for the same reason 

(2) The Dogwood, Cornus sanguinea. 

Pride. A correspondent at Stalbridge gives 
me this as a local name for the Sunflower, 
Helianth'is annuus. 

Pride op the Evening. Honeysuckle or 
Woodbine, Lonicera Periclymenum, (Axminster and 
Uplyme ciistrict). 

Pride of the Meadow. Meadow-sweet, 
Spiraea Ulmaria (A school-girl at Oake), more often 
called Queen of the Meadow. 

Pride of the Thames. This is sent me from 
several places in Somerset and Dorset as a name 
for the Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus. 

Pride op the Woods. The Wild Hyacinth or 
Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta (Camerton). 

Priest and Pulpit. A number of young, 
people at Oakhill sand this as a local name for 



225 

the Wild Arum ; obviously a corruption of the 
following name. 

Priest in the Pulpit. A fairly common 
name for the Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatum, but less common than Parson in the 
Pulpit. 

Primprint. Privet, Ligustrum vidgare (Ever- 
shot). 

Primrose Pearls. The Wiiite Narcissus, 
Narcissus poeticus. This name is sent me from 
several districts, and particularly from Paulton. 
Mr. Edward Vivian (Trowbridge) vsrites : "In 
some localities it would be difficult to find a 
person knowing the Narcissus by any other 
name." 

Primrose Prushes. A correspondent of 
Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries in 
1893 gave this as an old name at Hinton St. 
George for the White Narcissus, as above. 

Primrose Soldiers. Garden Columbine, 
Aquilegia vulgaris (N.W. Wilts). 

Prince op Wales' Feather. (1) The Lilac, 
JSyringa vulgaris (Devon). 

(2) Golden Feather, Pyrethrum (Muchelney). 

(3) The Iris (Castle Cary). 

(4) Red Spm' Valerian, Kentranthus ruber 
(Dorset). 

Prince's (or Princess) Feather. (1) The 
Lilac, Syringa vulgaris (West Somerset and 
Devon). 

(2) Love lies Bleeding, Amaranthus (several 
species). 

(3) London Pride, Saxijraga umbrosa (Devon). 

(4) The Silver- Weed, Potentilla Anserina 
<various parts of Somerset). 

(5) Golden Feather, Pyrethrum. 

(6) Pampas Grass, Gynerium argenteum. 

Princess' Robe. The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pseudo-Narcissus (Otterford). 

Print Pinafores. The Herb Robert, Ger- 
anium Bobertianum (Marsh wood, Charmouth). 
Cf. Pink Pinafores and Dolly's Apron. 

Pripet. Mr. W. S. Price (Wellington) gives 
me this as a common local mispronunciation of 
Privet. 

Procession Flovs^r. An old English name 
for the Common Milkwort, Polygala vulgaris. 
Mrs. Day gives it as a " North Petherton " name 
still. See Gang-PLOWER. 

Propellers. It is remarkable how generally 
this name and others of a similar character have 
been adopted within the past few years for the 
winged seeds of the Maple, Sycamore, &c. See 
Aeroplanes. 



226 

Publicans and Sinners. A name sometimes 
given to Buttercups and Marsh Marigolds be- 
cause they are often found growing together 
(Rev. H. Friend). 

PuDDENS. Red Campion, Lychnis dioica 
(Ubley). 

Puff Balls. (1) The ganeral English name 
for fungi of the genus Lycoperdon. 

(2) A name given by school -children in 
various parts of the district to the seed heads 
of the Dandelion, Thistle, &c. 

Puff Clocks. The Seed head of the Dandelion. 
(Otterhampton). See above. 

PuivrpEBNAL. The Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis 
arvensis (Stogursey). 

Purple Berries. A number of young people 
at Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
berries of the Elder, Sambucus nigra. 

Purple Buttons. Field Scabious, Scabiosa 
arvensis (Winscombe). 

Purple Grass. An old country name for the 
Purple Loose-strife, Lythrum Salicaria. 

Purple Hyacinth. Early Purple Orchis, 
Orchis niascula (Caiiton Ccintelo). See note under 
Bloody Bones. 

Purse-flower. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella 
Bursa -pa storis (Sampford Arundel). 

Purses. Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus Crista- 
galli (Bradford-on-Tone). See Money-bags. 

Pussies. Great Reed-mace, Typha latijolia 
(Mid-Somerset). 

Puss-tail. Meadow Fox-tail Grass, Alope- 
curus pratensis (High Ham). 

Pussy Cats. (1) Catkins of Willow, Sallow 
Hazel, &c. 

(2) Several correspondents in Bridgwater and 
the district apply this name to various grasses — 
Couch-grass, Rye-gra?s, Wild Barley, Foxtail, and 
Timothy. 

Pussy Cats' Tails. (1) Same as Pussy 
Cats (1). 

(2) Miss Ida M. Roper tells me that the 
Prickly Twig -rush, Cladium Mariscus, is known 
by this name at Shapwick (Som-^rset). 

Pussy Face. The Pansy, both cultivated, 
Viola tricolor, and wild, V. arvensis. 

Pussy Foot. White or Dutch Clover, Tri- 
folium. repens (Watchet). 

Pussy (or Pussy's) Fur. Catkins of Willow 
and Sallow (Wiveliscombe and Evercreech). 

Pussy Palm. Catkins of Willow and Sallow 



227 

Pussy's Tails. (1) Catkins of Willow, Sallow 
Hazel, &c. 

(2) Great Reed-mace or Cat's-tail, Typha 
latifoUa ; commonly called Bulrush (Muchelney). 

Pussy Willow. The Catkins of Willow and 
Sallow. 

Puzzle Monkey. The Chilian Pine, Arau- 
caria imbricata ; more often called Monkey 
Puzzle, which see. 

Quaker Grass or Quakers. Quaking Grass, 
Briza media. 

Quarantine, Quarenden, or Quarrener. A 
deep red eai"ly kind of apple ; a common favourite 
in Somerset and Devon. 

Queen Anne's Lace. Wild Beaked Parsley, 
Anthrisciis sylvestris (Dorset). See My Lady's 
Lace. 

Queen Anne's Needle-work. Red Spur 
Valerian, Kentranthus ruber (Brut on). See Lady's 
Needle- WORK (1). 

Queen Anne's Plumes. Pampas Grass, 
Gynerium argenteum (Maunsel). 

Queen Elizabeth in Her Bath. Another 
of the many popular names given to Dicentra 
spedabilis ; known as the Lyre-flower, Lady's 
Locket, Bleeding Heart, Chinaisien's 
Breeches, &c. 

Queen (or Queen's) Feather. The Lilac, 
Syringa vulgaris (more particularly in Devon). 

Queen Flowers. Tne Lilac, as above (Char- 
mouth). 

Queen op Hearts. Large-flowering St. John's 
Wort, Hypericum calycinum ; often called RoSH 
of Sharon (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Queen of the Marshes. Yellow Iris, Iris 
Pseudacorus (Evercreech). 

Queen op the Meadow. A very gineral name 
througiiout the cuslrict for the M-jadow-sweet, 
Spircea Ulmaria. 

Queen op the Mist. London Pi-ide, Saxifraga 
umbrosa (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Queen op the River. Yellow Water-Lily 
Nymphcea lutea (Miss Ella Fo:'d, Melplash). 

Queen's Feather. (1) The Lilac, Syringa 
vulgaris (Devon). 

(2) Tne Meadow-bweet , /Spira?a Ulmaria {Feriy 
Street, Charti). 

Quick. The Hawthorn, Cratcegus monogyna, 
particularly young plants used fo:' making hedges. 

Quick Beam. The Mountain Ash, Pyrus 
Aucuparia (West Somerset and Devon). 

Quick Grass. Couch-grass, Agropyron (for- 
merly Iriticnni) repens. See Quitch. 



228 

Quick in Hand. A Devonshire name for the 
Balsam or Touch-me-not, Impatiens Noli-tangere, 

Quiet Neighbours. Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus ruber (Longbridge Deverill, Wilts). 

QUINANCY-WORT Or QUINSEY-WORT. The 

Small Woodruff or Squinancy-wort, Asperula 
cynanchica ; referring to its former use in disorders 
of the throat. 

Quitch. Couch-grass, Agropyron (formerly 
Triticum) repens. See Couch. 

Rabbit Flower. (1) Yellow Toad-flax, 
Linaria vulgaris (Devon). See Rabbits (1). 

(2) Ivy-leaved Toad-flax, Linaria Cymbalaria 
(Devon). 

(3) A name occasionally given in S.W. Wilts 
to Dicentra spectabilis, on account of the flowers, 
when pulled apart, forming two little pink 
rabbits. 

Rabbits. (1) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria 
vulgaris, because the flowers of the Toadflax 
open and shut when pressed, exactly as the 
mouth of a rabbit does. See Rabbits' Mouths. 

(2) For the same reason, Antirrhinum ma jus 
and other varieties of Snapdragon. 

Rabbits' Beef. Plantain (Martock). 

Rabbits' Chops. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria 
vulgaris (Milborne Port). See Rabbits' Mouths 
(2). 

Rabbits' Ears. (1) The woolly-leaved 
garden plant, Stachys lanata ; called also 
Donkey' s-EAR and Mouse's-ear (Horton and 
Pawlett). 

(2) Plantain (a school-girl at Hawkchurch). 

Rabbits' Meat. A name applied to a number 
of plants on which rabbits feed ; most frequently 
in this district to 

(1) The Sow Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus. 

(2) Cow-parsnip or Hog-weed, Heracleum 
Sphondylium. 

(3) Leaves of the Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. 

(4) The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella (Pilton). 
Rabbits' Mouths. (1) A general name 

throughout the ^ district for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) Yellow Toad-flax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(3) Ivy-leaved Toad-flu.x, Linaria Cymbalaria. 
W) The Ground Ivy, iWepeta hederacea (a 

school-girl at Awliscombe, Devon). 

Rae bits' Pudding. Leaves of Plantain (Bridg- 
•water). 

Rabbits' Viddles (or Vittles). (1) Sow 
Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus. See Rabbits' Meat 
(1 and 2). 

(2) Cow-parsnip or Hog-weed, Heracleum 
Sphondylium. 



229 

Baokliss. a very common corruption of the 
name Auricula. 

Rackzen or Raxen. Mr. F. W. Mathews, of 
Bradford -on-Tone, gives me this as a local name 
for 

(1) The Flowering Rush, Butomus umbel- 
latus ; and 

(2) The " small " Rush, by which is probably 
meant the Toad-rush, Juncus hujonius. The 
term is probably applied, more or less, to all 
Rushes. See Rexen. 

Ragged Jack. (1) The plant to which this 
name is most commonly given in this district 
is the Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

(2) Greater Knapweed: Centaurea Scahiosa 
(Batcombe). 

(3) The Red Campion, Lychnis dioica (Melbary 
Osmond). 

(4) The Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis 
(a school-girl at Combe St. Nicholas). 

(5) The Ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea (a school- 
girl at Stockland, Devon). 

Nos. 3 and 4 are evidently misapplications, due 
to confusion. 

Ragged Jackets. A young man living near 
Cbarmouth gives me this as a local name for the 
" Robin Hood," by which is usually unjer^tood 
the Red Campion, Lychnis dioica, but I think he 
means the Ragged Robin, L. Floscucidi, wliich is 
ottea miscalled " Robin Hood " in Dorset and 
other places. 

Ragged Robix. (1) The general English 
name for Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

(2) Frequently misapplied through confusion 
to the Red Campion, Lychnis dioica, more often 
known in thi*^ district as Robin Hood. Also to 

(3) The Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

(4) The Bladder Campion, Silene laiifolia 
(Somerton). 

(5) Great Hairy Willow-herb, Epilobium 
hirsutum (Keinton Mande-ille). 

(6) Pm-ple Loosestrife, Lythrum Salicaria 
(Tisbury). 

Ragged Shirt. Field Convolvulus, Convol- 
vulus arvensis (a school-girl at Ilminster). 

Ragged Urchin. Ragged Robin, Lychnis 
Flos-cuculi (a school-girl at Stockland, Devon). 

Rags and Tatters. (1) The Common Mal- 
low, Malva sylvestris (Somerset and Dorset). 

(2) Tlif Coiumbin?, Aquilegia vulgaris (Camer- 
ton). 

Rag-weed. Common Ragwort, Senecio 
Jacobcea (Mactock). 

Rainbow Flower. The Iris (Yeovil). 

Rajmbling (or Roving) Sailor. The Ivy- 
leavtd ToadflvX, TJnaria Cymbalaria. 



Ramp. Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium ursinum 
(Winsham, and Leigh, Dorset). 

Rams' Claws. (1) The Creeping Buttercup, 
i2a7iimcuh<srej3ens,and more particularly the stalks. 
Mr. Elworthysays : " The stalks of the common 
buttercup {Ranunculus acris) when overgrown. 
In some seasons, especially wet ones, the buttercup 
attains a rank growth, and the cattle refuse to 
eat it, so that the meadow, if not mown for hay, 
becorues covered with coarse stalks without 
leaves, but still bearing the yellow flowers on the 
top — these are called Ram's Claws. The name 
is analagous to Bent or Bonnet applied to 
grasses." Mr. Onions suggests the name is a 
corruiDtion cf Banunculxs. 

(2) Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara (Yarlington). 

(3) Chickweed, Stellaria media (a school-boy 
at Babcary, who gives a large number of other 
names quite correctly). 

Rajvisey or Raivisies. The Broad-leaved Garlic, 
Allium ursinum. See Ramsons. 

Rajm's-foot Root. The root of the Avens or 
Herb Bennet, Geum urbanum, which is said to be 
exactly like a hare's foot, but very little like a 
ram's (Devon, Rev. H. Friend). 

Rams' Glass. The Acrid Buttercup, Ran- 
unculus acris (Allerford). No doubt a corruption 
of Rams' Claws, which see (1). 

RA3ISONS. The Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium 
ursinum. See Ramsey and Ransoms. 

" Ramsons tast like garli?k : they grow much 
in Craabourne-chase : A proverb. 

Eate leekes in Lide, and ramsins in May, 

And all the yeare after physicians mav play." 
Aubrey's Vvilts M.S., p. 124. 

Ransoms. A common corruption oi Ramsons^ 

Rantipole. The Wild Cc^rrot, Daucus Carota 
(N.W. Wilts, English Plant Names). 

Raphontic. Several correspondents in various 
parts of Somerset and Dorset send me this as a 
na.me for Rhubarb. I cannot trace the name, 
and assume it has been copied from some book. 
Dr. Watson tells me that the garden Rheubarbs 
are Rheum rapTionticum and R. undulatum. 

Rappers. Flowers of the Foxglove, Digitalis 
'purpurea (Wilts). See Poppers. 

Rathe Proirose. Miss Audrey Vivian (Trow- 
bridge) tells me this term is commonly used in 
that neighbourhood for an early Primi'ose. 

Rathe-ripe. (1) An early kind of apple : 
yellow codling with pinkish streaks. See Retheb- 

BIPE. 

(2) An early kind of pea (Wilts). 

Rats and Mice. Common Hound's-tongue, 
Cynoglossum ojficinale (Tisbury). 



Rat's Bane. Wild Ueaked 'Parsiej, A^ithriscus 
sylvestris, a common wild um.belIiferous plant, in 
appearance something like Hemlock — probably 
naistaken for it (West Somerset), 

Rat's Foot. A school-girl near Axminster 
gives me this as a local name for the Ground 
Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. See Rats' Mouths (1). 

Rats' Mouths. (1) A number of young 
people in East Devon give me this as a local name 
for the Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. 

(2) A boy and girl at Sector, near Axminster, 
give it as a local name for both the White and 
Red Dead Nettle, Lamium album and L. pur- 
pureum. 

Rats' Tails. (1) The seea-stalks of various 
species of Plantain. 

(2) Common Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria 
(Tisbury). 

Rattle Bags. Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthus 
Crista-galli (Dorset). More often called Rattle 
Baskets. 

Rattle Baskets. (1) The Yellow Rattle, 
Rhina nthus Crista -ga Hi. 

(2) The Louse wort or Red Rattle, Pedicularis 
sylvatica (Winsham). 

(3) A Martock school-boy gives me this as 
a local name for the Soft Rush, Juncus effusus. 
I gather from Dr. Watson that this rush is used 
for making little baskets, inside which are placed 
small i^eas or similar bodies to make a rattle. 

(4) A Mucheiney school-boy gives it for the 
Quaking Grass, Briza media. 

Rattle Grass. The Yellow Rattle, Rhinan- 
thus Crista-galli (White's Bristol Flora). 

Rattle Pods. The Red Rattle or Lousewort, 
Pedicularis sylvestris (se\eral school-children at 
Chew Magna). 

Rattle Traps. The Yellow Rattle, Rhinan- 
thus Crista-galli (Marsiiwood, Dorset). 

Rattle Weed. The Bladder Campion, Silene 
latifolia (N.W. Wilts). 

Raxen. Rushes. See Rackzen and Rexen. 

Ray-grass. Common Rye-grass or Darnel, 
Lolium perenne. See Ever-grass, Prior says 
the first part of the word represents French 
ivraie = drunkenness, from the supposed intoxi- 
cating quality :'f some species. In the north of 
England it is named Drunk or Drunken Darnel. 

Reckless. A common corruption of 
" Auriculas." 

Rections. Rushes (East Devoa). See Rexen. 
Red Apple Blossom. Pyrus japonica (a school- 
girl at Wellington). 



232 

Bed Bird's Eye. Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagal- 
lis arvensis (a school -girl at Hawkchurch). 

Bed Bobby's Eye. Herb Bobert, Geranium 
Bobertianum (Bedlynch, Wilts). 

Bedbreast. a lady at Wookey gives me this 
as a local name for the Bagged Bobin, Lychnis 
Flos-cuculi, but it is more generally applied to the 
Herb Bobert, Geranium Bobertianum. 

Bed Butchers. The Bed Campion, Lychnis 
dioica (West Glos.). 

Bed Cap. Common Poppy, Papaver Bhoeas- 

Bed Clematis. One of the Virginia Creepers, 
Ampelopsis hederacea ; frequently called " Five- 
leaved Ivy." 

Bed Cup. Common Poppy, Papaver Bhceas 
(Otterhampton). 

Bed Cushions. Common Bed Clover, Tri- 
jolium pratense (Evercreech). 

Bed Dolly. Common Poppy, Papaver Bhceas 
(Long Sutton). 

Bed Fingers. The cultivated Cx-imson Clover, 
Trifolium incarnatum (a school-girl at South 
Petherton). 

Bed Hot Poker. (1) A very general name 
for the Flame-flower or Torch-lily, Kniphofia 
aloides (formerly Tritoma Uvaria), sometimes 
called Devil's Poker. 

(2) The Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatum. 

(3) Bibwort Planta,in, Plantago lanceolata (a 
school-girl at South Pethei-ton). 

(4) Sumach, Bhus (Wiveliscombe). 

(5) The Gladiolus. 

Bed Huntsman. Common Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas (a school-girl at Minehead). 

Bed Ivy. One of the Virginia Creepers, 
Ampelopsis hederacea (Chewton Mendip). See 
Bed Clematis. 

Bed Jane. The Bed Campion, Lychnis dioica 
(Mr. W. S. Price, Wellington). 

Bed Joints. Pink Persicaria, Polygonum 
Persicaria (Leigh, Dorset). 

Bed Legs. Pink Persicaria, as above (Welling 
ton and Barton St. David). 

Bed Money. Bed Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber (Pensford). 

Bed Nap. Common Poppy, Papaver Bhceas 
(Wiveliscombe). 

Bed Prlvirose. A common name for a red 
form of the garden Polyanthus. 

Bed Bags. Common Poppy, Papaver Bhceas 
(Wimborne). 



233 

Bed Rattle. Lousewort, Pedicularis 
sylvatica. 

Red Riding hood. A very general name for 
the Red Campion, Lychnis dioica, commonly 
known also as Robin Hood. A few corres- 
pondents in Dorset give me the name as being 
applied to the Ragged Robin and the Herb Robert, 
but this is almost certainly due to confusion. 

Red Robin. (1) The Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica. 

(2) The Herb Robert, Geranium Bobertianum. 

(3) The Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi 
(Wellow and Mells). 

(4) Bird Knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare 
(Rev. H. Friend). 

Red Robin-hood. The Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica (Zeals, Wilts). 

Red Rot. Round-leaved Sundew, Drosera 
rotundifolia. 

Red Roughs. His Honour J. S. Udal gives 
this as a Dorset name for the Scarlet Runner. 
I am indebted to Dr. Watson for the following 
note : — " Phaseolus multiflorus is the Scarlet 
Runner, but I am uncertain whether this is the 
species meant. The name is quite likely to be 
applied also to P. vulgaris." 

Red Soldiers. Common Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas. 

Redweed. (1) Common Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas. This is the only name for the Poppy 
in many parts of Wiltshire, where the name 
" Poppy " is applied only to the Foxglove. 

(2) Bird Knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare. 

(3) Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis (Ham- 
moon, Dorset). 

Red Wolf. A Bridgwater school-mistress 
gives me this as a local name for the Red Campion, 
Lychnis dioica. Tlois flower is very commonly 
called Red Riding-hood, and this is possibly 
the explanation of the " Wolf." 

Reed. (1) A general name for Phragmites 
communis. 

(2) Often applied to any plant having long 
and erect leaves and fringing ditches and streams. 

(3) A Somerset and Devon word for 
unbroken wheaten straw, combed and straigntened 
for thatching, hence to "reed " or thatch a house 

Reed-mace. The general English name for 
Typha latijoUa. More popularly called Bulrush. 
According to Dr. Prior the plant owes its name 
of Reed-mace to the " Ecce Homo " pictures, 
and familiar statues of Jesus in His crown of 
thorns, with this reed-like plant in His hand as a 
mace or sceptre. 

Reed Mote. A single stalk of Wheat Straw. 



234 

Rent Daisies. A correspondent at Melbury 
Osmond (Dorset) gives me this as a local name 
for the Michaelmas Daisy, which covers several 
species ol Aster. I presume tbe name has refer- 
ence to the fact that rent is due at Michaelmas. 

Rest Haven. The Evening Primrose, 
(Enothera biennis (Misfs Ella Ford, Melplash). 

E ether- ripe. The West Somerset form of 
Rathe-ripe ; an early kind of apple. Mr. W. S. 
Price (Wellington) wTites " Rether-bipe (three 
syllables) is always used in this neighbourhood, 
and I doubt if farmers would recognize the name 
Rathe-ripe (two syllables)." 

Rex-bush. A clump of Rushes (always, in 
West Somerset). A very old saying is " The 
Barle and the Exe do both urn out o' the same 
Rex-bush." The meaning is that the two 
rivers with such different courses rise very close 
together (F. T. Elworthy). From A.S. resce. 

Rexen. Rushes. One of the very few words 
which retain the en plural ; even this is now 
becoming " improved " into Rexens. (Compare, 
chickens). Mr. W. S. Price tells me that Rextes 
is a more common form than Rexen in the Wel- 
lington district. 

Rhubarb. The young shoots of the Common 
Bramble or Blackberry, Rubus jruticosus, which 
I presume are eaten by children (a school-girl 
j,t Bradford-on-Tonj). Compare Sugar-candy. 

Rib-grass or Ribwort. The Ribwort Plan- 
tain, Plantago lanceolata. 

Rice. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash, gives me 
this as a local name for 

(1) The Cross wort Bedstraw, Galium Cruciata. 

(2) The Water Bedsti*aw, Galium palustre. 

(3) The Woodruff, Asperula odorata. See 
Rice Flower. 

(4) Rev. Wm. Barnes gives this as a Dorset 
word for brushwood. 

(5) Mr. T. W. Cowan writes me : — Rice is a 
Sussex word for underwood cut sufficiently young 
to bear winding into hedger or hurdles. It is 
the modern form of A. Sax. hris, a thin branch 
(Parish). 

Rice Flower. Woodruff, Asperula odorata 
(Brompton Regis and Melbury Osmond). 

RiGGLERS. A common corruption of " Auri" 

culas." 

Rishes. Mr. W. S. Price gives me this as a 
West Somerset pronunciation of " Rushes." 

Rising Sun. The Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum Leucanthemum (Camerton). 

Road to Heaven. Miss Ella Ford, of Melplash, 

gives me this as a local name for Jacob's Ladder 
or Greek Valerian, Polemonium cceruleum. 



235 

Roast Beef. The Stinking Iris, Iris foetidis- 
sima ; from the smell of the bruised leaf. 

Robbers' Lanterns. A coiTesi^ondenb at 
Ceine Abbas gives me this as a local name for 
the flowers of the Horse Chestnut, ^sculus 
Hippocastanum. 

Robert the Herbist. A school-boy at 
Diinkerton givts me this as a local name for the 
Geranium. It looks very much like a curious cor- 
ruption of the name Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum. 

Robin or Robin Flower. (1) Rev. Hilderic 
Friend gives both these forms as Devonshire 
names for the Red Campion, Lychnis dioica, 
and also for Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan writes : — Robin or 
Robin-run-in-the-Hedge, is given in some 
counties a,s the name for the common Bindweed, 
Calystegia septum. 

Robin Hood. (1) A name generally used 
throughout the dis.trict for the Red Campion, 
Lychnis dioica. 

(2) Used in many parts of the district for the 
Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

The Rev. H. Friend says " The p.^ople living 
a few miles from Taunton call the Herb Robert 
and the Campion both Robin Hood." 

(3) In Dorset, and occasionally in Somerset, 
this name is given also to the Ragged Robin, 
Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

The name is also given occasionally to the 
three following flowers, no doubt owing to their 
resemblance to the Red Campion. 

(4) The Wiiite Camj^ion, Lychnis alba, 

(5) The Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia, 

(6) The Corn Cockle, Lychnis Githago (given 
by a school-boy at Wootton Fitzpaine, Dorset). 

Robin Hoob and His Merry Men. The 
Scarlet Elf-cup Fungus, Geopyxis coccinea (Ram- 
pisham, Dorset). 

Robin Redbreast. The Red Campion, 
Lychnis dioica. 

Robin Run in the Field. L3sser Convolvulus, 
Convolvulus arvensis. 

Robin Run in the Hedge. (1) Greater 
Convolvulus, Calystegia sepium. 

(2) Goose-grass, Galium Aparine ; commonly 
called Clyder or Sweethearts. 

(3) Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea (Over 
Stowey). 

(4) Red Campion, Lychyiis dioica (Leigh, 
Dorset). 

Robins. Red Campion, as above (Taunton). 
More often called Robin Hood. 

Robin's Cushion. Sae Robin's Pincushion 
(1). 



236 

BoBiN's Eye. (1) The Herb Robert, Ger- 
anium Bobertianum. 

(2) The Red Campion, Lychnis dioica. 

Robin's Flowers. The Herb Robert, Ger- 
anium Bobertianum (Cheddar Valley). 

Robin's Pincushion. (1) The bedeguar or 
mossy gall found on the Wild Rose ; often called 
Old Man's Beard. 

(2) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis (Cerne 
Abbas). See Pincushion (1). 

Rob Roys. The Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica (Combe St. Nicholas). 

Roe-briar. The large Dog-rose briar (Rev. 
W. P. Williams). 

Rogation Flower. Common Milkwort, Poly- 
gala vulgaris. See Gang-flower. 

Roguery. Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber. 

Roman Candles. (1) The Horse Chestnut, 
^sculus Hippocastanum (Draycott). See Christ- 
mas Candles. 

(2) The " Red-hot Poker " or Flame-flower, 
Kniphofia aloides. 

(3) A school-girl a.t Furley gives me this as 
a local name for the Iris. 

Roman Jasmine. His Honour J. S. Udal gives 
this as a Dorset name for the Mock Orange, 
Philadelphus coronarius. 

Rook's Flower. Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, 
Scilla non-scripta (Luppitt, Devon). 

ROPBWIND. Field Convolvulus or Bindweed, 
Convolvulus arvensis. 

Rose Among the Thorns. The Fennel- 
flower, Nigella daniascena (Maunsel). More 
commonly called Love-in-a-Mist or Devil-in-a- 
Bush. 

Rose Bay. (1) The Rose-bay Willow Herb, 
Epilobium angustijolium ; sometimes called 
French Willow. 

(2) A lady at Compton, near Yeovil, gives 
me this as a local name for the Rhododendron. 

Rose Mallow. The Hollyhock, Althcea rosea. 

Rose op Heaven. Several correspondents 
send me this as the popular name of a species 
of Agrostemma. I believe the particular plant is 
Agrostemyna Cceli-rosa, or the Smooth-leaved Rose- 
Campion, and that it comes from the Levant. 

Rose op Sharon. Large-flowered St. John's 
Wort, Hypericum calycinum. 

Rosettes. Dahlias (Camerton). 

Rosy Dandrum. A common corruption of 
the name Bhododendron. 



237 

Rosy Heart. Another of the many names 
for Dicentra spectabilis ; see Bleeding Heart 
and Lady's Heart. This name is sent me from 
Trowbridge. 

Rosy Morn. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comi- 
culatus (Chewton Mendip). 

RoTTi^ Penny. The Yellow Rattle, Rhin- 
anthus Crista-galli (Dorset). 

Round-dock. The Common Mallow, Malva 
sylvestris, so called from the roandness of its 
leaves. 

According to Jennings the leaves of 
this plant were used in his day as a supposed 
remedy or charm for the sting of a nettle, by 
being rubbed on the stung part, with the words : 
In dock, out nettle, 
Nettle have a-stiug'd me. 

Round Robin. The Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica, to distinguish it from the Ragged Robin 
(Devon). 

Round Towers. Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum 
Salicaria (a school-girl at Alfington, Devon). 

Roving Sailor. (1) Ivy-leaved Toadflax, 
Linaria Cymbalaria. 

(2) The once-popular pot-plant. Saxijraga 
sarmentosa, often called Mother op Thousands, 
Strawberry-plant, Spider-plant, Poor Man's 
Geranium, «fec. See Aaron's Beard (2). 

RowBERRY. This is given me by several 
school-children in the Chard district as a local 
name for the " Mandrake " or (and) the " Deadly 
Nightshade." I assume the plants intended are 
the Red-berried or White Bryony, Bryonia 
dioica or (ard) the Woody Nightshade, Solanum 
Dulcamara. 

RowET or RowETS. Rough coarse grass ; 
particularly that growing up among furze or 
brushwood. Rough tufts of grass. 

Royal Penny. Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon 
Umbilicus-Veneris (Brompton Regis). 

Rue-fern (or Wall-rue). Rue-leaved Spleen- 
wort, Asplenium Buta-muraria. 

RuE-WEED. Common Meadow Rue, Thalict- 
rum flavum. 

RUMPET ScRUMPS. A school-girl at Ilminster 
gives me this as a local name for the Cow-parsnip, 
Heracleuni Sphondylium. See Lumper-Scrump. 

Run-away Jack. The Ground Ivy, Nepeta 
hederacea. 

Running Jacob. The Nasturtium, Tropceolum 
(Leigh, Dorset). 

Rusty Back. Scaly Spleenwort, Ceterach 
cfficinarum. 



238 

Rusty Coats. Russet Apples. 

Sailor's Buttons. Field Scabious, Scabiosa 
arvensis, and Devil's-bit Scabious, S. Sticcisa 
(Hawkchui'cJi, Devon). 

St. Anthony's Nut. Tiie Pig-nut {Conopo- 
dium majus) is often called St. Anthony's Nut, 
because that saint was the pati'on of pigs, and 
for a similar reason the Ranunculus, whose 
tubers are a favourite food for those creatures, 
was called St. Anthon^/'s Turnip or Rape (Rev. 
H. Friend). 

St. Barbara's Cress (or Herb). Common 
Winter-cress, Barbarea vulgaris. Often called 
Yellow Rocket. 

St. George and the Dragon. Two school- 
girls at South Petherton give me this as a local 
name for the Petunia. A school-girl at Cutcombe 
gives me St. George's Dragon as the local name 
of a flower of which I have been unable to get 
from her the proper name or any satisfactory 
description. 

St. James's Wort. (1) Common Ragwort, 
Senecio Jacoboea. 

(2) Shepherd's Pm^se, Capsella Bursa-pastoris. 

St. John Baptist Flower. Large-flowered 
St. John's Wort, Hypericum calycinum ; often 
called RfSE OF Sharon (Stowey, near Clutton). 

St. Patrick's Cabbage. London Pride, Saxi- 
Jraga umbrosa. 

St. Peter's Keys. The CowsHp, Primula 
veris, is commonly called by this name in the 
neighbomhood of North Cheiiton. 

Salary. A very common mi3i>ronunciation of 
Celery, Apium graveolens. 

Salet. Any plant used for salad, but most 
commonly applied in West Somerset to Mustard 
and Cress. 

Salt Cellar. The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 
Acetosella (Bourton, Dorset), from its acid 
flavour when eaten by children. 

Sammy Gussets. The Early Purple Orchis, 
Orchis mascula (Kilton). Compare Gossips and 
Single Gus. 

Sand Flowers. Sea Pink or Thrift, Statice 
maritima (Portland). 

Sarah Janes. The Red Campion, Lychnis 
dioica (Colyton). 

Sass Apples {i.e.. Sauce Apples). A kind of 
sharp apiile (Trowbridge). 

Satin Balls. A number of young people at 
Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
Heather, Calluna vulgaris. 



239 

Satin Flower. (1) The Greater Stitchwort 
Stellaria Holostea. 

(2) Luuaiy or Honesty, Lunaria biennis, from 
the satiny dissepiments of its seed vessel. 

Saturday's Pfpper. Son Spurge, Euphorbia 
Helioscopia (Wilts : Eng. Plant Names). 

Saturday Night's Pepper. Sun Spurge, as 
above (Wilts : " Village Miaers "). 

Sauce Alone. A very general name for the 
Garlic Treacle-mustard or Jack-by-the-hedge, 
Sisymbrium Alliaria. Mr. T. W. Cowan kinaiy 
wi^ites me : " Dr. Pi'ior thinks it likely that the 
latter part of the compound represents Italian 
aglione, French alloignon = garlic ; so the word 
would mean ' garlic sauce.' Gerarde in his 
Herbal (1597, p^xge 650) says : ' Sauce alone is 
joined with Garlick in nam?", not because it is 
like unto it in forme, but in smell ; for if it be 
brused or stamped it smelleth altogether like 
Garlic ke.' " 

Scabby Hands. (1) The Cow-parsnip or 
Hogweed, Heracleinn Sphondyliuni (Yeovil and 
Ubley). 

(2) The Hemlock, Conium maculatum (Camer- 
ton and Keynsham). 

(3) Several correspondents give me this as a 
local name for the " Hare's Parsley " or " Hair 
Parsley," by which may be meant Anthriscus 
sylvestris, or the Hemlock, as above. See 
Hare's Parsley. 

Scab Flowers. A school -girl at Gittisham 
(Devon) gives me this as a local name for the 
Angelica. 

Scabs. (1) Wild Parsley. Anthriscus sylvestris 
(Winscombe). 

(2) Garlic Tread e-mustavd or Jack-by-the- 
hedge, Sisymbrium Alliaria (Melksham). 

Scarlet Lightning. (1) A corruption of 
Scarlet Lychnis, Lychnis chalcedonica. See 

Flower of Bristowe. 

(2) Red Spm- Valerian, Kentranthns ruber 
(Shute, Devon). 

SCARYBAEUS. The compilers of the Wiltshire 
Glossary say : " At Yatton Keynell the Figwort, 
Scrophularia, is so called by the old women. It 
is pounded up with lard and made into eye- 
lotion. Our informant considers that the name 
is from some fannful resemblance between the 
flower and the Scarabaeus beetle. But it is more 
probably a variant of Squarrib (Square-rib, from 
the shape of the stem), which is the name in use 
among old peoj^le round Chippenham." 

Scent Bottles. The Head-master of Shos- 
combe Schools gives me this as a local name for 
the Hoary Plantain, Plantago media, and the 
Head-mistress of one of the Bridgwater Schools 
gives it as a local name for the fruits of the 
Plantain. 



240 

Scented Bush. The cultivated Lavender, 
Lavandula (Paulton). 

Scented Buttercup. Several young peojle 
in the Axminster district give me this as a local 
name for the Silverweed, Potentilla Anserina. 

Scented Daisies. School-girls at South 
Petherton give me this as a local name for the 
Tansy, Tanacetum vidgare, and the Camomile. 
By the latter name is probably meant the Stinking 
€amomile, Anthemis Cotula, although Dr. Watson 
tells me that during the past 20 years this plant 
has to a great extent been displaced in Somerset 
by Matricaria Chamomilla. The former plant 
is now much rarer than the latter, which is now 
the commonest Camomile in the county. 

Scented Fern. The Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare 
(West Somerset and Devon). 

School Bell. The Harebell, Campanula 
rotundifolia (N.-W. Wilts). 

School-boy's Clock. A fairly general name 
for the Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. 

Scotch Gramfer Griggles. The Self-heal, 
Prunella vulgaris (Leigh, Dorset). 

Scotchmen. Thistles of almost every kind. 

Scotch Thistle. A Watchet correspondent 
tells me that this name is given in that district 
to the Dwarf Thistle, Cnicus acaulis. 

SCRUMPLING. A small apple which never 
arrives at perfection (West Somerset). 

Sea Bottle. Different species of the Sea- 
wrack or Fucus. are called Sea-bottles, in conse- 
quence of the stalks having round or oval vescicles 
or pods in them. The pod itself. (Jenniags.) 
Dr. Watson tells me that all the species of Fucus 
have the fertile pod-like branches. Bladders 
<for floating purposes) are present in Fucus 
versciculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. 

Sea Daisy, Sea Gilliflower, or Sea Pink. 
The Thiift or Sea Pink. Statice maritima. 

Search-ijght. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria 
vulgaris (Luxborough). 

Sea-Spray. Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis. 

Seaves. In certain parts of England rushes 
are called Seaves, and this name was also given 
to the pith of rushes dipped in fat and used as 
candles. Holloway . -.ys in Hampshire young 
onions arc called Sives, probably from the stalks 
resembling those of rushes. Mr. Onions tells me 
SiVES is an old form of Chives dating back to the 
15th century. 

Segs. Holloway gives this as a Gloucestershire 
name for Sedge or Rushes. It is sometimes 
applied to the Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 
The name comes from the A.S. secg = a small 
sword, and has reference to the shape of the leaves. 



241 

Selp-Heal. Tnis is the gen-ral English name 
for Prunella vulgaris, but a number of school- 
children at Brompton Regis apply it to the 
Common Bugle, Ajuga reptans. 

Selgbeen. The House-leek, Sempervivum 
tectorum. " Sel " is a corruption of " si/i," the 
Anglo-Saxon word for " ever " ; hence Selgreen 
means '' evergreen." 

Sengreen. (1) Same as Selgreen. 

(2) This name is sometimes applied to the 
Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor. 

Senna Pods. Common Centaury, Centa^'rium 
umbellatum : a f lant very largely used in the past 
for its medicinal i^roperties (Melbu^y Osmond). 

Seven Sisters. A common name for the old" 
fashioned clustered small white roses. 

Seven Years' Love. This is usuaJly described 
as " a variety of everlasting flower." Mrs. Bray, 
in her " Borders of the Tamar and Tavy," si)eaks 
of " Seven Years' Love " as the name of a common 
flower in the West of Englana, but the Rev. H. 
Friend, who made a special study of the flower 
names of Devonshire, was unable to identify the 
plant. The Rev. H. N. EUacombe (vi^ar of Bitton, 
1870), said that he had often seen the country 
bridesmaids in Gloucestershire and other parts 
bringing the double-flowered Yarrow (Achillea 
ptarmica) to the hymeneal altar under this name. 

Shackle Bagki.e. Several school-girls at 
South PethertOxi give me this as a local name for 
the Bladder Campion, Silene latijolia. 

Shackle Bags. The Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus 
Crista-galli. 

Shackle Baskets. (1) Yellow Rattle, as 
above. 

(2) Quaking Grass, Briza media, commonly 
called Wag-wants. 

Shackle Boxes. (1) Quaking Grass, Briza 
media. 

(2) The Lousewort or Red Rattle, Pedicularis 
sylvatica (Stockiand, Devon). 

Shackle C.\ps. Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus 
Crista-galli (East Harj)tree). 

Shackle Grass. Quakiiig Grass, Briza media. 
Shacklers. (1) Yellow Rattle, Bhinanthus 
Crista-galli. 

(2) The fruits of the Ash and Maple (Devon). 

Shades of Evening. The White Campion, 
Lychnis alba (North Petherton). 

Shaggy Jacks. The Ragged Robin, Lychnis 
Flos-cuculi (South Somerset and Devon). 

Shake a Basket. Doubtless a corruption 
of Shackle Basket. Sent me by several 
Wincanton school girls as a local name for the 
Quaking Grass, Briza media. 



242 

Shakers. A Wiltshire name for the Quaking 
Grass, as above. 

Shaking Grass. A common name in West 
Somerset and Devon tor the Quaking Grass, 
Briza media. 

Shalder. (1) A broad, flat rush growing in 
ditches (Jennings). Rush, sedge, growing in 
ditches (Rev. W. P. Williams). 

(2) Great Pendulous Sedge, Carex pendula 
(Butieigh : Rev. R. P. Murray). 

(3) The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus (Lottis- 
ham). 

Shame- faced Maiden. (1) Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nemorosa. Recorded in " Sarum 
Diocesan Gazette " as used at Farley. 

(2) The Star of Bethlehem, ' Ornithogalum 
umbellatum (Shrewto i, Wilts). 

Shame-faces. The Pansy, Viola tricolor (a 
Martock school -boy). 

Sham Honey Flower. Ladies at Martcck and 
North Petherton give me this as a local name for 
the Pyramid Orchis, Orchis pyramidalis. 

Shamrock. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, or 
White Clover, Trifolium repens. The najne is 
from the Irish seamrog, a diminutive of seamar= 
Trefoil. Considerable differnce of opinion has 
long existed as to the particular plant to which 
the name rightly belongs. Dr. Watson writes 
me : •' The name is given in Ireland to a 
number of plants with leaves divided into three 
leaflets. My experience indicated that it was 
most frequently given to Trijolium dubium, 
probably because this is the most abundant plant 
with trifoliate leaves in most districts. In Eng- 
land the name is more commonly given to species 
of Oxalis." Mr. James Britten tells me he has 
gone into the matter very carefully, and it is 
quite certain that the Lesser Yellow Trefoil, 
Trifolium m,inus, is the true Shamrock. I believe 
T. dubium and T. miyius are :'eally one and the 
same plant. Dr. Watson therefore confirms Mr. 
Britten. In the particular district with which I 
am dealing the name appears to be given most 
frequently to the Wood Sorrel. 

Shan't be Long. A number of school-girls at 
South Petherton give me this as a lojal name for 
the Deadly Nightshade, by which they probably 
mean the Woody Nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara. 

Sheeps' Bells. The Harebell, Campanula 
rotundijolia (Uplyme). 

Sheep's Bit. A general English name for the 
Annual Scabious, Jasione montana. 

Sheeps' Ears. The Woolly Woundwort, 
Stachys lanata (Over Stowey). More often called 
Donkey's Ear or Mouse's Ear. 

Sheep's Favourite Morsel. A Martock lady 
gives me this as a local name for the Plantain. 



243 

Sheep-shearing Flower. (1) The Iris 
(Bi'ompton Regis). 

(2) Tnc Gladiolus (Bridgwr^ter). 

Sheep Shears. The Iris (Rodney Stoke and 
Litton). Sec above (1). 

Sheeps' Tails. (1) Catkins of the Hazel, 
Corylus Avellana ; more often called Lamb's 
Tails or Pussy Cats' Tails. 

(2) Great Drooping Sedge, Carex pendula 
(Wmcanton). 

Sheep's Thistle. Creeping Piume Thistle, 
Cnicus arvensis (Wincanton). 

Sheep's Thyme. Wild Thyme, Thymus Ser- 
pyllum (Stoke Abbot, Dorset). See Shepherd's 
Thyi^le (1). 

Shee Shack. A form of Shick Shack (which 
see), used at Stoke-under-Ham. 

Shekel Basket. The Yellow Rattle, 
Bhinanthus Crista-galli (Leigh, Dorset). See 
Shackle Basket. 

Shekel Box. Yellow Rattle, as above (Mel- 
plash, Dorset). See Shackle Box. 

Shemsha. The Shunaac Tree (Pulman). 

Shepherd's Barometer. The Scarlet Pim- 
pernel, Anagallis arve^isis ; more often called 
Poor Man's Weather-glass. 

Shepherd's Clock. (1) Scarlet Pimpernel, 
as above. 

(2) The Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale (Mine- 
heaa). 

Shepherd's Club. An old country name for 
the Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus. 

Shepherd's Delight. (1) The Scarlet Pim- 
pernel, Anagallis arvensis. 

Ml-. El worthy says it is uncertain from the 
jjronounciation whether delight or daylight is 
intended. S?e Shepherd's Joy. 

(2) Tlie Mealy Guetder Rose or Wayfaring 
Tree, Viburtiuni Lantana (Miss ELa Ford, Mei- 
plash). 

(3) Wild Clematis or Traveller's Joy, Clematis 
Vitalba (a schooi-girl at Cnideock). 

Shepherd's Flock. White Arabis (Shepton 
Mallet). 

Shepherd's Friend. The Mountain Ash, 
Pyrus Aucuparia (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Shepherd's Joy. The Scarlet Pimpernel, 
Anagallis arvensis (Bridgwater). See Shepherd's 
Delight (1). 

Shepherd's Pouch. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris. 

Shepherd's Purse. (1) The general English 
name for Capsella Bursa-pastoris. It is some- 



244 

limes ini3-a.pplied. to other plants, as tor in- 
stance : — 

(2) The Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthus Crista- 
galli (Winscombe and Dalwood). 

(3) Bira's-foot Trefon, Lotus comiculatus (Over 
Stowey). 

(4) Tiie Calctoiaria (South Petherton ani 
Luppitt). 

(5) Lunary or Honesty, Lunaria biennis 
(Wells). 

Shepherd's Rod (or Staff). The Teasel, 
both the Common and the Small Species, Dipsacus 
sylvestris and D. pilosus. 

Shepherd's Scrip. A Wincanton schoo.-girl 
^ives me tiiis as a local name for the Shepnera's 
Purse, Capsella Bursa pastoris. 

Shepherd's Thyme. (1) Wild Tuyma 
Thymus Serpyllum. See Sheep's Thyme. 

(2) In Wiltshire the Chalk Milkwort, Polygala 
calcarea. This plant is fairly common on the 
Wilts chalk downs, but is not likely to be dis- 
tinguished from other Milkworts except by 
botanists. 

Shepherd's Warning. The Scarlet Pimpernel, 
Anagallis arvensis. 

Shepherd's Weather-glass. The Scarlet 
Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis, from its habit 
of closing its flowers before rain. 

Shickxe Shackles. Quaking Grass, Briza media 
(Stoke-under-Ham). 

Shick Shack or Shig Shag. The leaves and 
*' apple " of the oak, worn by school-children and 
others of a larger growiih, on May 29th, known 
throughout the district as " Oak-apple Day " 
or " Shick Shack Day " — this being supposed to 
be the day on which King Charles hid in the 
oak. 

Shillings. Lunary or Honesty, Lunaria 
biennis (Broadstone, Dorset). 

Shimmies, Shimmy- shirts, or Shimmies and 
Shirts. (1) One or other of these names is 
used throughout a great part of Somerset, Dorset, 
and Wilts for the Greater Convolvulus or Hedge 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. See Shirts. 

(2) In the neighboui'hood of North Cheriton 
these names are given to the Greater Stitchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea. 

Shirt Buttons. (1) Flowers of the Greater 
Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 

(2) A school-girl at Oakhill gives this as a 
local name for the White Campion, Lychnis alba. 

Shirts or Shirts and Shimmies. Lesser 
Convolvulus or Field Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis. See Shimmies. 

Shit-abed. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale (Wiltshire). 



245 

Shitsack. a Wincanton form of Shick Shack • 
Shivering Grass. Quaking Grass, Briza 
media. 

Shiver Shakes. Quaking Grass, Briza media 
(a South Petherton school-girl). 

Shivery Shakes (or Shakeries). Quaking 
Grass, Briza media (North Somerset and Wilts). 

Shoe Nut. When I was a boy this was a very- 
common name for the Brazil nut, Bcrtholetia 
excelsa, on account of its shape and appearance. 

Shoes and Slippers. The Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nem,orosa (Pawlett). 

Shoes and Socks. The Columbine, Aqnilegia 
vulgaris. 

Shoes AND Stockings. (1) Bird's foot Trefoil, 
Lotus corniculatus. 

(2) The Columbine, Aquilegia vxdgaris. 

(3) The White Dead Nettle, Lamium album 
(Frome). 

(4) The Polyanthus. 

(5) The Wild Pansy or Heartsease, Viola 
arvensis (Merriott). 

(6) A school-girl at Higher Horton gives me 
this as a local name for the Lanab's Tongue 
Plantain, Plantago media. 

Sickle Wort. (1) Self-heal, Prunella vxlgaris, 
from the shape of its flowers, which seen in profile 
resemble a sickle. 

(2) Common Bugle, Ajuga reptans. See 
Carpenter's Herb. 

Silgreen. The House-leek, Sempervivum 
tectorum. See Selgreen. 

Silks and Satins. Honesty, Lv.naria biennis. 

Silky Flossy. A Wells lady gives me this 
as a local name for the Salpiglossis ; apparently 
a corruption of, or play upon, the true name. 

Silky Flower. The blossom of the Pear, 
Pyrus communis (school-girls at Paulton). 

Silver Ball. Guelder Rose, Vibemum Opidus 
(Clevedon). 

Silver Bells. (1) The double Guelder Rose 
of gardens (Cherhill, Wilts). More commonly 
called Snowballs. 

(2) A school-girl at Paulton gives me this as a 
local name for the Wood Anemone, Anemone 
nemorosa. 

Silver Dock. Mi?s M. J. Shute, late of Oare, 
gives me this as a local name for the Bistort, 
Polygonum. Bistorta. 

Silver Leaves. (1) The Silver Weed, Poten- 
tilla Anserina. 

(2) The Woolly Woundwort, Stachys lanata 
(a school-girl at Wellington). 



246 

(3) Lunary or Honesty, Limaria biennis 
(Wimborne). 

Silver Pennies. Lunary or Honesty, Limaria 
biennis. 

Silver Shekels. Quaking Grass, Briza media 
(Weston Zoyland). 

Silver Fern. The Silver-weed, Potentilla 
Anserina, from its silvery fern-like foliage. 

Silver Knew Nothing. The Head-Master of 
Shosconibe Schools gives me this as the commonest 
local name for the Scarlet Elf-cup Fungus, 
Geopyxis coccinea ; and Miss Ida Roper tells nie 
the same name is used at Glutton. This Fungus 
is often called in Somerset Soldiers' Caps or 
Jerusalem Stars. See Silver Sixpences. 

Silver-leaved Tree. (1] The Silvei' Birch 
Betiila alba (school-children at Paulton). 

(2) The Abele or White Poplar, Populus alba, 
(West Somerset). 

Silver Sixpences. The Scarlet Elf-cup 
Fungus, Geopyxis coccinea (school-children at 
Mells). See Silver Knew Nothing. 

Silver Slippers. Nigella damascena, com- 
monly known as Love-in-a-Mist or Devil-in- a- 
BuSH (Litton). 

Simpler's Joy. An old name for the Vervain, 
Verbena officinalis, which I gather from a school- 
boy at Martock is still sometimes used in that 
district. 

Single Castle. His Honoiu' J. S. Udal gives 
this as a local name at Portland for both the 
Early Purple Orchis, O. mascula, and the Green- 
winged Orchis, O. morio. 

Single Ghost. The Early Purple Orchis, 
O. mascula (CreAvkerne, East Lambrook, and 
Trowbridge). 

Single-guss. The Eaily Purple Orchis, O. 
mascula (Jennings, Rev^. W. P. Wiiii?ms, and Rev. 
J. Coleman). 

Single Gussies. A correspondent of Somerset 
a id Dorset Notes a id Queries \a 1893 gave this as 
an old name at Hiaton St. George for the Bluebell, 
B cilia non-scripta. 

SiNGRKEN. The House-ieek, Semperviviim 
iectornm. See Sblgreen. 

SiNNEGAR. A common name in Mid and East 
Somerset fui the Stock, Matihiola incana. 

Sithes or SiVBS. Chives ; a kind of Garlic, 
Allitim Schoenoprasum, used as a pot herb. Mr. 
F. W. Mathews describes it as a cultivated 
bulbous perennial with slender rush-like leaves, 
much less " tasty " than the ordinary Garlic, 
A. sativum. See Seaves. 



247 

SKEGG.~An old English name for the Yellow 
Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 

Skewer-Timber (Tree or Wood). (1) The 
Spindle-tree, Euoyiymus europceus, from the fact 
that it is from the wood of this tree that butchers' 
skewers are made. 

(2) The Dogwood, or Wild Cornel, Cornus 
sanguinea. See note under Skiveb-Timber. 

Skipping Ropes. Main stems and large 
branches of Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba 
(Bishopstone, Wilts). 

Skiver or Skivver. The Wilts Glossary 
gives the latter form as the local name for the 
Dogwood, Cornus sanguinea, and states that it is 
so called because the wood of this tree is used for 
making skewers. See note under Skiver- 
Timber. 

Skiver Berries. Fruit of the Spindle-tree, 
Euonymas europceus (Stalbridge). 

Skiver-Timber (or Wood). (1) The Spiudle- 
tree, Euonymus europceus, from the fact that 
butchers' skewers (called in Somerset " skivers ") 
are made from the wood of this tree. Mr. F. T. 
Elworthy, referring to the statement that skewers 
are m.ade from Dogwood, says : "I cannot 
admit it. The exact contrary is the fact. Butchers 

all say ' Dog-Umber stinks wo'se-n a dog tidn 

fit vor skivers : t'll spwoil the mate.' Butchers' 
skewers are made of Skiver-Timber, Euonymus 
europceus, and when buying them of gypsies or 
others, they are careful to smell them, because the 
appearance of the wood is alike." I learn from 
Mr. T. W. Cowan that Cornus sanguinea, Euony- 
mus euro2oceus, Rhamnus Frangula, and Viburnum 
Opulus are all callea Dogwood. 

(2) Notwithstanding Mr. Elworthy's opinion 
quoted above, this_ name is frequently ajDplied 
to the Dogwood or Wild Cornel, Cornus sanguinea, 
from which skewers are apparently frequently 
made. See Skiver. 

Sky Scraper. A Yeovil school-boy gives me 
this as a local name for the Sunflower, Helianthua 
annuus. 

Sleeping Beauty. A Dorset name for the 
Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella. 

Sleepy Clover. The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis 
Acetosella (Puddletown, Dorset). 

Sleepy-Head. (1) Common Red Poppy, 
Papaver Rhceas (Dowlish Wake). 

(2) Yellow Goat's-beard, Tragopogon pratense 
(Bradford-on-Tone). Often called Jack-go-to- 
Bed-at-Noon, from its habit of closing up its 
flowers about mid-day. 

Slipper-Flower. The Calceolaria. 



248 

Slipper Sloppers. Meadow Vetchling, 
Lathyrus pratensis (East Dorset). 

Sloe Bush. Mr. W. S. Price, of Wellington' 
writes me : — " In this neighbourhood it is 
curious that in autumn the Black-thorn is always 
referred to as a Sloe-bush, and I believe naany 
young people for this reason fail to identify the 
two as the same plant." 

Sloes, Slones, or Sloos. The fruit of the 
Black-thorn, Prunus spinosa. Dr. R. C. Knight 
writes me : " My father was always emphatic 
on the point that the Sloe was the large variety 
and the Snag the small. As a matter of fact, 
there is probably every gradation of fruit, from 
the size of a wren's egg to that of a blackbird's 
egg — all within Primus spinosa. The fruit 
expert here (Research Station, East Mailing, 
Kent) informs me that in Kent the larger ones are 
called Sloes and the smaller Scads. Hampshire 
people call the smaller Hedgepicks." This view 
is confirmed by the compilers of the Wiltshire 
Glossary, who say that in South Wilts, about 
Salisbm-y, the large fruit is known as Sloes or 
Slues, and the small as Snags. See also Sloom. 
Dr. Downes writes " There is probably some 
confusion between the Sloe and the Bullace, 
Prunus hisititia, the latter being common in 
Somerset, and bearing much larger fruit." 

Sloo. See Sloes. 

Sloom. The School-mistress at Barrington 
gives me " Sloom -blossom " as the local name 
for the flowers of the " Wild Plum," which bears 
a sweet fruit, and " Snag-blossom " for the " Wild 
Damson," which bears a bitter fruit. See Sloes. 
Dr. Wstson suggests that the " Wild Plom " here 
referred to may be Prunus domestica, which occurs 
wild in many places. 

Slone-Bloom. Blossom of the Black-thorn, 
Prunus spinosa. 

Smallage or Smalledge. A general English 
name for the Wild Celery, Apium graveolens. 

Small and Pretties. Virginia Stock, Mal~ 
colmia maritima (Oompton, near Yeovil). More 
generally called Little and Pretty. 

Small Clover. Several school -children at 
Brompton Regis give me this as a local name 
for the Black Medick, Medicago lupulina, but Dr. 
Watson tells me it is more likely that the Small 
Yellow Trefoil, Triiolium dubium, is intended. 
Most people would confuse the two plants, and 
in fact even botanists sometimes do so. 

Smart-Ass (or Arse). A very common name 
in West Somerset for the Water Pepper, 
Polygonum Hydropiper. See Arse-smart. 

Smell Foxes. A school-girl at Oakhill gives 



249 

me this curious name for the Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nemorosa. 

Smocks. Greater Convolvulus or Hedge Bind- 
weed, Calystegia sepium. 

Smoking Cane. The dried porous stalks of 
the Traveller's Joy or " Old Man's Beard," 
Clematis Vitalba, which boys use for smoking. 
The dried rootlets of the elm serve the same 
purpose. 

Smut. A pernicious black fungus which 
attacks the ears and stalks of corn, mostly wheat, 
after a cold spring. Very common (F. T. 
EiWorthy). Dr. Watson gives me as the scientific 
name of Smut, Ustilago carbo, which is an aggre- 
gate name for the several species {U. Tritici, 
U. Hordei, U. Avence, Sec.) infesting corn. 

Snag. (1) The fruit of the Black-thorn, 
Primus spinosa ; a corruption of Anglo-Saxon 
Slag. Rev. Wm. Barnes (Dorset) defines it as 
" the fruit of a species of Black-thorn, smaller 
than Sloes." See Sloes. 

(2) The sttuup of a tree when cut off above 
the ground or hedge. The word does not aj)ply 
to the root, but only to the part above ground (F. 
T. Eiworthy). Commonly applied to any tree 
stump or other obstacle preventing progress of 
a boat. 

Snag-Blooth or Blowth. The blossom of the 
Black-thorn, Primus spinosa. 

Snaggs. a number of school-children at 
Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
Bladder Campion, Siletie latijolia. 

Snake (or Snake's) Berries. A name applied 
to the blight red berries of a number of plants 
which are poisonous (or supposed to be so), 
particulaily to those of the Wild Arum, Iris, 
Woody Nightshade, Bryony, &c. See Adder's 
Food and Snake's Food. 

Snake Fern. (1) The Common Hart's- 
tongue, Phyllitis Scolopendrium (Somerset). 

(2) The Bracken, Pteris aquilina (Sherborne 
and Deverill, WUts). 

Snake (or Snake's) Flower. A name applied 
in various parts of the district to a large number 
of different flowers, anaongst them being the 
following : — • 

(1) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 
I have heard cliildren in the neighbourhood of 
Yeovil say that if you pick these flowers a snake 
will run (!) after you, and Dr. Downes tells me 
the same idea prevails about Ilminster, and in 
fact as far away as Cornwall. 

(2) Several correspondents in Dorset apply 
the name to the Lesser Stitchwort, Stellaria 
graminea. 



250 

(3) The Wood Anemone, Anemone netnorosa 
(South Somerset and Dorset). 

(4) Both the Spotted Orchis, O. maculata, and 
the Early Ptu'ple Orchis, O. mascula. 

(5) Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium iirsinum 
{Somerset and Dorset). 

(6) Several correspondents in different parts 
of Somerset apply this name to the Bittersweet, 
and others to the Deadly Nightshade ; probably 
all of them mean the Woody Nightshade (or 
Bittersweet), Solanum Dulcamara. 

(7) Dog's Mercxiry, Mercurialis perennis 
(Brompton Regis and Milborne St. Andrew). 

(8) The Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum 
(Fivehead and Butkigh). 

(9) Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non- 
scripta (Babcary and Dal wood). 

(10) Meadow Saffron or Autumn Crocus, 
Colchicntn autnmnale (Shejpton Mallet). 

(11) Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis (Bar- 
ries gton). 

(12) Greater Convolvulus or Hedge Bindweed, 
Calystegia sepium (school -girls at Paalton). 

(13) The Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi 
(a school -girl at Axbridge). 

(14) Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris 
(Lydford-on-the-Fosse). 

(15) In Wilts, the Black Mullein, Verbascum 
nigrum. In parts of S.W. Wilts children are 
cautioned not to g.ther this plant, because a 
snake may be hiding under the leaves. 

Snake Leaves. Feins (Rev. W. P. Williams). 
More especially the Hait's-tongue, Phyllitis 
Scolopendrium. 

Snake Pipe. The Great Horse-tail, Equisetum 
maximum (North Somerset ; White's Bristol 
Flora). Since this li^t has been in typg a farmer 
stated in the Wels Bankiuptcy Court that he 
had lost a number of cows through their eating 
Snake-pipe, wnich brought on " screw." 

Snake Plant. Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium 
iirsiwim (Ilminster). 

Snake Violet. Several correspondents in 
Dorset give me this ars a local name for the Dog 
Violet, Viola canina, and the Wood Violet, V. syl- 
vestris. 

Snakes and Adders. (1) The Wood 
Anemone, Anemone nemorosa (a school-girl at 
Winsham). 

(2) The B'^e Orchis, Ophrys apifera (a school- 
girl at Chideock). 

Snakes and Ladders. The Foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea (a school -girl at Castle Cary). 

Snake's Cherries. Fi-uits of the Dogwood or 
Wild Cornel, Comas sanguinea (Staple Fitzpaine.) 

Snake's Food. The red berries of a number of 



251 

■olants which are poisonous, or supposed to be 
poisonous ; particularly those of : — 

(1) The Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatnm. 

(2) The Stinking Iris, Iris foeUdissima. 

(3) The Black Bryony, Tamns comm"nis. 

(4) Woody Nightshade or Bittersweet, Solarium 
Dulcamara. " Snake's Food " is a variation of 
Adder's Food (which see), which is a corruption 
of the Anglo Saxon attar - poison. 

(5) Broad-leaved Garlic, Allium ursinum 
(Stratton-on-the-Fosse). 

(6) The Butterbur, Petasites ovatus (school- 
boys at Axbridge). 

(7) Comfrey, Symphytum officinale (a school- 
giil at Wincanton). 

(8) Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis perennis (Oke- 
ford Fitzpaine, Dorset). 

(9) Yellow Toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (Stick- 
land, Dorset). 

Snake's Foot. The School-mistress at Bab- 
cary gives me this as a local name for the 
" Dragon-wort," which is an old name for the 
Bistort or Snake-weed, Polygonum Bistorta. 

Snake's Grass. Common Yarrow or Milfoil 
Achillea Millefolium (Iwerne Minster, Dorset). 

Snake" s Head. (1) A general name for the 
Common Fritillary, Fritillaria Meleagris. 

(2) The Common Tormentil, Potentilla erecta 
(S.W. Wilts). 

Snakes' Meat. (1) Mr. W. S. Price (Welling- 
ton) writes : " Snakes' Meat is more often us^ 
in this locality than Adders' Food to designate 
poisonous berries, and is specially used for the 
berries of the Bryony or the seeds' of the Ai'um." 
It is also applied to the other berries mentioned 
under Snake's Food. 

(2) A correspondent at South 3Iolton gives me 
this as a local name for the Self-heal, Prunella 
vulgaris. 

(3) Cow-parsnip or Hog-weed, Heracleum 
Sphondylium (school -children at Alfington, Devon). 

Snake's Rhubarb. A Dorset name for 

(1) The Butterbui', Petasites ovatus. 

(2) The Bxirdock, Arctium minus. 

Snake's Victuals. Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatum (Evershot, and Wilts : " Great 
Estate," ch. 2). 

Snake Tongue. The Hart's-tongue Fern 
Phyllitis Scolopcndrium (Upottery, Devon). ' 

Snake-Weed. (1) A general English name 
for the Common Bistort, Polygonum Bistorta. 

(2) Common Knot-grass, Polygonum aviculare 
(Allerford). 

(3) The Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Wincanton). 



252 

(4) Goose-grass or Cleavers, Galium Aparine 
(Xettlecombe). 

(5) Black Bryony, Tamus communis (Stock- 
land, Devon). 

Snapdragon. (1) The usual English name 
for Antirrhinum majus. 

(2) Frequently misapplied to the Yellow Toad- 
flax, Linaria vulgaris. 

(3) Less often aT)plied to the Ivy-leaved 
Toadflax, Linaria Cymbalaria. 

(4) The Rev. H. Fiiend gives this as a Devon- 
shire name for the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea^ 
for which it is also sent nae from Stoke St. Gregory, 
Wincanton, and Oakhill. 

(5) In North Devon the Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris, is known by many people only under the 
name of Snapdragon. 

Snap- Jacks. (1) A very common name 
throughout the greater part of the district for the 
Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea, in conse- 
quence, I believe, of the way in which children 
" snap " the seed capsules, but the name may 
also have reference to the brittleness of the 
stall's, which " snap " very quickly if the plant 
is roughly handled, and earned for it the old 
name of All-bones, which is practically the 
English equivalent of the specific name Holostea. 

(2) The name is less frequently applied to the 
Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus. 

(3) From Yeovil and Minehead I have this 
seit me as a local name for the Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris. 

(4) My Watchet correspondent, in whom I 
have confidence, gives this as a local name for 
both the \Yhite Campion, Lychnis alba, and the 
Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia. The former is 
confirmed by a school-giil at Mistcrton. 

(5) The Herb Eobert, Geraninm Rohertianum 
(Wiveliscombe). 

(6) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (Bridg 
water). 

(7) A Crewkerne school girl gives it as a local 
name for the Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis 
arvensis. 

Snaps. (1) A commoin name in ^Vest Somerset 
for the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

(2) The Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(S.W. Wilts). 

Sneeze wort. The Sneeze-wort Yarrow, 
Achillea Ptarmico. When dried the plant excites 
sneezing, and it is said that the Highlanders use 
it as a substitute for snuff. 

Snitch-backs. The school mistress at Beamin- 
ster gives me this as a local name for the Cyclamen. 

Snots. The beriies of the Yew, Taxus baccata ; 
dotibtless from their slimy pulp. As a boy in 
East Somerset I never heard the Yew-beiry called 
by any other name. 



253 

Snotter-berries. (1) Yf-w-b?iries(Sh"scc.raue). 

(2) Mr. W. S. Price (Wellington) teJls me the 
name is also giv^n in that dii-tvict to the Snow- 
beiiy, Sytnphoricar'pus racemosus. 

Snotter Galls. Yew-berries (Wilts). 

Snotty Gobbles. Yew-borries (Yeovil and 
Stoke-under -liam). 

Snotty Gogs. Yew-berries (Donh^ad, Wilts). 

Snow Balls. (1) A very common name 
tlu^onghout the district for the Guelder Rose, 
Vib>irn'<m Opidus, particularly the double variety. 

(2) The Snow-berry, Symphoricarpiis racemosus 

Snow-bells. The Snowdrop, Galanth us yiivalis\ 

Snow Carpet. Sweet Alyssuni, Alyssum 
maritimuni (Evercreech and Bea minster). Mr. 
Jas. Britten suggests that probably Arabis alpina 
was mjant. 

Snowflake. (1) The general English name 
for Leucojum cestivum, the Summer Snowflake, 
and L. vernum, the Spi'ing Snowflake. They 
are rarely found wild, but the former species 
has escaped and spread in certain localities near 
Taunton and Wellington. 

(2) The flower of the Hawthorn or May, 
Cratcpgus monogyna (South Petheiton). 

(3) The Star of Bethlehem, Omithogalum 
vmbellatum. 

(4) Mr. Edward Vivian, of Trowbridge, gives 
this as a local name for the Guelder Rose, Vibur- 
num Opulus. 

Snow in Harvest (or in Summer). (1) The 
garden plant, Arabis alpina ; more often called 
Snow on the Mountain. 

(2) Cerastium tomentosum, A garden species 
of Mouse-ear Cbickweed. Both 1 and 2 are 
sometimes called White Rock. 

(3) Less frequently applied to the White (or 
Sweet) Alyssum, Alyssum maritimum. 

(4) " Snow in Harvest " is an old country 
name for the Wild Clematis or Traveller's Joy, 
Clematis VitaWa : a lady at Martock sends it 
to me as being still used in that district. 

Snow on the Mountain. (1) Most generally 
applied to the garden plant Arabis alpina. 

(2) A garden species of Mo\jse-ear Chick- 
weed, Cerastium tomentosum. 

(3) White (or Sweet) Alyssum, Alyssum 
maritimum. 

(4) White Meadow Saxifrage, Saxifraga granu- 
lata (S.W. Wilts). 

(5) A correspondent at Shrewton (Wilts) gives 
me this as a local name for the Greater SI itchwort, 
Stellaria Holostea. 

Snow Piercer. The Snowdrop, Galanthu9 
nivalis (Chard and Ilmi aster district). 



254 

Snow Toss. The Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Opidus. 

Snuff-box. A Puff-ball fungus, Lycoperdon, 
when fully ripe and givang off its spores when 
touched. 

Snuff Candle. Yellow Dead-Nettie, Lamium 
Galeobdolon (Calne, Wilt?). 

SoAPLEAVES. A correspondent at Batcorube 
gives me this as a local name for the Water 
Pigwort, Scrophularia aquatica, and says that if 
rubbed between the hands the leaves produce a 
lather not unlike that of soap, but Dr. Watson 
tells me the soapine^s of the Figwort is very slight, 
and suggests my correspondent has possibly 
confused the plant with the Soapwort, Sapotiaria 
officinalis. See Gipsy's Soap. 

Sod-apple. Great Hairy Willow Herb 
Epilobium hirsutum, from its apx)le-like smell when 
crushed (N.W. Wilts). 

SoJEB. His Honour J. S. Udal gives this as a 
Dorset name for the Military Orchis, Orchis 
militaris. See Soldier. 

Soldier Boys. Red Spur Valerian, Kentran- 
thxis ruber (Mr. W. C. Baker, late of Maunsel). 

Soldiers. A name given to a number of 
different plants, but aiDparently most commonly 
in this district to 

(1) The stems and seed-heads of the Lamb's- 
tongue Plantain Plantago lanceolata. Children 
gather these and make them fight until the head 
of one or the other is knocked oft". See Cock's 
Heads and Fighting Cocks. 

(2) A fairly common name for the Red Poppy, 
Papaver Rhceas. A Wiltshire correspondent 
wrote me some years ago : "A field of these is 
supposed to resemble an army of ' Red-coats.' 
The name siirvives in spite of a khaki army." 

(3) The name is given, particularly in Dorset, 
to several species of Orchis. (See Sojeb.) A 
number of my Dorset correspondents apply it to 
the Early Purple Orchis, O. mascula ; a few to 
the Spotted Orchis, O. inaculata (including one 
at Winsham), and a correspondent at Charmouth 
applies it to the Bee Orchis, Ophrys apifera. 

(4) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (Dorset). 

(5) Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pmt, Arum macula- 
tum (Wincanton). 

(6) The Herb Robert, Geranium Bobertianum 
(Devon). 

(7) Common Sorrel, Rumex Acetosa (Martock), 
doubtless from the reddish colour of its stems, 
petals, and sepals. 

(8) Crimson Clover, Trifolium incarnatum 
(Taunton). 

(9) A school -boy at Furley gives this as a 
local name for the Mat-grass, Nardus striata. 



255 

Soldiers and Angels. A school -girl at 
Dalwood (Devon) gives this as a local name for 
the Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum maciilatum^ 
possibly through confusion with Devils and 
Angels or Soldiers and Sailors. 

Soldiers and Sailors. (1) The Wild Arum 
or Cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum (Milborne Port, 
Oakhill, and Muchelney). 

(2) Common Lungwort, Pulmoyiaria officinalis, 
on account of its red and blue flowers. 

(3) Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudaconis (Wimborne 
district). 

(4) A school -boy at Farley gives this as a 
local name for the Sundew, Drosera, but it is not 
easy to see the reason. 

Soldiers' Buttons. A name gi\en to a 
number of dififeient plants, but most generally 
throughout this district to 

(1) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris. 

(2) The burs of the Boroock, Arctium minus. 

(3) Buttercups of various kinds, particularly 
the Acrid Crowfoot, Ranunculus acris. 

(4) The Field S^abioiis, Scabiosa arvensis. 

(5) Correspondents at Hatch Beauchamp and 
Nettlecombe give this as a local name for the 
Yellow Water Lily, Nymphcea lutea. 

(6) From several diiferent parts of Wiltshire 
this is seat me as a local name for the Water 
Avens, Geum rivale. 

(7) The Scarlet Elf -cup Fungus, Geopyxis 
coccinea ; more often called Soldier's Cap. 

(8) The Hawkbit, Leontodon hispidum, or 
L. autumnale (Sexey's School). 

(9) The Rock-rose, Helianthemum Chamce- 
cistus (Shoscombe). 

(10) The Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa 
(Timberscombe). 

(11) A school-girl at Winsham, who sends an 
excellent list of local names, includes this as a 
local name for the Self-heal, Prunella vulgaris. 

(12) Wild Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris 
(Tisbury). 

Soldier's Cap. (1) The Scarlet Elf -cup 
Fu^igus, Geopyxis coccinea 

(2) The Early Pmpie Orchis, Orchis mascula 
(Yarcombe). 

Soldier's Cross. The Wallflower, Cheiranthus^ 
Cheiri (Ilminster). 

Soldier's Feathers. Love - lies - bleeding, 
Amaranthus caudatus or A. melancholicus. 

Soldier's Hat. The Scarlet Elf-cup Fungus 
(East Somerset), more often called Soldier's Cap 

Soldiers' Jackets. Miss Ida Roper gives me 
this as a Dorset name for the Early Purple Orchis, 
O. mascula. 

Soldiers-Sailobs-Tinkeb-Tailors. Common 



250 

Eye-grass, Lolium perenne (S.W. Wilts). See 
Does My Mother Want Me ? and Love Mb, 
Love Me Not (2). 

Solemn Bells op Sodom. Common Fritillary 
or Snake's Head, Fritillaria 3Ieleagris (Rampi- 
sham, Dorset). See Drooping and Mournful 
Bell op Sodom. 

Soiomon's Seal. The general English name 
for Polygonatuni niultiflor'im. 

Son Before the Father. An old country 
name lor the Great Hairy Willow Herb, Epilobitim 
hirsutum, because as Lyte explained long 
ago, " The long husks in' which the seede is 
contained do come forthe and waxe great before 
that the floure openeth." The only correspondent 
who has sent me this name as still being used in 
the district is Mrs. Day, of North Petherton. 

Sops in Wine. The Clove Pink or Carnation, 
Dianthus Caryophyllas, from its flowers being 
used to flavour wine. Chaucer wrote : — 
" And many a clove gilofre 
And note muge to put in ale, 
Whether it be moist or stale." 
The name was also given to a smaller kind of 
single Gilliflower or Pink. A Bradford-on-Tone 
school-boy gives it as a local name for the Pink, 
and several corresj>ondents in different parts of 
the county as a local name for " Jiloffers." 

Sorcerer's Violet. An old country name for 
the Lesser Periwinkle, Vmca minor. 

Sour Dock, Dog, or Duck. Common Sorrel, 
Rumex Acetosa. Eaten by children. 

Sour Grabs. (1) Common Sorrel, as above. 
(2) The Crab Apple, Pyrus malus. 

Sour Leaves. Common Sorrel, Rumex Acetosa 
(Shoscombe). 

Sour Sally. The Wood Sorrel, OxalU 
Acetosella (Muchelney). 

Sour Sap. Wood Sorrel, as above (Shute, 
Devon). 

Sour Trefoil. A Taunton correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella. 

Sow-bane. Mr. J. W. White, i- his "Bristol 
Flora," gives this as a local name fi»r the Nettle- 
leaved Goos.-foot, Chenopodium murale. 

Sow Flower. Sow Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus 
(N.W. Wilts). 

Sow's Ears. Broad-leaved Saxifrage (? Saxi- 
fraga crassijolia or umhrosa) (Iltoa). 

Spalliard. An espalier-trained fruit tree. 

Spar (or Spark ow) Grass. Asparagus. 



257 

Sparked Grass. Variegated Grass, also called 
Lady's Garters, Phalaris arundinacea (S.W. 
Wilt?, Som. rs3t border). Dr. Watson suggests 
the grass intended is much more likely to be 
P. canariensis. 

Sparked Holji. A variegated form of Holly, 
Ilex aquifolimn. 

Sparked Laurel. Variegated Laurel, Aucuba 
japonica. 

Sparrow Birds. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum (West Somerset). The late Mr. F. 
T. Ehvorthy quotes a man as saying : " We calls 
'em Sparrow-birds, but the proper name's Arb 
Rabbits." 

Sparrow Grass. A corruption of Asparagus. 
Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in his " Book 
about Ro3es " Dean Hole states that upon one 
occasion being asked to adjudicate at a rustic 
flower show on the merits of certain classes of 
wild ferns and grasses, amongst the latter he 
observed three cases of Asparagus being ex- 
hibited. Upon his saying to the exhibitors that 
this was not contemplated by the schedule, his 
ignorance was at once enlightene 1 — " Please, 
sir, it says ferns and grasses, and this is sparrow 
grass." 

Speak, Speek, or Speke. (1) Lavender, 
Lavandula Spica. 

(2) Several c orresx^ondents apply the name 
to the Rosemaiy, Rosmarinus officinalis. 

Spear. (1) A kind of thick rush (G. 
Sweet man). 

(2) Pampas Grass, Qyneriuni argenteum (a 
Crew kerne school-girl). 

Spears. The stems of the Reed, Arundo 
Phragmites, sometimes employed instead of laths 
to hold plaster (Rev. W. Barnes). The name of 
this Reed in the London Catalogue is Phragm,ites 
■communis. 

Spear Thistle. Spear Plume Thistle, Cnicus 
lanceolatus. 

Speedwell. The general English name for 
the genus Veronica, of which tne best known and 
most popular is probably the Germander Speed- 
well or Bird's-eye, V.' Chamcedrys. Dr. Prior 
attributes the name to the way in which the 
corolla falls off and flies away as soon as it is 
gathered ; " Speedwell " being eqoivaleat to 
" Fare-well," " Good-bye," and a common form 
of valediction in old times. " Forget-me-not," a 
name that has since passed t:) a Myosotis, appears 
to have first been given to this plant and addressed 
to its fleeting flowers. Compare Break-basin. 

Spick. (1) Lavender, Lavandula Spica. 

(2) A Reed {Phragmites communis), formerly 
used instead of laths for plastering (Geo. Sweet- 
man). 



258 

Spider in his Web. The Fennel-flower or 
Love ia a Mist, Nigella damascena (Hatch Beau- 
cbanap). See Spider's Web. (1). 

Spider Plant. The pot plant, Saxifraga 
sarmentosa, known also as Mother op Thousands, 
Aaron's Beard, Strawberry Plant, and by 
many other popular names. The young plants 
as they hang on their runners over the sides of 
the flower-pot have a sufficient resemblance to 
spiders on their web to suggest this homely name. 

Spider's Web. (1) The Fennel -flower op 
Love-in- a-Mist, Nigella damascena (Winfrith, 
Dorset). See Spider in His Web. 

(2) A lady at Barrington gives me this as the 
local name for a plant " like a thistle-bush, 
bearing yellow flowers, something like Golden 
Chain." Is it possible she means the Common 
Furze ? Dr. Watson knows no other plant 
found in the neighbourhood of Barrington to 
which her description applies. 

Spidebwort. (1) Any species of Trad^escanfia. 
(2) The Fennel -flower, Nigella damascena. 
(Ilton). See Spider's Web (1). 

Spike. Lavender, Lavandula Spica. 

Spikenard. (1) Mr. F. W. Mathews, of 
Bradford-on-Tone, gives me this as a local name 
for the Common Centaury, Centaurium umbel- 
latnm. 

(2) Sweet Vernal-grass, Anthoxanthum odor- 
atum (N.W. Wilts). 

(3) Lavender, Lavandula Spica (N.W. Wilts 
occasionally). 

Spiky Flowers. A number of school-children 
at Paulton give me this as a local name for the 
Bitterer ess, Cardamine hirsuta. 

Spine. — Turf grass taken up in slabs for re" 
laying. 

Spinning Jenny. The Maple, Acer campestre 
^a school -boy at Bradford-on-Tone), presumably 
from the way in which its winged seeds spin in 
their flight through the air. 

Spotted Dog. Early Purple Orchis, Orchis 
mascula (Hatch Beauchamp). 

Spring Caller. The Crocus (Miss Ella Ford, 
Melplash). 

Spring Flower. (1) A fairly general name 
throughout the district for the Polyanthus. 

(2) A correspondent at Chettle (Dorset) gives 
this as a local name for the Herb Robert, Geranium 
Itohertianym. 

Spring Messenger. The Lesser Celandine 
Raminculus Ficaria (Shaftesbu^-y district). 

Spuds. A name frequently applied to Potatoes ^ 
possibly first introduced b/ Irish harvesters. 



259 

Squarrib. The Figwort, Scrophularia (Wilts). 

See SCARYBAEUS. 

Squeakers. Water Figwort, Scrophularia 
aquatica (Axminster district). See Fiddles. 

Squeeze- JAWS. Yellow Toadflax, Linaria 
vulgaris (Kilton). 

Squinancy-wort. a common English name 
for the Small Woodruff Asperula cynanchica- 
common in the norther /i part of Somerset' 
Sometimes called Quinsy Wort in consequence 
of ito former use in disorders of the thi-oat. 

Squirters. The Snow-berry, Symphoricarpus 
racemosus (a Long Sutton school-girl). 

Squitch. Couch-grass, Agropyron revens 
(Edington). See Quitch. ^ 

Stagger Wort or Staver-wort. The 
Common Ragwort, Senecio Jacohcea. I am 
indebted to Mr. T. W. Cowan for the 
following quotation from Gerard's Herball 
p219 (1579) :— " This pUnt is called in Latine 
Herba S. Jacobi, or ,S'. Jacobi fior, and Jacobea • 
in French Fleur de S. Jacque ; in English s\ 
James his xooort ; the country people do call it 
Stagger xooort J!,nd Stauerivoort, and also Ragiooorte.'* 

Stag's Horn Moss. Common Club Moss 
Lycopodium clavatum. It grows plentifully on 
Dunkery and many other of our hills. 

Stainless Bay. Several school-girls at South 
Petherton give me this as a local name for the 
Laurel, Laurus nobilis. 

Standing Gussets. Early Purple Orchis 
Orchis mascula (Axbridge). * 

Stab. (1) Several school-children at Otter- 
hampton give me this as a local name for the 
Daisy, Bellis perennis. 

(2) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea (N W 
Wilts). 

Starch-wort. Wild Axxxm or Cuckoo-pint, 
Arwrn maculatum, from its tubers yielding the 
finest starch for the large collars worn in Queen 
Elizabeth's reign. 

Star-flower. A name applied to a number 
of different flowers which have their petals 
arranged more or less in the shape of the con- 
ventional " star." 

(1) Frequently applied to members of the 
Stitchwort and Chickweed family, the genus 
Stellaria, of which the scientific name means 
" starlike." 

(2) To members of the Aster family, including 
the Michaelmas Daisy. The generic name Aster 
means " a star," and members of the family are 
often called Starworts. 

(3) Several of my correspondents apply the 
name to the Lesser Celandiue, Ranunculus Ficaria. 



2bO 

(4) Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre (Staple 
Pitzpaine). 

(5) Common Tormentil, Potentilla erecta 
(Barf Old, Wilts). 

(6) Wood Loosestrife, Lysimachia nemorum 
(Barford, Wilts). 

Starlight. (1) Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus 
Ficaria (Crewkerne). 

(2) I have heard this name applied to the 
Herb Robert, Geranium Bobertianum, by children 
in Yeovil and Mudiord. 

Star of Bethlehem. (1) The usual English 
name for Ornitkogalum vmbellatum; the name is 
said to be due to the resemblance of the white 
star-like flowers to the pictiires of the star that 
announced the birth of Chi^ist. 

(2) A comraon name thi'oughoat a great part 
of the district for the Greater StitchwoH, Stellaria 
Holostea. 

(3) Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa (East 
Somerset). 

(4) Scarlet Pi npernel, Anagallis arvensis (a 
Wincanton school -gui ) . 

(5) Correspondents at Ca-nerto.i and Willand 
(Devon) apply the aame to the St. John's Wort, 
Hypericum. 

(6) Frequently applied to the greenhouse 
Cineraria. 

(7) A Taunton 30 ''respondent gives this as a 
local name for the Passion-flower, Passiflora 
acerulea. 

Star op the Wood. Correspondents at 
Dunster and Stockla jd (Devon) give rre this as a 
lo al name for the Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria 
Holostea. 

Starry Eyes. The Star of Bethlehem, 
Ornithogalum umbellatum (Stal bridge). 

Stars. (1) The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Bobertianvm (school-girls at South Petherton). 
See Star-light. 

(2) Lilac, Syringa vulgaris (a school-boy at 
Thome St. Margaret). 

(3) Clustered Bell-flower, Campanula glomerata 
(N.W. Wilts). 

(4) The Cineraria (South Petherton). 

Star Thistle. (1) The true Star Thistle is 
Centaurea CalcUrapa, which is very rare in Somer- 
set. 

(2) The name is commonly appli'^d ia the 
Wincanton district to the Marsh Plume Thistle, 
Cnicus palustris. 

(3) Several sch^ol-childrea at Dunster give 
it as a local name for the Knapweed, Centaurea. 

Starwort. (1) Any plant of the genus 
Aster, Avhich in^lude^i the Michaelmas Daisy. 

(2) Any |:laat of the genus Stellaria, which 
includes the Stitchworts and Chickweeds. 



26r 

Stations. Mr. F. \^' . Mathews gives me this 
as an " app'^oximate abbreviatioa " of the name 
Nasturtiuir , as used in West Son^erset. Very 
frequently pr :)nouxiced. Sturtions. 

Stavesacre. An old English name for a tall 
Larkspvu- of Southern Europe, Delphinium 
Staphysagria. Dr. Prior (1870) sj)eaks of it as 
" a plant that was once in great use for destro-jang 
lice, but wliich with the gradual increase of 
cleanly habits is become scarce in our gardens." 
" Stavesacre " is genei'ally said to boa corruption 
of the Latin name Staphysagria, which in its turn 
is a corruption of the Greet name, which meant 
" a wild raisin." 

Stay-plough. The Rest-harrow, Ononis 
repens. 

Step-Mothers. (1) The Wild Pansy or 
Heartsease, Viola arvensis. 

(2) A correspondent, who I believe was 
formerly a school-mistress somewhere in the 
neighbourhood of Stogjisey, gives this as a Incal 
name for the Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. 

Sterchen or Stershen. A common corrup- 
tion of the name Na?tiutium. 

Stewed Gooseberries. A correspondent at 
Okefoid Fitzpaine gives me this as a local name 
for the Soaj)Wort, Saponaria officinalis. (? Is 
this a mistake due to confusion with the Willow 
Herb ? See Gooseberry Pie.) 

Stick Buttons. (1) Goose-grass or Cleavers. 
Gali tm Aparine (Watchet). 

(2) The Bm-dock, Arctiimi minus (Watchet). 

Stick Done:ey. Goose-grass or Cleavers^ 
Galium Aparine (ISorth Somerset). 

Stickers. Burs of the Burdock, Arctium 
mi7ii(S (Thorncombe). 

Sticky Backs. (1) Dr. R. C. Knight gives 
me this as a local name for the fruits ot the 
Goose-grass, Galium Aparine. Also of 

(2) The Burdock, Arctiurn minus ; I have tais 
also from school-children at Axbridge and 
Widworthy (Devo a). 

(3) Several school -children at Axbridge ai)ply 
the name to the Sundew, Drosera rotundifoiia. 

Sticky (or Sticking) Balls. (1) The fruits 
of the Burdock, Arctium minus (South Pethei-ton 
and Upottery). 

(2) Fruits of the Goose-grass or Cleavers, 
Galium, Aparine (Paulton). 

Sticky Buds. Common Hound 's-tongue, 
Cynoglossum officinale (Symondsbury and WooLton 
Filzx>ibine, Dorset). 

Sticky Buttons. Fruits of the Burdock,. 
Arctium minus (Devon). 



262 

StickyITJacks. Fruits of the Burdock, as 
^bove (Evercreech). 

Sticky Tree. A dozen school-children at 
Fault on give me this as a local name for the Fir, 
by which I assume they meaa the Scots Pine, 
J^inus sylvestris. 

Sting Nettle. A common name for the Great 
Nettle, Urtica dioica ; frequently applied also 
to the Small Nettle, U. urens. 

Sting-nettle Flower. S3veral school-child- 
xen at Bradford-on-Tone give me this as a local 
name for the Bugle, Ajuga reptans. Dr. Watson 
describes this as "a very bad case of confusion 
worse confounded." 

Stingy-wingies. Yellow Dead Nettle, 
Lamium Galeobdolon (Laigh, Dorset). 

Stink Daisies. Common Fever-few, Chrysan- 
themum Parthenium (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Stinker Bobs. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum (Evercreech). 

Stink Flowers. (1) The Herb Robert, 
Geranium Robertianum (Stoke-under-Ham). 

(2) Common Hemlock, Conium maculatum 
(a Taunton correspondent). 

Stink-horn or Stinking Polecat. A common 
iungus, Phallus impudicus, growing in old hedge- 
rows and elsewhere, resembling a hoin in shape 
and emitting a foetid smell like carrion. Also 
Phallus jatidus. 

Stinking Bobs. The Herb Robert, Geranium 
Robertianum. 

Stinking Jenny. (1) The Herb Robett, as 
above. 

(2) A school-boy at Bradford-on-Tone gives 
this as a local name for the Garlic, Allium 
ursinum. 

Stinking Lilies. Garlic, Allium ursinum 
(Dunster). 

Stink Lilies. A Stalbridge correspondent 
gives me this as a local name for the Crown 
Imperial, Fritillaria imperialis. 

Stock Gilly-flower. The Wallflower, Cheir- 
anthus Cheiri (Queen Camel). 

Stockings and Shoes. (1) The Birds-foot 
Trefo.l, Lotus corniculatus ; more often called 
Shoes and Stockings. 

(2) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (a 
Muchclney school-boy). 

Stone Weed. (1) Mr. F.W.Mathews (Brad- 
ford-on-Tone) and Mr. Edward Vivian (Trowbridge) 
give me this as a local name for the Persicaria, 
Polygonum Persicaria. 



263 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that in Suffolk 
the ncama Stone-weed is given to the Knotgrass, 
Polygonum avicularc, and he thinks it probable 
that it is really to this plant, and not to the 
Persicaria, that the name is applied in this 
district. 

Storks. The Herb Robert, Geranium Robert- 
ianum (Laigh, Dorset). See Stork's Bill. 

Stork's Bill. This is the general English 
name for plants of the genus Erodium, but 
correspondents in several parts of the district 
give it as a local nanae for the Herb Robert, 
Geranium. Robertianum, which is a Crane's-bill. 
See Storks. 

Story of the Cross. The Passion-flower, 
Passiflora ccerulea (Camerton). 

Story-tellers. The Barren Strawberry, 
Potentilla sterilis (school -children at Thorne St. 
Margaret). 

Strangle-weed. (1) Any plant of the 
Dodder family, Cuscuta. 

(2) Any plant of the Broomrape family, 
Orobanche. 

(3) The Greater Convolvulus, Calystegia 
sepium (Dowlish Wake). 

Strap-grass. Couch-grass, Agropyron repens 

(Wareham). 

Strawberry Geranium. The old-fashioned 
pot-plant Saxifraga sarmentosa, because its 
runnrs and shoots are like those of a strawberry ; 
it was formerly so commonly grown in cottage 
windows as to be called tlie Poor Man's Ger- 
anium. Soe Aaron's Beard (2). 

Strawberry Plant. (1) Tne Wild Straw- 
berry, Fragaria vesca. 

(2) The Barren Strawberry, Potentilla sterilis 
(Devon). 

(3) Same as Strawberry Geranium. 

Strawberry Saxifrage. Sama as Straw- 
berry Geranium. 

Strawberry Tree. Arbutus Unedo ; so called 
from the colour and shapj of its fruit. 

Straw-mote, a stalk of grass (Rev. Wm. 
Barnes). 

Strial. Couch-grass, Agropyron repens (Ware- 
ham). See Stroil. 

Strike. Yellow Toad -flax, Linaria vulgaris 
(Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

String Foy. " Wild Clover " (Min-head 
school -girls). 

Strip for Strip. Wild Succory or Chicory, 
Cichorium Intybus (a South Petherton school- 
girl). 



264 

Strip Jack Naked. Autumn Crocus or 
Meadow Saffron, Colchicum autumnale. (A school- 
girl at Dalwood, Devon). 

Stroil. Couch-grass, Agropyron repens. The 
late Mr. F. T. Eiworthy says " particularly 
applied to the white tube-like roots which are 
turned up by the plough. See Strail. 

Stubbard. An early codling appie ; one of 
the commonest of favourite eating ci^pples. 

Stub WORT. An old ntume for the Wood 
Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, having reference to its 
growth about tlie stubs of trees ; sent me by 
correspondents a.t Watchet and Taunton as still 
being used locally. 

Sturtion. A very common corruption of the 
name Nastvirtii m, Tropceolum ma jus. 

Suck Apple. — A well-known variety of Apple ; 
red, hard, and crisp-eating. Sometimes called 

QUARRENER, QUARRENDBN, Ol' QUARANTINE (Mr. 

W. S. Price, Wellington). 

Suck Bottle. White Dead Nettle, Lamium 
albuvi. Sae Honey-suckle (4). 

Suckers. Common Comfrey, Symphytum 
officinale (Shoscombe). See Sweet Suckers. 

Suckie Sue. White Dead Nettle, Lamium 
album,. 

Suckles. A contracted form of the name 
Honeysuckle, Lonicera Periclym,enum,, sent me 
by school-children at Winsham. 

SucKY ■ Calves. Wild Aium or Cackoo-pint, 
Arum, macidatum, (school-cnildren at Sampford 
ArundeJ). 

Sugar. A correspondent at Stowey (near 
Clutton) gives me this as a local name for " Greeu 
Dock," and Tea as a local name for " Red Dock." 

Sugar Basins. (1) Two scbool-girls at Ilmin- 
stcr give me this as a local name for the Greater 
Stitch wort, Stellaria Holostea. 

(2) School-children in several districts give 
this as a local name for Buttercups. 

Sugar Busses. The Red Clover, Trijolium 
pratense (: chool-children at Otterhampton). See 
Honey-suckle (2). 

Sugar Candy. Both the tender shoots and 
the fruits (hips) of the Wild Ro^e, Rosa canina 
(Donhead, Wilts). I have heard this name given 
to the yoang shoots of the Wild Rose, by school- 
children in East Somerset. 

SUGAR-CODLINS. Great Hairy Willow Herb, 
Epilobium hirsutum (N.W. Wilts). More generally 
called CoDLiNS and Cream. 

Sugar Leaves. Young leaves of the Elm, 
Ulmus cam.pestris (Bridgwater). 



265 

Summer (or Summer's) Farewell. (1) A 
name generally given to several species of Aster ^ 
poptilarly known as the Michaelmas Daisy. See 
Farewell Sumjier (1). 

(2) Several correspondents in West Somrrset, 
and still more in East Devon, apply this name 
to the Phlox. See Farewell Summer (2). 

(3) Several school-children in the neigh- 
bourhood of Axmin^ter and Uplyme give me 
this as a local name for the Meadow-sweety 
Spircea Ulmaria. 

SuM]vrER-HATS. The Pansy, Viola tricolor 
(school-children at Batbealton). 

Summer Poppy. Common Red Poppy, Papaver 
Bhceas (Watchet). 

Summer Rose. The Rev. H. Friend gives 
this as a Somerset name for the Corchorus (or 
Kerria) japonica ; a shrub which bears orauge- 
colom>ed blossoms. 

Summer Saucers. White Campion, Lychnis 
alba (a school-boy at Evercreech). 

Sun Bonnets. The Daffodil , Narcissus Pse iido- 
Narcissus. 

SUNFT.OWER. (1) The general English name 
for Helianthus aniiuus. 

(2) A name often given to the Common Rock- 
rose, Helianthemwn vulgare. 

(3) A school -girl at Thorne St. Mai garet gives 
it as a local name for the Marigold, Calendula 
officinalis, and Mr. W. S. Price, of Wellington, 
confirms this use of the name. This is interesting 
in view of Shakespeare's reference in his " Winter's 
Tale " (iv., 3) to 

" The Marigold that goes to bed \%ilh the sun 
And with liim Jises weeping." 

(4) The Rev. H. Fi^iend gives this as a Devon- 
shire name for the Star of Bethlehem, Omith- 
ogalum umbellatum. 

SuNGREEN. A Wiltshire form of Sengreen or 
SiLGREEN, an old name for the Houseleek, 
Sernpervivxim tectorum. 

Sunsets. A correspondent at Camerton gives 
me tliis as a local name for the Tree Mallow, 
Lavatera. 

Sun's Eye. The Sunflowei, Helianthus annuus 
(school-girls at Nettlecombe). 

Sun-shades. (1) A common name for the 
Lesser Convolvulus or Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis. 

(2) The Wall PennyA;v-ort, Cotyledon Umbilicus- 
Veneris (a school-girl at Dunster). 

(3) The School-Mistress at Beaminster gives 
me this as a local name for the Sunfluwer, 
Helianthus annuus. 



266 

Sun's Rays. The Sunflower, Helianthus 
annuus (a school-girl at Chilson, Chard). 

Swallow Pears. Services : Sorb Apples, the 
frait of Pyrus torminalis. 

Swallow- WORT. (1) The Greater Celandine, 
Chelidonium majus. Dr. Prior says : " The 
scientific name Chelidonium is from the Greek 
word fo" a swallow, and the plant may gat its 
name of Swallow-wort either from the fact that it 
blossoms at the season of tne swallows' arrival 
and withers at its dejiarture, or ft'om the old 
belief recorded by Aristotle and others that the 
swallows used this plant to restore the eyesight 
of their young ones, evea if their eyes were put 
out." 

(2) The Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Picaria. 

The name is also apj^lied to a n-omber of other 
plants, but I have no further records of its use 
locally. 

Swamp's Companion. A Hardington Maade- 
ville school-boy gives me this as a local name 
for the Cuckoo-flower or Lady's Smock, Cardamine 
pratensis. 

Swan Amongst the Flowers. Correspon- 
dents at lYowbridge and Charmi aster (Dorset) 
give me this as a local name for the White Water- 
Lily , Castalia alba. 

SWAN-BILL. The Yellow Iris, 7m Pseudacorus 
(Hatch Beauchamp). See Duck's Bills. 

Sweeps. (1) The Feinel -flower or Love-io- 
a-Mist, Sigella damascena (Yeovil). 

(2) The Great Reed-mace, Typha latifolia, more 
often called Bulrush (3 school -boy at Meils). 

(3) The Large-flowered St. John's Wort, 
Hypericum calycinum (Failey, VVilts). 

Sweep's Brush. (1) Hoary Plantain, 
Plantago media (East Somerset). 

(2) Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata 
(East Somerset). 

(3) The Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara (Mells). 

(4) A correspondent at Donhead (Wilts) gives 
me this as a local name for the " Cornflower," by 
which I think she probably means the Bla^k (or 
Lesser) K nap weed, Centaurea nigra. See Chimney 
Sweep (4) and Chimney Sweep's Brush (2). 

(5) Common Teast>l, Dipsacus sylvestris (Rev. 
H. Friend). 

Sweet Alice (or Alison). Alyssum maritimum, 
a plant with the smell of honey ; " Alice " or 
** Alison " is a corruption of the name Alyssum, 
and is nob the name of a pretty lady. 

Sweet Betsies. (1) A double form of the 
White Saxifrage, Saxifraga hypnoidcs. 

(2) The late Mr. F. T. Elworthy says this lame 
is occasionally used in West Somei-sel for Dicentra 
spectabilis. 



267 

Sweet Betsy (or Betty). Red Spur Valerian, 
Kentranthus ruber (Axbridge and Chettle, Dorset). 

Sweet Chestnut. The usual name for 
Castanea vesca, to distinguish it from the Horse- 
chestnut, ^sculus Hippocastanum, which is very 
bitter. 

Sweet Hay. Meadow Sweet, Spircea Ulmaria 
(Ohettle, Dorset). See New Mown Hay (2). 

Sweet Suckers. Comfrey, Symphytum 
officinale (Horton). See Suckers. 

Sweethearts. (1) Burs of the Goose-grass 
or Cleavers, Galium Aparine, from the way in 
which they stick to one's clothes. Names 2, 3, 
and 4 are all given for the same reason. 

(2) Burs of the Burdock, Arctium minns. 

(3) The Woodruff, Asperula odorata. 

(4) Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria (Mid and 
East Somerset). 

(5) The Tway blade. Lister a ovata (Staple 
Fitzpaine). 

(6) Great Mi-ilein, Verbascum Thapsus (Culm- 
head). 

(7) The Wild Arum or Cuckoo-j int. Arum 
maculatum (Stogursey). 

(8) Greater Stitchwort, SteUaria Holostea 
(school -children at Oakhill). 

Sweet Nancy. (1) Greater Stitchwort, 
SteUaria Holostea (Castle Cary district). 

(2) Narcissus (Crewkerne district). Mr. T. W. 
Cowan gives me the name of the particular species 
as Narcissus biflorus fl. pi. 

Sweet Nut. See Sweet Chestnut. 

Sweet Nuts. Common Yarrow or Milfoil, 
Achillea Millefolium (Leigh, Dorset). 

Sweet Suckle. Honey-Buckle or Woodbine, 
Lonicera Periclymenum (Stoke-ander-Ham). 

Sweet Sut.tan. The general English name for 
the garden plant Centaurea moschata. 

Sweet Thoma.s. The Narnssus (Luxborough). 

Swine's Cress. (1) A general English name 
for Coronopus procumbens. Known also as 
Wart -cress, but Dr. Watson tells me the latter 
name is better restricted to the other British 
species of Coronop'S, C. didymus. 

(2) Common Nipplewort, Lapsana communis. 

Swine's Grass. Common Knotgrass, Poly- 
gonum aviculare. 

Swine's Snout. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale, from the form of its receptacle. 

Sword Grass. (1) A coarse Marsh Grass, 
Glyceria aquatica, often called Daggers or 
Withers. 

(2) Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me this is a cr.mmon 
name for the Striped Ribbon Grass, Phalaris 



268 

arundinacea. Sometimes called Lady's (or 
Gardener's) Garters. 

Sword Lily. (1) The Gladiolus. 

(2) The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus. 

Sword of Spring. The garden Crocus (Hatch. 
Beauchamp). 

Swords. The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus ; 
in some districts applied more particularly to the 
leaves. 

Swords and Spears. The Ribwort Plantain, 
PLantago lanceolata (Parkstone). 

Taachy. Fungus on trees (Wincantoa). 

Tables and Chairs. Seeds of the Box, Buxu» 

sempervirens (Stoke-under -Ham ana Muchelney). 
See Chairs and Tabies. 

Tacker Grass. Common Knot-grass, Pohj- 
gonutn aviculare. It is said to owe its name to its 
toughness having suggested a likeness to a 
" tacker " or shoemaker's wax-end. 

Tacker Weed. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris (school-children at Conr be St. 
Nicholas). 

Tagets. a school-girl at Bradford-on-Tone 
gives me this as a local name for Marigolds. 
This may possibly be a corruption of Tagetes, 
the generic name of the Freiich and African 
Marigolds, particularly in view of the fact that 
Mr. T. W. Cowan tells me that he once had as 
gardener a Devonshire man who called the Dwarf 
Marigold {Tagetes signata pnmila) Tages, while 
all others he designated as " Marigolds." On the 
othe" hand, Mr. F. W. MatheAV.-; veils me he has 
heard the Maiigold called Targets, and he 
attiibuted the name to an evident similarity to 
the targets of archery practice. 

Tare. (1) The Hairy Vetch, Vicia Mrsuta. 

(2) Greater Bindweed, Calystegia sepium 
C^Mlts). 

(3) Lesser Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis 
(Wilts). 

Targets. — The Marigold (Bradford-on-Tone). 
See Tagets. 

Qar Vetch {i.e.. Tare Vetch). (1) Common 
Vetch, Vicia cracca( Win^anton). See Tare (1). 

(2) A species of Tare, Ervum, that ocojrs 
among the corn, and in wet weather weighs it 
down (His Honour J. S. Udal, Do'^set). 

Tassel-Flower. The usual English name for 
an ornamental garaen annual of the Aster family, 
Cacalia coccinea ^r Emilia flamma. 

Tassels. (1) The flowers of the Ash, Fraa;wt<s 
excelsior (a school-girl at Chilson). 

(2) D'-. Watson gives me this as a corrupted 
form of Teazel. 



269 

Tatey. a corrmon contra :'tion of the name 
Potato. 

Tea. The flower of the Sorrel or Sour-dock, 
JRumex Acetosa (Bridgwater and Stowey, near 
Glutton). See Sugar. 

Tea-cups. Butter 3 jos, Ranunculus (Hatch 
Beouchamp). 

Tea-Flower. (1) The Meadow Sweet, <Spircea 
Ulmaria (Stoke-under-Ham). 

(2) Elder Blossom, Sambucus nigra (South 
Petherton and Fivehead). 

(3) Broad-leaved Willow-herb, Epilobium 
montanum (Leigh, Dorset). 

Tea Plant. (1) An old lady living at 
Mud ford tells me that she has always known the 
Common Agrimony, Agrinionia Ewpatoria, by 
this name and by no other. In her younger days 
all the tea she drank was made from it. Anne 
Pratt says " The Agrimony is an ingredient in. 
most it the herb- teas whi^h ha\e from time to 
time been recommended to public notice." Mr. 
F. W. Mathews tells me that an old resident of 
Blackmore, West Buckland, would never take any 
other "tea," and attributed her long life and 
great vigour to the use of this her favourite 
beverage. 

(2) Lycium, chinense ; often cultivated in 
cottage gardens as a hedge plant ; well established 
in Somerset. Dr. Downes tells me that the name 
is due to the fact that the plant was sent to the 
Duke of Argyll in mistake for the real Tea Plant, 
owing to the labels having got accidentally 
changed. 

Tear Your Mother's Eyes Out. A lady at 
Exmouth gives me thi" as a local name for the 
Germander Speedwell, Veronica Chamcedrys. See 
Bird's Eye (1). 

Teaser. The Nodding (or Musk) Thistle 
Cardans nutans (Batcombe). 

Teddies. Potatoes ; a corruption of the 
contra-^tion Taties. 

Teddy Buttons. The Fiela Scabious, Scabiosa 
arvensis (Stoke-under-Ham). 

Tell (the) Time. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. 

Ten o'clock. The Star of Bethlehem. 
Ornithogalum umbellatum (a school-girl at Dray- 
c-ott) See Eleven o'clock Lady. 

Tens o' Thousands. Virginian Stock, Mal- 
colmia maritima (Trowbridge). 

Tetter Berries. The fruits of the Wnite 
(or Red-berried) Br>on>, Bryonia dioica. An old 
English name for the plant was Tetterwort. 

Thatch. A Vetch of almost any species. 
•Cultivated Vetches are almost invariably spoken 
of as Thatches. 



270 

The Apostlfs. The Star of Bethlehem ^ 
Omithogalum icmbellatum (Thorne St. Margaret). 

The Ten Commandments. The Passion- 
flower, Passiflora ccerulea (Puddletowxi, Dorset). 

The Twelve Disciples. The Passion-flower, 
as above (Staple Fitzpaine). 

The Vibgin's Milk. Several school -children at 
Thorne St. Margaret give me this as a local name 
for the " Milk Thistle," by which they probably 
mean one of the Sow Thistles, Sonchi(S, as the 
true Milk Thistle or Virgin Mary's Thistle,. 
Silyhum Marianum, is e-kceedingly rare in 
Somerset. 

Thimble - Flower. (1) The Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea, particularly in South Somerset 
and Dorset. 

(2) Several species of Bell-flower, Campanula. 

Thimbles. (1) The flowers of the Foxglove, 
Digitalis purpurea. 

(2) The Harebell, Campanula rot undi folia. 

(3) The Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris (Pilton). 

(4) A Yeovil school -boy applies this name to 
the Bird'«-foot Trefoil, Lotus comic 'latus. 

Think of Me Always. Forget-me-not,, 
Myosotis (school children at Thorne St. Margaret) 

Thorough-Wax. An old name for the Com- 
mon Hare'"^ -ear, Bupleurum rotundifolium Dr 
Prior sa^s the name of Thorow-wax or Throw-wax 
was gi-ven to the plant by Turner (1548) because 
" the stalke waxtth throwe the leaues." jVIr. 
Onions tells me Turner copied the German 
durchwachs (= through grow). 

Thousand Leaf. Common Yarrow or Milfoil 
Achillea Millefolium. The names Milfoil and 
Millefolium both mean " thousand leaf." Mr. T. 
W. Cowan tells me that in many places this plant 
is called Thousand Seal. 

Thousand Stars. A Martock school-boy gives 
me this as a local name for the Michaelmas 
Daisy. 

Thread Flowers. The Hemp Agrimony, 
Eupatorium cannabinum (an Uminster school- 
girl). 

Three Faces Under a Hood. The Pansy, 
both cultivated, Viola tricolor, and wild, V. 
arvensis. 

Three-Fingered Jack. The Bue-leaved 
Saxifrage, Saxifraga tridactylites (White's Bristol 
Flora). The name tridactylites means "three- 
fingered." 

Throat Wort. A name given to a number of 
different plants which were formerly believed 
from the throat-like shape of their flowers to 
cure diseases of the throat. The name is sent me 
by several correspondents for 



271 

(1) The Foxcrlove, Digitalis purpurea. 

(2) The FigM^ort, Scrophularia. 

(3) Several species of Bell-flower, Campanula. 

(4) Blue Thi'oat-wort, Trachelium cceruleum. 

Thumbs and Fingebs. (1) Common Furze, 
Ulex europceus (Wells). 

(2) Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus comiculatus 
(Dorset) ; more generally called Fingers and 
Thumbs. 

Thunder-Bolt. The Rev. H. Friend gives 
this as a Devonshire name for the Red Poppy, 
Papaver Bhoeas. See Thunder-Flower (1). 

Thunder Daisy. Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthe- 
mum Levcanthemum. The Rev. Hilderic Friend 
says : " In Somersetshire the Horse-da^sy or 
Ox-eye is devoted to the Thunder god, a curious 
circumstance when considered in connection 
with another fact — viz., that acorns are there 
called Jove's Nuts. Now we all know that the 
Oak IS emphatically Jove's tree, but how is it 
that in Somersetshire these two names, not to 
mention others bearing on ancient religion and 
mythology, hve on when thev have died out, or 
never existed, ia other parts of England ? " 

Thunder Flower. (1) The Red Poppy, 
Papaver Bhoeas (Ilton and Wiltshire). CasseU's 
Wild Flowers as they Grow," speaking of the 
Poppy, says : " Sometimes it has been known 
as Thuoder Flower ' or ' Lightning Flower,' 
from a very curious superstition among children 
that if thej. pick it and the petals fall off, as they 
are apt to do, the children are then liable to be 
struck by lightning." 

(2) Several correspondents in the neighbour- 
hood of Blandford give me this as a local name for 
the Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanihemum Leucanthemum, 
more commonly called Thunder Daisy. 

Thunder Plant. The Houseleek, Semper- 
mvum tectorum, from an old belief that if planted 
upon the roof it would protect the house from 
lightning. 

Ticklers (or Tickling Tommies). The rough 
seeds contained in the Hips or iruit of the Dog-rose. 
ihe name is due to the use made of them by 
boys, who take out the seeds which the fruit 
contains and put them down the back of another 
boy, where they tickle intolerably. Dr. Watson 
writes : " These so-called seeds are really the 
true fruits. The red portion of the Hip is formed 
from the Calyx-tube, which encloses the true 
frmts. 

Tiger's Mouth. The Snap-dragon, Antirrhi- 
num. majus. 

Time-Flower (or Time-Teller). The Dande- 
lion, raraxacum officinale. 

Timothy. The Common Cat's-tail Grass, 
Phleum pratense. 



272 

Tin ker-Tailor Grass. (1) Bib wort Plantain, 
Plantago lanceolata. So called from a ganae which 
girls ot the better class play with it, striking the 
head s together and at each tlow saying in succes- 
sion, "Tiaker, tailor, soldier, sailor, gentleman, 
apothecary, plonghboy, thief." The blow which 
knocks the head off ma^-ks the one of these p-o- 
fessions which is to be that >f the futu'^e husband. 
See Cock-Grass and Soldiers. 

(2) Pe'-eniial Rye-grass or Eaver, Lolium 
perenne, also used by girls to discover the occupa- 
tions of their future husbands. See Cock-Grass 
and Does My Mother Want Me. 

(3) Fescue-grass, Festuca, used for the same 
purpose (Watchet). 

Tipsy, Tipsy Leaves, or Tipsy Plant. Com- 
mon Tutsan (St. John's Wort), Hypericum 
Androscemum (West Somerset and East Devon). 
Writing me some months ago with regard to my 
note under Bible Leaf (1), Mr. P. W. Mathews 
said : " The Bible Leap of the list recently is 
designated Tipsy Leaves in the western Black- 
downs ; the name being evidently a corruption 
of Tutsan (S. John's Wort). Children thereabout 
place the leaves in their Bibles on account of the 
X>1 easing perfume of the dried sprays." 

TiSTY-TosTY. (1) The ball-shaped flower of 
the Guelder-rose, Viburnum Opulus. 

(2) A ball made by stringing together the 
flowers of the Cowslips to amuse children ; hence 
sometimes given to the Cowslip itself. 

(3) The name is sometimes given to the 
flowers of the " Yellow Rose," Corchorus (or 
Kerria) japonica, because of their fancied resem- 
blance to a " tisty-tosty " of cowslips. 

TiTSUM. Tutsan (St. John's Wort), Hypericum 
Androscemum. The popular name is said to be 
a corruption of the French toute saine, n:ieaaing 
*' All-heal," in consequence of the plar.t ha\'ing 
been formerly largely used as a healing balm for 
wounds. 

TiTTY-BoTTLES. The Hips or fruits of the 
Wild Rose, Rosa canina (Shoscombe). 

Toads' Cheese. Toadstools ( Ackerman, Wilts) . 

Toads' Heads. Snake's-head Fritillary, FriMl- 
laria Meleagris {N. 'W.Wilts, English Plant Names). 
Toads' Meat. Toadstools. 

Toads' Mouth. Snake's ir;;ad, Fritillaria 
Meleagris (N.W. Wilts). 

Tom Pot (Putt or Pud). The name of a well- 
known apple, excellent for dumplings. 

Tom Thumbs. (1) A very general name in 
this district tor the Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
comic ilatus. 

(2) Several school-children at Bradford-on- 



273 

Tone and Sampford Arundel give this as a local 
name for the Hop Trefoil, Trifoliumprocumbens. 

Tom Thumb's Fingers and Thumbs. Bird's- 
foot Trefoil Lotus comiculatus. 

Tom Thumb's Honeysuckle. Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, Lotus comiculatus (S.W. Wilts Sarum, 
Diocesan Gazette). 

Tom (or Tommy) Ticklers. The Hips or fruit 
of the Wild Rose. Sae Ticklers. 

Top Knot. The Black Knapweed, Centaurea 
nigra (Wiasham). 

Tossy Balls. Dr. Downes tells me that the 
ciiltivated double variety of the Guelder Rose, 
Viburnum Opulus, is always known by this name 
in Ilminster. It has also been sent me by a 
number of young people li\dng in that district. 

Totter-Grass. Quaking grass, Briza media 
( Stoke-u nder-Ham) . 

Touch Me Not. (1) The Yellow Balsam, 
Impatiens Noli-tangere, and the Garden Balsam, 
/. Balsamina, from the well-known way in which 
their seed-vessels curl up their valves spirally at 
the slightest touch, jerking their contents into 
the face of the person bending over them. 

(2) Mr. F. W. Mathews (Bradford-on-Tone) 
gives me this as a local name for the Thale-cress 
or Wall-cress, Sisymbrium Thalianum. 

(3) The Burdock, Arctium minus (school-boys 
at Muchelney). 

Towers. The Spotted Orchis, Orchis maculata 
(an Evercreech school -boy). 

Town Weed. Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis 
perennis (West Moors, Dorset). Dr. Watson 
writes : " M. annua may perhaps be the spacies 
meant. The name fits it miuch better as it 
often occupies cleared spaces in urban districts. 
M. perennis is a much more rural plant." 

Traveller's Comport. Goose-grass, Galium 
Aparine (Deverill, Wilts). 

Traveller's Ease. Common Yarrow, Achillea 
Millefolium (little Langford, Wilts). 

Traveller's Joy. A very general name for 
the Wild Clematis, Clematis Vitalba, first given to 
it by John Gerarde (1597). Mr. T. W. Cowan 
writes me : — ^" This presents a curious instance 
of a word originating in a mistaken etymology. 
Lat. viburnum : shortened in the French name 
to viorne. This Latinized into vioma was taken 
by Gerard to mean vi{am) — ornau^, the plant 
which decks the road with its flowers, and so 
cheers the traveller on his way, and Englished 
" Traveller's Joy." He says " is called commonly 
Vioma quasi vias orruxu^t of decking and adorning 
waies and hedges, where people trauell, and 
thereupon I have named it the Traueilers Joie." 
Oerarde, Herball p. 739. 



274 

Traveller's Best. Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare. 
The leaves are supposed to cure blistered feet 
(Wilts, Diogenes' Sandals, p. 98). 

Treacle Dabs. Dr. Watsoii tells me that 
he has heard this name applied in Somerset to 
the Field Wood-rush, Luzula campestris, but only 
by north-country people. It is sometimes called 
Chimney Sweeps in Somerset , and when I was a 
boy at Castle Cary I often heard it called ZuLU- 
Flower — a corruption of the generic name. 

Tree. A well-informed correspondent at 
Watchet gives me this as a local name for the 
Common Mallow, Malva sylvesiris. 

Tree Moss. Lichens, especially Usneas. 

Trefoy or Tbee-poy. Trifolium. The variety 
of Clover which is sown annually. 

Trivet. A common mis-pronunciation of the 
name Privet, in the Barrington district. 

Truckles of Cheese. The Common Mallo-w, 
Malva sylvestris (Sexey's S-^hoo]). See Cheeses. 

True-Love or Tbue-Love-Knot. The Herb 
Paris, Paris quadrifolia. Mr. T. W. Cowan 
kindly sends me the following quotation from 
Gerarde's HerbalJ, p. 328 : — " Herbe Paris riseth 
up with one small tender stalke two handes high» 
at the very top whereof come f oorth fower leaues 
directly set one against another, in maner of a 
Bxirgunnion crosse or a true love knot ; for which 
cause among the auncients it hath beene called 
herbe Titieloue." 

Trumpet Cups. The Monkey Flower, Mimulus 
Langsdorfii (a school-girl at Thorne St. Margaret) 

Trumpet Flowers. The Greater Con-srolvi lus 
or Bindweed, Calystegia sepium (Wellington 
district) . 

Truivipet Lily. The Arum Lily (Wembdon), 

Trumpets. (1) The Greater Convolvulu'* or 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepium. 

(2) The Indian Cress, Tropceohim, commonly 
called Nastm-tium (Pavdton and Symondsbury), 

(3) The Fuchsia (Camerton). 

(4) The Daffodil (Evershot). 

Tucker-Grass. Common Knot-grass, Poly- 
gonum aviculare (West Somerset). See Tacker- 
Grass. 

Tulip Tree. The Sycamore, Acer Pseudo- 
platanus ; the smell or taste of the young shoots 
is supposed by children to resemble that of the 
Talip (S.W\ Wilts). 

Tunfoot. Several school-girls in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chard give me this as a local name 
for the Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. See 

TUNHOOF. 



275 

TUNHOOF. An old English name for the Ground 
Ivy, Nepeta hederacea. 

Turban. A school-girl at East Mark gives me 
this as a looal name for the Tulip. It she is 
correct, it is very interesting, as our dictionfiries 
trace the name Tulip through the French, Italian, 
and Turkish to the Persian dulhand — a turban, 
and state, that the T olip is so named because the 
gay colours and the form of its flower suggest 
those of some turbans. Gerardc says : " After 
it hath beene some fewe days flowred the po'.nts 
and brims of the flower turne backward, I k a 
Dalmatian or Turkes cap, called Tulipan, 
Tolipan, Turban, and Turfan, whereof it took 
his name." Herball, p. 117. 

Turban Bell. A correspondent lining near 
Sherborne gives me this as a local name for the 
Fennel-flower, or Devil-in-the-bush, Nigella 
dartiascena. 

TuBKEY Rhubarb. (1) The Burdock, 
Arcti'im. 

(2) The Butter-bur, Petasites ovatus. 

Turkey's Food. Goose-grass or Cleavers, 
Galium Aparine (Winsham district). 

Turkey's Snout. Love-hes-bleeding, Amar- 
antus caudatus. 

Turk's Cap. The Martagon Lily, Lili<m 
Martagon. 

Turk's Head. A correspondent at Burnham 
gives this as a lo3al name for the Tiger Lily, 
Lilium tigrinum. 

TuRMUT. A mis- pronunciation of Turnip ; 
very common throughout the district. 

Turnsole. A name applied to several plants 
which are supposed to tarn their flowers towards 
tne sua ; particularly the Heliotrope, the Sun- 
flower, and the Sun-spm-ge. 

Turtle Doves. (1) The Monk's-hood, 
Aconitum Napellus (Sampford Arundel and 
Hortoi). 

(2) The Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea (a school- 
gu^l at Thorne St. Margaret). 

TUSHEROONS. Mr. Edward Viv^ian, of Trow- 
bridge, gives me this as a local name for non- 
edible fuagi. He writes : " I have never seea 
the word printed and do not know its derivation, 
but it is very common colloquially." 

Tutsan. The general English name for a 
shrjbby species of St. John's Wort, Hyperic m 
Androscemum. The name is derived from the 
French tout saine, meaning All-heal, in conse- 
quence of the esteem in which it was formerly 
held as a cure for wounds. 



276 

TuTTiES. The flowers of the Morello Cherry, 
Prumis C eras us (Dorset). 

TuTTY Peas. Several school children at East 
Mark give nae this as a local name for the Sweet 
Pea, Lathyrus odoratus. " Tvtty " is used in the 
Somerset aad Dorset dialect for a nosegay. 

TuzzY Muzzy. Fruit of the Burdock, Arctium 
minus (Wilts). Miss M. J. Shute tells me the 
name is also used in Devon. 

Twelve Disciples. The Daisy, Bellis perennis 
(a school -girl at Chewton Mendip). 

Twelve o'Clocks. (1) A common name for 
the Star of Bethlehem, Ornithogalum umbellatum. 
See Eleven o'clock Lady. 

(2) The seed heads of the Dandelion, by which 
children pretend to tell the time by counting 
the puffs of breath required to blow all the seeds 
away. 

(3) The Yellow Goat's-beard or Jack-go-to- 
bed-at-noon, Tragopogon pratense. 

(4) The CoQvolvTilus (? Calystegia sepium) 
(Donyatt). 

(5) The Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis 
(a school-boy at Winscombe). 

Twinkling (or Twinkle) Star. The Greater 
Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea. (school-children at 
Paulton). 

TwiNY Legs. The Rev. H. Friend gives this 
as a Devonshire name for the Red Bartsia, 
Bartsia Odontites. 

Twitch. Couch-giass, Agropyron repeyis (West 
Somerset). 

Ullum. (1) A mis-pronunciation of Elm, 
common over a great part of the district. Mr. 
T. W. Cowan writes : — -Ulm-tree, an elm, in 
WyclifEe Isaiah xli., 19, is an assimilation to the 
Latin Ulmus. 

(2) The stalks of Peas, Beans, «fec., after the 
crop has been picked. A mispronunciation of 
Ha\ilm. 

Umbrella- Plant. The Butter-bur, Petasites 
ovatus. 

Umbrellas. (1) The Greater Convolvulus, 
Calystegia sepium. 

(2) The Wall Pennywort, Cotyledon Umbilicus- 
Veneris. 

(5) The Periwinkle, Vinca (Camerton). 

(4) Flowers of the Elder, Sambucus nigra 
{school-children at Paulton). 

(3) The Butter-bur, Petasites ovatus. 

(6) The Water Plantain, Alisma Plantago, 
aquatica (a school -girl at Ilminster). 

Umplescbump. Cow-parsnip or Hogweed- 
Heracleum Sphondylium (West Somerset). See 
LniPEB-S crimp . 



277 

Under-Ground Ivy. (1) Ivy-leaved Toad, 
flax, Linaria Cymhalaria (Curry Mailet). 

(2) Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea (Draycott). 

Under-Ground Nut. Earth-nut, Conopodium 
ma jus. 

Under-Ground Roses. His Honour J. S. 
Udal gives this as a Dorset name for the Double 
Pink Hepatica triloba. 

Upstart. The Meadow Saffron or Autumn 
Crocus, Colchicum autumnale, from the way in 
which its fiowtrs start up suddenly from the 
ground \\-ithout any sign of leaves. 

Variegated Nettles. Mr. Edward Viv^ian 
gives me this as a name for " Cultivated indoor 
plants with a nettle-like leaf. They are quite 
stingless. Their leaves are found in a hundred 
shades of reds, browns, yellows, and greens, 
irregularly and beautifully blotched." I presume 
he refers to the Coleus. 

Vases. The Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, Geranium 
molle (a school-girl at Tatworth). 

Vearns. Several correspondents send me this 
as a local name for Feriis generally, ai^d for the 
Bracken, Pteris aquilina in particula'\ Mr. F. W. 
Mathews writes : " The word Vearn (not plur- 
alized but used generically) means only bracken 
cut for stock-bedding." 

Velvet Dock. A school-girl at Brompton 
Regis gives me this as a local name for what e 
believe to be the Greater Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus. 

Venus' Basin. The Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris 
(a school -boy at Bradford-on-Tone). Other old 
English names for the plant are Venus' Bath and 
Venus Cup. Dr. Downes writes me : " The 
leaves are connate, i.e., united at their bases 
and surrounding the stem, so as to form a basin. 
The plant feeds on the insects which are drowned 

in the water which collects in this basin ^an 

example of an insectivorous plant." 

Venus' Chariot Drawn by Two Doves. An 
old Erglish name for the Monk's-hood, Aconitum 
Napellus. 

Venus' Comb. An ^Id name, still frequently 
used, for the Shepherd's Neeale, Scandix Pecten- 
Veneris. 

Venus' Fly-Trap. The true Venus' Fly-trap 
is Dioncea muscipula, a Sundew found in the 
sandy bogs of No-th and South Carolina : but 
I gather from several school-cbildien at Wembdon 
that the name is incorrectly used in that district 
for oar English Sundew, Drosera rotundifolia. 

Venus in Her Car. The school -children at 
North Cheriton and Holton give this name to the 



27,8 

Water Figwort, Scrophularia aqimtica, and also 
to one or more of the Dead -Nettles, Lamium. 

Venus' Looking-Glass. (1) A general name 
ior the Corn Bellflower. Leqonsia hybrida. 

(2) Honesty, Lunaria biennis (a school-boy 
at Martock). 

Vethek-Vo. Common Feverfew, Chrysanthe- 
mum Parthenium. See Feathek-Few. 

ViEBNS. Ferns. Mr. Elworthy says " Always* 
In speaking of ViERXS, generally the "-ommon 
Bracken is meant, of which great quantities are 
cut for bedding." 

VioUN Strings. Leaves of the Ribwort 
Plantain, Plantago lanceolata (Bridgwater). See 
Fiddle Strings (2). 

Virgin Mary's Milk Drops. Mr. Edward 
Vivian (Trowbridge) gives me this as a local 
nrme for a plant unknown to him personally, 
but said to have a white spotted leaf. He 
no doubt refers to the Common Lungwort, 
Pulmonaria officinalis, or to one of the cultivated 
species in which the white spots on the leaves 
are more pronounced than in our native species. 

Virgin Mary's Nipple. Rev. Hilderic Friend* 
writes in his " Flowers and Flower Lore " : — ■ 
*• Du ing a recent visit to the West of England I 
fouid that the name of Virgin Mary's Nipple was 
i pp.ied by the people in some parts of Somerset 
to a certain plant noted for the milk-white 
sap whiih flows from it on being gathered. It is 
n )t a Lttle curious that this plant, which belongs 
to the Spurge family, should in some places be 
coise^.. ated to the devil; but so it is." Mr. 
James Britten suggests that the particular p'ant 
referred to is probably the Sun Sputge, Euphorbia 
Helioscopia. 

Virgin Mary's Tears. Common Lungwort, 
P Imonaria officinalis (Weymouth). See Mary's 
Tears. 

Virgin's Bower. A general name for the Wild 
Clem Ais or Traveller's Joy, Clematis Vitalba. 

Virgin's Fingers. Correspondents at East 
Coker and Stockland (Des^on) give me this as a 
local name for the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. 

Virgin's Milk. Several jrchool-children at 
Thome St. Margaret give me tnis as a local name 
for the " Milk Thistle," by which they probably 
raean the common Sow Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus. 

Vlex. Flax (West Somerset). 

Voilet. a common mis-pronunciation of 
Violet. 

Vrex or Vrexen. Rushes, J uncus b"foniu8 
(We^'t Somerset). See Rex-bush and Rexen. 



279 

Vuz. Gorse ; Whiu ; Furze, Ulex europceus. 

VuzZEN. A Dorset and East Somerset form 
of Vuz. 

Wag-a-Wams (or Wands). Quaking-grass, 
Briza media (East Somerset). 

Waggin'-Grass. Quaking-grass, as above 
(Pulman). 

Wag-Wafers. Quaking-grass (Charmouth). 

Wag-Wams (Wands, Wants, or Wantons). 
Quaking-grass, Briza media. 

Wag-Winds. Quaking-grass (Muchelney). 

Waite-Weed (i.e.. Wet -weed). The Dandelion' 
Taraxacuyn officinale (Donhead, Wilts). See Wet- 
abed. ; 

Wake at Noon. The Star of Bethlehem, 
Ornithogalum nmbellatum (North-West Wilts). 

Wake Eobin. An old name, still frequently 
used, for the Wild Arum or Cuckoo-pint, Arum 
maculatum.. 

Walking-Grass. Aa Ilminster schooi-girl gives 
me this as a local name for the Wild Oal , Avena 
fatua. 

Wallet. B^-ushwood ; bramble-wood (Rev. 
W. P. Williams). 

W^ALL Ginger. Biting Stonecrop, Sedum 
acre ; more often called Wall Pepper. 

Wall Grass. Biting Stonecro'i, Sedum acre 
(Devon ; Rev. H. Friend). 

Wall Lilac. Red Spur Valerian, Kentranthus 
ruber (a school-boy at Axbridge). 

Wall Pepper. Biting Stonecrop, Sedum acre. 

Wandering Jack. The Ivy-leaved Toad-fiax, 
Linaria Cymbalaria (Watchet). More oftea called 
Wandering (or Roving) Sailor. 

Wandering Jew. The old-fashioned pot plant, 
Saxifraga sarmentosa. See Aaron's Beard (2). 

Wandering Sailor. (1) The Ivy -leaved 
Toadflax, Linaria Cymbalaria. 

(2) The name is also sometimes given in 
Devon to the Moneywort or " Creeping Jenny," 
Lysimachia Nummularia. 

Wandering Willie. (1) School-children at 
Dunster, Bromptoo Regis, and Stockland (Devon) 
give this name to the Convolvulus — I do not know 
whether Greater or Lesser. 

(2) Miss Parkin tells me th^t some of the 
sciiool-children at Brompton Regis give this 
name to the Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum. 

Warriors. Wallflowers, Cheiranthns Cheiri. 
See Bloody Warriors. 



28o 

"Wabt-Cbess. The general English name for 
Coronopiis didymus ; also used for the Swine's 
Cress, Coronopus jprocumbens. 

Wabt Cuber (or Plant). Greater Celandine, 
CJielidonium majus (West Somerset). 

Wabt Floweb. The Rev. H. Friend says *' In 
Devoashire the Ranunculus is still called Wabt- 
Floweb, on account of its milky juice being 
employed for painting those unsightly pro- 
tuberances." Dr. Watson wi-ites me : " There 
is no juice which can be called milky in Iianun~ 
cuius. I expect that tho Greater Celandine is 
the plant referred to. Its yellow juice, if regularly 
applied, cures warts. Confusion has perhaps 
arisen with the Lesser Celandine, and thenoe to 
other species of Ranunculus.'' 

Wabt-Weed. The Sun Spiirge, Euphorbia 
Eelioscopia, from its juice being used to cxire 
warts. 

Waet-Wobt. (i) The Greater Celandine, 
Cheddonium majus, the juice of which is ised to 
cure warts (Wilts). 

(2^ The Petty Spurge, Euphorbia Peplus 
(Wiltv). 

Watch Chains (or Watch AND Chains). The 
LabariiuT , Laburnum vulgare ; moi-e often called 
Golden Chain. 

Watches. (1) A numbe' of school-girls at 
South Petherton give me thi-: a? a local name f :>r 
a St. John's- Wort, but do not indicate the species 

(2) The Greater Celandine, Stellaria Holostea* 
(Stickland, Dorset). 

Watches and Clocks. The Daadelion' 
Taraxacum officinale (a Yeovil school-boy). More, 
often called clocks. 

Wateb Anemone. The Ivy-leafed CroAvfoot, 
Rany7iculi'.shederaceus{Zea,ls, Wilts). Dr. Watson 
tells me the name is used more particularly for 
the larger-flowered Water Crowfoots. 

Wateb Babies. The Marsh Marigolo, Caltha 
palustriii (a ^Mvchelaey 5chool-bo/). 

Wateb Beetney (or Betony). Water Fig- 
woit, Scrophnlaria aquatica ; a popular remeoy for 
iniiamm;! lions. 

Water Bibd's-Eye. Broo^lime, Veronica 
Beccabunga (AJnngton. De\oii). 

Wateb Blobs. (1) The Marsh Marigold 
Caltha palustris. See May Blobs. 

(2) The Yellow Water Lily, Nymphcea luiea 
(Wilts). 

Wateb Bubbles. The Marsh Marigold, CaUha 
palustris (Brut on and Thorncomte). 

Water Buttebcup. ( 1) The Marsh Marigold 
Caltha j)ati'stris (Devon ; Rev. H. Friend). 



28l 

(2) The Lesser Spearwoit, RmiKnculus Flam- 
mula (Zeals, Wilts). 

Water C an . Tb ^ Yell ow Wat er Li ly , Ny mphcea 
lutea. 

Water Cuckoo. Lady's Smock or Cuckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis (S.W . \\ilt6). 

Water Cups. The Yellow Water Lily, 

Nymphcea lutea (Bridgwater). 

Water Elder. The Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Optdiis. 

Water Flag. The Yellow Iris, Iris Pseuda- 
cor vs. 

Water Forget-Me-Xot. The Evergreen 
Al\.a,i\et , Anchusa sempervirens (West Somerset). 
Dr. Watson writes me that this must be an error, 
as the Evergreea Alkanet is not a water plant, 
but several correspondents in West Somerset 
assure me the name is so used. 

Water Georgles. The Marsh Marigold , Caltha 
palnstris (Sexey's School and Mells). 

Water Grass. See Old Man's Beapd (5). 

Water Leek. Broad-leaved Gariic or 
Ramsons, Allium ursinutn (Staple Fitzpaine). 

Water Lily. (1) The Yellow Iris, Iris 
Pseudacoms. It will be easy to account for the 
Iris being locally :;alk d a lily when we remember 
that this flower' is generally supposed to be the 
lily of France, and that one of our greatest 
writers speaks of 

" Lilies of all Kinds, 

The flower-de-luce being one,' 

(2) The Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris ; 
alm.ost as commonly used as No. 1. 

(3) The Water Crowfoot, Banunculus aquatilis 
(Charlton, Wilts, and West Somerset). 

Water Pepper. The Biting Persicaria, Poly- 
gonum Hydropiper. 

Water Poplar. The Black Poplar, Populus 
nigra. The name is applied also to Populus 
fastigata. 

Water Rose. The White Water Lilv, Castalia 
alba (N jrth Pet her ton). 

Water Squirt. The Wild Angelica, Angelica 
sylvestris (Shoscombe). 

Wax Dolls. Correspondents at Taunton, 
Chard, and Evershot send me this as a local name 
for the Common Fumitory, Fumaria officinalis. 

Waxworks. Common Milkwort, Polygala 
vulgaris (Failey, Wilts). 

Waybread. An old English name for the 
Greater Plantain, Plantago ynajor. 



282 

Watfaking Tree. A general name for the 
Mealy Guelder-rose, Viburnum Lantana. 

Wayside Beauty. The Bla-Kthom, Prunua 
spinosa (a scho:)l-boy at Hardington Mandeville). 

Wayside Bread. The Greater Plantain, 
Plantago major (Wilts ; Eng. Plant Names). 

Weasel's Nose. A variation of Weasel- 
snout sent me from Kimmeridge, Dorset. 

Weasel-snout. A ge leral English name for 
the Yellow Dead-nettle, Lamium Galeobdolon. 

Weather Clocks. The Dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale ( school-boy at Long Sutton). 

Weather Flower. The Scarlet Pimpernel, 
Anagallis arvensis (Milborne Port). 

Weather Teller. The Scarlet Pimpernel, as 
above (We't Somerset). 

Weather Glass. The Scarlet Pimpernel, as 
above (East Somerset and Wilts). 

Wedding Flowers. Anemones (? Anemone 
nemorosa) (Camerton). 

Weeping Golden Bells. A lady at Wells 
gives me this as a local name for a species of 
Forsythia — a genus of slender shrubs of the 
Olive family, natives of China and Japan, of which 
two species are cultivated in parks under the 
name of Golden Rain. Mr. T. W\ Cowan sug- 
gests the particular species would probably be 
F. suspensa. 

Weeping Willow. In some parts of North 
Devon this name is given to the Laburnum, 
Laburnum vulgare, from its drooping clusters 
of goldea blossoms, and its leaf being somewhat 
like that of the willow. The true Weeping Willow 
is Salix babylonica. 

Weeps. Dr. R. C. Knight gives me this as 
an East Somerset word for long brushwood, 
bound into small bundles with three bonds 
(instead of one as an ordinary faggot), used for 
shelter, e.g. lambing yards, open cow-stalls, &c. 
He tells me he has never heard it used in the 
singular. 

Welcome Home, Husband, Though Neveb 
so Drunk. This very cmious local name for 
the Yellow Stonecrop, Sedum acre, is sent me 
by a lady at Hammoon (Dorset). 

Weld. A general English name for the Dyer's 
Rocket or Yellow Weed, Reseda Luteola r some- 
times called Dyer's Mignonette. 

Welsh Nut. The Walnut, Juglans regia. 

Wet- ABED (or Wet the Bed). The Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. 



2S3 

What (or What's) o'Clock. The Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. See Clocks (1). 

Whip Top. The Mealy Guelder Rose or Way- 
faring Tree, Viburnum Lantana (Rampisham, 
Dorset). 

Whiskers. The Moschatel, Adoxa Moschatel- 
lina (many school -children at Paulton). 

Whiskers on the Earth. Grass (school- 
children at Thorne St. Margaret and Oare). 

Whit Aller. A West Somerset name for the 
Elder, Samhucus nigra. 

White and Red. Wild Arum or Cuckoo- 
pint, Arum maculatum (Leigh, Dorset). 

White Angel Orchid. Miss Ida Rope'' tells 
me that this name is givea in the Bristol cUstrict 
to the Great Butterfly Orchis, Habenaria chlor- 
antha. 

White Archangel. The White Dead-nettle, 
Lamium album. 

White Ash. The Common Goutweed, ^gopo- 
dium Podagraria. See Ashweed. 

White Bells. (1) The Snowdrop, GalanthuS" 
nivalis (Paulton). 

(2) Lily of the Valley, Convallaria majalis. 

(3) Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Bathealton). 

White Betty. " Snow on the Mou itain," 
Arabis alpina (Aller). 

White Bluebell. A white variety of the 
Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta. 

White Bottles. A faii^ly general name 
throughout the district for the Bladder Campion. 
Silene latifolia. 

White Cock- robin. Bladder Campion, Silene 
latifolia (East Harptree). 

White Cups. The Snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis 
(an Evercreech school -boy). 

White Easter. " Snow on the Mountain " 
{? Arabis alpina) (Chaffcombe). 

White-flower. The Greater Stitchwort, Stel- 
laria Holostea (Wilts), 

White-flowered Grass. Mr. Edward Vivian 
(Trowbridge) gives me this as a local name for 
the Stitchwort, as above. 

White Flower op Hell. Miss Ella Ford, of 
Melplash, gives me this as a local name for the 
Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia, in conseq\ience 
of the j)oison supposed to be contained in its 
leaves and " bladders." This, 1 think, must 
be entirely due to a misconception. The young 
leaves are frequently eaten by children, and are 



284 

supposed to have a flavour of green peas ; they 
have also been used as a substitute for Asparagus, 
and I believe are quite harmless. Mr. F. Edward 
Hulupe, in his " Familiar Wild Flowers," wTJtes : 
— " The plant was once called the Cucubalus, a 
word derived from the Greek words, signifying 
a bad or noxious growth. It is evident that 
the name, first employed by Pliny, has bee a 
diverted from the plant to which he applied it, 
and to which it may have been most appropriate, 
and has by some mediaeval misconception been 
given to a plant altogether innoxious." 

White Frills. The Daisy, Bellis perennis 
(Camerton). 

Whiteheads. Spikes of the Great Reed Mace 
or Bulrush, l^ypha latifolia, when the downy 
matter has ripened and lost the coIotit which 
gave them the name of Blackheads (D^von). 

White Hell-floweb. See White Flower op 
Hell. 

White Hood. Bladder Campion, Silene lati- 
folia (Dunster). 

White Lacey. (1) White Stonecrop, Sedvm 
album (Odcombe). 

(2) " Snow on the Mountain," Arabis alpina 
(a Yeovil school-b:y). 

White Lady. The school-children at Hatch 
Beauchamp give me this as a local name for the 
Mallow, but it is not easy to see the reason. 

White Queen. The Snowdrop, Galanthus 
nivalis (school -children at Otter hampton). 

Whitb Riding Hood. (1) The White (or 
Evening) Campion, Lychnis alba (Membuiy, 
Devon). 

(2) The Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia 
(Alfington, Devon). 

White Robin. The White Campion, Lychnis 
alba (Dorset). 

White Robin Hood. (1) The White Cam- 
pion, Lychnis alba. 

(2) The Bladder Campion, Silene latifolia 
(Zeals, Wilts). 

White Rock. (1) Arabis alpina. 

(2) Cerastium totnentost ni. Both plants are 
more often called Snow on the Mountain or 
Snow in Harvest. 

White Rocket. Common Rocket or Dame's 
Violet, Hesperis maironalis ; common single white 
variety. 

White Shirts. Grea.ter Convolvulus or Hedge^ 
Bindweed, Calystegia sepiiim (Martock school- 
boys). 



285 

"White Smock. The Greater Convolvulus, 
Calyslegia sepiiim (Membviry, Devon). 

Whttb Smock-fbock. The Columbine, 
Aqxilegia vtdgaris (Fivehead). 

White Snap-jacks. The Sea Campion, Silene 
maritima (Minehead). So called from the fact 
its " bladders " are frequently snapped by children 
on the backs of their hands, with a sharp noise. 

White Sting Nettle. The White Dead- 
nettle, Lamiurn album (De^on). 

White (or Whit) Sundays. (1) The Rev. 
H. J'riend says : "In both North and South 
Devon this name is give a to the Narcissus biflorus." 
Several school -childien at Hawk church send me 
White Sundays as a locaj name for Narcissi. 

(2) The G-reater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea 
(Devon). 

(3) Several school -children at Brompton Regis 
give me this as a local name for " Whitsuntide 
Balls " by which I imagine they mean the 
Guelder Rose. 

Whitesun Gilawfers. (1) The Double 
White Rocket, Double-flowering Hesperis matron- 
alis (F. T. El worthy). 

(2) Other correspondents in West Somerset 
and elsewhere apply the name to the Stock, 
Matthiola. 

White Watch and Chain. The Acacia 
(school-children at Ilminster). 

White Weed (or Wood). The Mealy Guelder 
Rose, Viburnum Lantana (Wilts). 

Whttsun Balls. (1) The Guelder Rose, 
Viburnum, Opulus. 

(2) The Red Peony, Pceonia officinalis (Stock- 
land Bristol). 

Whtt Sunday. See White Sunday. 

Whttsun Flower. (1) The Guelder Rose, 
Vibvrnnm Opulus (North Petherton). 

(2) The Wood-sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella (Dors#t). 

Whitsun Gilaffer, Gilawfer, or Giloffeb. 
( 1) A number of correspondents in West Somerset 
and other parts of the county give me this as a 
local name for the Bromoton Stock, Matthiola 
incana. 

(2) The Rev. W. P. Wilhams gives it as a 
Somersetshire name for Carnations, Dianthus 
Caryophyllus, and also 

(3) Wallflowers, Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

Whttsun Gilly-flower. A Bridgwater cor- 
respondent gives me this as a local name for White 
Rocket, Hesperis matronalis. 

Whttsun Rose. The Guelder Rose, Viburnum 
Opulus (Axbridge). 



286 

Whitsun Tassels. The Guelder Rose, as 
above (Bradford-on-Tone). See May Tassels. 

WHrrsuNTiDE. The Lilac, Syringa vulgaris (Mr. 
F. W. Mathews, BradCord-on-Tone). 

Whitsuntide Bosses. The Guelder Rose, 
Viburnum Opulus (Thorncombe and Charmouth). 
Applied in some districts to the garden variety 
only. 

Whitsuntide Gilly (or Jelly) Flower. (1). 
A correspondent at Broadstone gives n^e this as 
a local name for the Sweet Rocket, Hesperig 
matronalis. 

(2) The Rev. H. N. Ellacombe, vicar of 
Bittoa in 1870, writing of the Pink, said it is 
not so named for its colour ; it comes by an easy 
aad well -ascertained \;ourse from " Pentecost," 
and is in fact the Whitsuntide Gilly-flower 
of our ancestors. 

Whitty-tbee. The Mealy Guelder-rose, Vibur- 
num Lantana (S.W. Wilts). 

Who Stole the Donkey ? The Goose-grass 
or Cleavers, Galium Aparine (North Somerset). 

Wickiid Tree. The Lesser Dodder, Cuscuta 
Epithymum (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

WiCKEN Tree. The Mountaia Ash, Pyrus 
Aucuparia (Compton, near Yeovil). Dr. Watson 
tells me that Wicken-berry is a common name 
in some parts of the Pennines. 

Widow's Cap. The Calceolaria (Bruton). 

Widow's Weeds. The Columbine, Aquilegia 
vulgaris (Tiowbridge). 

WiD-wiND (Chewton Mendip) and 

WiDDY Wine (Chiltoi Polden). See Withy- 

WIND. 

Wigger-waggers. Quaking Grass, Briza 
media (Bradford-on-Tone). 

W IGGLE Waggles. Quaking Grass, as above 
(East Somerset, and Bradford-oa-Toae). 

Wiggle Wantoms. Quaking Grass (Chewton 
Mendip). 

Wiggle Wants. Quaking Grass (S.W. Wilts). 
Wiggle Woggles. Quaking Grass (Dorset). 

WiGGY Wantons. Quaking Grass (Chewton 
Mendip). 

Wig Wams. A common name for the Quaking 
Gi-ass, Briza media, over the Eastern half of 
Somerset and parts of Dorset and Wilts. 

Wig Wands. Quaking Grass, as above 
(Dors?t). 

Wild Asparagus. Spiked Star of Bethlehem, 
Omithogalum pyrenaicum (Somerset and S.W. 
Wilts). See Bath Asparagus. 



287 

Wild Aster. The Field Scabious, Scabiosa 
arvensis (Ubley). 

Wild Bulls' Eyes. Mr. W. C. Baker, late of 
Maunsel, gives me this as a local name for a 
species of St. John's Wort, Hypericum. 

Wild Buxny Rabbits. Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris (Stalbridge). 

Wild Cabbage. (1) The Sea Cabbage, 
Brassica oleracea ; very rare in Somerset, but 
abundant on the banks of the Yeo between 
Ilchester and Mudford, where it can only be 
considered as an escape from cultivation (Rev. 
R. P. Murray). 

(2) The Schoolmaster at Batcombe gives me 
this as a local aame for the Yellow Rocket, but 
I fancy there must be some coafusion here. 

Wild Calceolaria. A young lady at Welling- 
ton gives me this as a local name for the Bird's- 
foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus. 

Wild Christmas Rose. The Green Hellebore, 
HeUeborus viridis. 

Wild Chrysanthemum. Ragwort, Senedo 
Jacobcea (Alfington, Devon). 

Wild Cornflower. (1) The Corn Bluebottle, 
Centaurea Cyanns. 

(2) The Greater Knapweed Centaurea 
Scabiosa. 

(3) The Black Knapweed, Centaurea nigra. 

Wild Crocus. The Meadow Saffron, Colchicum 
autuynnale ; more often called Autumn Crocus. 

Wild Fobget-Me-Not. (1) The Field Scor- 
pion-grass, Myosotis arvensis. Other species of 
Myosotis are called Forget-me-not but the prefix 
" Wild " appears to be limited to this particular 
plant. 

(2) Mrs. H. Day gives me this as a North 
Petherton name for the Woodruff. Asperula 
odorata. 

Wild Gapmouth. The Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris (Bradford-on-Tone). 

Wild Geranium. (1) The Herb Robert, 
Geranium Robertianum. 

(2) Common Mallow, Malva sylvestris (Staple 
Fitzpaine). 

(3) A dozen school-children at Paulton give 
me this as a local name for the Ivy-leaved Toad- 
flax, Linaria Cymbalaria. This, of course, is a 
mistake — I cannot say how wide-spread it may 
be in that district — but it would probably be 
traceable to a single source. 

Wild Golden Chain. Yellow Melilot, Melilotua 
aUissima (Shoscombe). 

Wild Hops. A school-girl at Stogursey gives 



288 

me this as a local name for the Meadow-sweet, 
Spircea Ulmaria. There appears to be some 
confusion here. i ^J , 

Wild Hyacinth. (1) This name rightly 
belongs to the Bluebell, Scilla non-scripta, but a 
number of correspondents in South and West 
Somerset and in Devon apply it to 

(2) The Early Purple Orchis, Orchis mascula. 

Wild Lily. Common Ariim or Cuckoo-pint, 
Arum maculatum. (Devon). 

Wild Liquorice. (1) The Rest-harrow, 
Ononis repens, 

(2) Th-^ Sweet Milk-vetch, Astragalus glycy- 
phyllos (White's Bristol Flora). 

Wild Lobelia. Common Milkwort, Poly gala 
vulgaris (Puddletown). 

Wild London Pride. (1) Mr. F. W. 
Mathews, of Bradford-on-Tone, gives me this as 
a local name for the Enchanter's Nightshade, 
Circcea lutetiana. 

(2) The Wood Sanicle, Sanicula europcea 
(Staple Fitzpaine). 

Wild Onions. Broad-leaded Gai-lic, Allium 
ursinum. 

Wild Phlox. The Willow-herb, Epilobium 
(Wellington). 

Wild Potato Flower. The Woody Night- 
shade or Bittersweet, Solanum Dulcamara. Dr. 
Watson adds : " And probably is much more 
likely to be applied to the Black Nightshade, 
S. nigrum. 

Wild Purses. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella 
B ursa pastoris (Camerton). 

Wild Rhubarb. (1) The Burdock, Arctium. 

(2) The Butter -bur, Petasites ovatns. 

(3) The Colt's-foot, Tussilago Farfara 
( Watch et). 

"WiLiT Rosemary. (1) An old name for the 
Lady's Bed straw, Galium verum. 

(2) The Marsh Andromeda, Andromeda 
polifolia (White's Bristol Flora). 

Wild Shamrock. (1) The Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella. 

(2) The Tuberous Moschatel, Adoxa Mos- 
chatellina (Watchet). 

(3) Black Medick or Nonsuch, Medicogo 
lupulina (school-children at Thorne St. Margaret). 

Wild Snapdragon. (1) Yellow Toadflax, 
Linaria vulgaris. 

(2) Also, and more properly, to the Weasel- 
snout, Antirrhinum Orontium (Dr. Watson). 

Wild .Spinach. Mercury Goosefoot or Good 
King Henry, Chenopodium Bonus - Henricus 
<Wbite's Bristol Flora). 



289 

Wild Sweet Pea. (1) This name appears to 
be givou to several different species of Vetch; 
maiy corresx^^^^idents do not indicate any par- 
ticular species, bat others name the Tufted 
Vetch, Vicia Cracca, the Bush Vetch, V. sepiiim, 
the Common Vetch, V. saliva. Miss Roper adds 
the Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea, Lathyrus 



(2) The Rest-harrow, Ononis repens. 

Wild Tansy. The Silverweed, Potentilla 
Anserina. 

Wild Thyme. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus 
corniculatus (Wells, Rev. R. P. Murray). 

Wild Tobacco. (1) The Burdock, Arctium 
(Bradford-on-Tone). 

(2) Plantain, Planiago (Yeovil school-boys). 

Wild Tomato. (1) Mr. F. W. Mathews 
(Bradford-on-Tone) tells me that the common 
Nightshade, Solanum nigrum, is sometimes 
known by this name. 

(2) A correspondent at Wimborne gives it as 
a local name for the Deadly Nightshade, Atropa 
Belladonna. This is probably a mistake due to 
contusion with the Woody Nightshade or Bitter- 
sweet, Solanum Dulcamara. 

Wild Vine. The White (or Red-berried) 
Bryony, Bryonia dioica. 

Wild William. A school-girl at Oake gives 
me this as a local name for the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. Mr. T. W. Cowan tells 
me that in some parts of England it is an old 
name for the Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 

Wild Willow. The Great Hairy Willow herb, 
Epilobium hirsutum (Wilts : Great Estate, 
chap. 2). 

William and Mahy. The Virginian Stock, 
Malcolmia maritima (school-girls at Ilminster). 

Willow Blossom. The Rev. H. Friend gives 
this as a Devonshire name for the Phlox, and 
suggests that it i possibly due to some coniusion 
with the Willow-herb. See Wild Phlox. 

Willow-Hbrb. This is the general English 
name for the genus Epilobium, but it is some- 
times applied to the Great Yellow Loosestrife, 
Lysim,achia vulgaris, and several correspondents 
send me the name in this connection. Mr. W. S. 
Price tells me it is generally given to this plant 
in the Wellington district. 

Willow- STRIFE. The Purple Loosestrife, 
Lythrum Salicaria (Dunster and Compton, near 
Yeovil). 

WiLLOw-WoRT. Mrs. H. Day gives me this as 
a North Petherton name for the Yellow Loosestrife, 
Lysimachia vulgaris. 



290 

Wiltshire Weed. The common Elm, Ulmus 
campestris. The compilers of the Wiltshire 
Glossary say : " This is a term frequently 
occurring in books and articles on Wilts, but it 
would not be understood by the ordinary Wilt- 
shire folk." See Elem. 

Wim-Wams. The Quaking-grass, Briza media 
(Axbridge school-childien). 

Wind Flower. A very common name for the 
Wood Aaemone, Anemone nemorosa. The name 
Anemone is derived from the Greek anemos — -the 
wind, because the plant is said to love the wind. 

Wind-Grass. Apera (White's Bristol Flora). 

Wind-Mills. The Blae Iris (school-children 
at Oakhill). 

Wine Glasses. Canterbury Bells, Campanula 
medium (Boroughbridge). 

Wind-Pipe. A co-respondent at Compton, 
near Yeovil, gives me this cx^rious name for the 
Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis. It may 
possibly be a corruption of Wink-a-peep or 
Wink-and-peep given by Britten & Holland as 
a country name for this plant, from the way in 
which its flowers close or wink on damp days, 
and open or peep again when the weather be- 
comes fine. 

Wings. (1) The winged seeds of the 
Sycamore, Acer Pseudo-platanus (Wellington). 

(2) The winged seeds of the Ash, Fraxinus 
excelsior (Chewton Mendip). 

Wing-Wongs. Quaking-grass, Briza media 
(North Curry, Stoke St. Gregory, and Wilts). 

Winter Daisy and Winter Geranium. The 
Rev. H. Friend says : — " In Somerset a small 
Chrysanthemum is called Winter Daisy, while 
the large varieties are known as Winter 
Geraniums." 

Winter Gilly-Flower. The Wall-flower, 
Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

Winter Greens. Cu'^ied Kale, Brassica 
fimbricata (F. T. Elworthy). 

Winter-pick. Blis Honour J. S. Udal gives 
this as a Dorset name for a large kind of Sloe. 

Winter Rose. (1) The Hellebore (Devon). 
(2) The Peony (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Winter Strawberry. The Strawberry tree, 
Arbutus Unedo. 

WiRRAL (WoRRAL or Wurral). Black Hore- 
hound, Ballota nigra. (S.W. Wilts, Somerset 
border). 

Wishes. A correspondent at Chilmark (Wilts) 
gives me this as a local name for the Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. 



291 

Witches' Arms. The Common Hemp-nettle, 
Galeopsis Tetrahit (Miss Ella Ford, Melpiash). 

Witches' Cap. The Sunflower, Helianthus 
annuus (a school-girl at Smallridge, Axminster). 

Witches' Gowan. Cultivated species of the 
Globe-flower, Trollius. 

Witches' Thimble. (1) The Harebell, Cam- 
panula rotundifolia. 

(2) A Taunton lady applies the name to the 
Ivy-leaved Bell-flower, Wahlenbergia hederacea. 

Witch Flower. (1) The Woody Nightshade, 
Solanum Dulcamara (Shoscombe). 

(2) The Enchanter's Nightshade, Circcea lute- 
tiana (Siioscombe). 

Witch Halsb. The Wych Elm, Ulmua glabra 

(West Somerset). 

Witch Tree. The Wych Elm, as above. 

Withers. A coarse grass growing in marshy 
places ; commonly called Sword-grass, because 
the biaf'es are broad and sharp, Glyceria aqvatica. 

With- VINE (Wind or Wine). (1) The Field 
Convolvulus or Bmdweed, Convolvulus arvensis. 

(2) Less frequently the Hedge Convolvulus, 
Calystegia sepium. 

(3) Couch-grass, Agropyron repens. 

Withy. The Willow or Osier, Salix. All 
species are known by this name. 

Withy-bind. Field Convolvulus or Bindweed, 
Convolvulus arvensis (Evershot). 

Withy-weed. Field Convolvulus, as above 
(Ilminster and Horton). 

Withy-vine (Wind or Wine). (1) The com- 
monest nam 3 for the Field ConvoVulus or Bind- 
weed, Convolvulus arvensis. Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
says this name for the troublesome weed has 
remainf-d unchanged for a thousand years. 

(2) Mr. Edward Vivian tells me that in the 
Trowbridge district this name is also applied to 
the Wild Clematis, Clematis Vitalba. Dr. R. C. 
Knight tells me he hasheaid the name so used 
at Castle Cavy. 

Withy-Winny (or Winy). The Common (or 
Black) Bryony, Tamu^ communis (school-girls 
at Stockland, Devon). 

Wo ad Wax (or Waxen). Dyer's Green- weed 
or Dyer's Wnin, Genista tindoria. 

Wold Man's Beard. A Dorset form of Old 
Man's Beard, which see. 

WoLEWORT. A Wincanton school -girl gives 
me this as a local name for the Lesser Willow- 
herb, Epilobium parviflorum. 



292 

Wolf's-bane. The Monk's-hood, Aconitum 

Napellus. 

Wolf's Eye. A school-girl at Evershot sends 
me this as a local name for the Small Bugloss, 
Lycopsis arvensis. Anne Pratt says the Dutch 
call this plant Wolfs-chyn, and this, as well as the 
scientific name, has a reference to the fancied 
resemblance of this flower to the face or eye of 
a wolf ; but he must have had a very active fancy 
to whose mind the resemblance was first sug- 
gested. 

Woman's Night-cap. The Wood Sorrel, 
Oxalis Acetosella (a schooi-girl at Brompton 
Regis). 

Wood Alone. The Moschatel, Adoxa Mos- 
chatellina (Miss Ella Ford, Melplash). 

Wood Ash. The Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Aceto- 
sella (a school-girl at Cnewton Mendip). 

Wood Elder. Dr. R. C. Knight gives me 
this as a Somerset name for the Wood Sanicle, 
Sanicula europcea. 

Wood Laurel. The Common Spurge Laurel, 
Daphne Laureola. 

Wood Pea. The Tuberous Bitter Vetch, 
Lathyrus montanus. 

Wood Wax. (1) Dyer's Greenweed, Genista 
tinctoria (Wilts and Dorset). 

(2) Needle Wnin, Genista anglica (Farley, 
Wilts). 

(3) The Broom, Cytisus scoparius (school- 
girls at S ock ani, Devon). 

Wood Wex. A Dorset form of Wood-wax (1). 

Woolly Heads. T le Wood An^nome, Anenome 
nemorosa (Dowasn Wak). 

Word (or Woard) Apples {i,e., hoard apples). 
Mr. F. W. Mathews, of Bradford-on-Tone, gives 
me this as a local term ap )iied to dessert fruit as 
as distinguish d from cider fruit, th latter being 
used fresh and juicy, but the former being stored 
or hoarded to mature atid melkw. 

Worm-seed. The Worm-seed Treacle-mustard, 
Erysimum cheiranthoides. The name owes its 
origin to the seeds of the plant being used as a 
vermifuge. 

Wormwood. (1) The true Wormwood is 
Artemesia Absinthium, but through confusion the 
name is sometimes applied to the Mugwort, 
A. vulgaris, and also to the Southernwood or 
Boy's Love, A. abrotonum. 

(2) Tne Nipplewort, Lapsana communis 
(Watchet). 

Worts. The Whortleberry, Vaccinium Myrtil- 
lus ; more particularly applied to the fruit. 



293 

Woundwort. (1) This is the general English 
name for plants of the genus Stachys. 

(2) A lady at Martock gives me this as a local 
name for the Common Yarrow, Achillea Mille- 
folium, which was formerly used as a vulnerary. 
One of its old English names was Souldier's 
Wound-wort, and one of its present popular 
names is Nose-bleed. 

(3) Several correspondents apply the name 
to the Common Golden-rod, Solidago Virgaurea ; 
formerly greatly esteemed as "a soveraigne 
wound-herb, inferior to none, both for inward and 
outward hurts." 

Wren Flower. The H^rb Robert, Geranium 
Bobertianum. See Jenny Wren. 

WuK. A Somerset pronounciation of Oak. 

WuTS. A Somerset pronoanciation of Oats. 

YAU.ERS. The Ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea 
(Brean). 

Yap-Mouth. A Taunton correspondent gives 
me this as a local name for the Snapdragon, 
Antirrhinum, majns. 

Yard Daisies. The Feverfew, Chrysanthemum 
Parthenium (Queen Camel). Dr. Watson ^'^^•ites : 
— " Mi^ch m^r^ likrly to be applied to Matricaria 
Chamomilla, or M. inodora, rv Anthemis Cot da. 
These daisy-like plants are mor comroonlj found 
in yards tnan the Feverfew." 

Yellow Bells. The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pse ido-Narciss IS (Pauiton school-children). 

Yellow Buttons. (1) The Common Tansy, 
Tanacet 'm v Igare. 

(2) Buttercups Ranimculj.s (Camarton). 

Yellow Clover. Hop Trefoil, Trifolium 
proc imbens. 

Yellow Cups. Buttercups in general (Zeals, 
Wilts). 

Yellow Devils. One of my Somerset corres- 
pondents sent me this as a local name for the 
Yellow Iris, Iris Pseudacorus, but I unfortunately 
omitted to mi-ke a note of the particular part 
of the county from which it came. 

Yellow Heads. Common Groundsel, Senecio 
vulgaris (a school- girl at Chewton Mendip). 

Yellow Holly. Mr. F. W. Mathews, of 
Bradford-on-Tone, gives me this as a name 
sometimes aijplied in that district to the Barberry, 
Berberis vulgaris, from the colour of the flower arid 
the prickliness of the leaves. Several corres- 
pondents point out that the leaves of the Common 
Barberry are not prickly. Miss Roper suggests 
the species referred to may be B. aquifolium, 
which is often planted as cover for pheasants. 



294 

Mr. Britten suggests Mdhonia, which I believe 
is another name for the species mentioned by- 
Miss Roper. 

Yellow Ladies. The double form of the 
Daffodil, Narcissus Pse>ido-N drcissns (Muchelney) 

Yellow Maidens. The Daffodil (Ilminster 
school-girls). 

Yellow Ox-Eye. The Corn Marigold, Chry- 
sanihemum, segetam. 

Yellow Pimpernel, a general English name 
for the Wood Loosestrife, Lysimachia nemorwm. 

Yellow Prince. Yellow Wallflowers, Cheir- 
anthus Cheiri (Axbridge school-children). 

Yellow Rocket. Common Winter-cress, 
Barharea vulgaris. 

Yellow Rose. The Japanese shrub, Kerria 
(or Corchori(s) japonica. 

Yellow Stars. The Colt's-foot, Tussilago 
Farfara (Aller). 

Yellow Strawberry. Common Avens or 
Herb Bennet, Geum urbanum (Ditcheat). 

Yellow Thatch. Meadow Vetchling, Lathyrus 
pratensis (Zeals, Wilts). 

Yellow Trumpets. The Daffodil, Narcissus 
Pseudo-N arciss us (Hatch Beauchamp and Paulton 
school-children). 

Yellow Water Lily. This is, of course, the 
usual English name for Nymphcea lutea, but Mrs. 
H. Day tells me that in the North Petherton 
district the name is frequently applied (in error) 
to the Marsh Marigold, Caltha palustris, and Miss 
Roper tells me the name is so used i i the Chew 
Magna district also. 

Yellow Weed. A general English name for 
the Dyer's Rocket, Reseda Luteola. 

Yeo Brlmble. See Yoe Brimble. 

Yes or No. The Rye-grass, or Eaver, Lolinm 
perenne (South Petherton schoo) -glials). See 
Does My Mother Want Me ? Love Me, Love 
Me Not, and Tinker Tailor Grass. 

Yeth. Very -^ommonly used in West Somerset 
and in parts of the Quantock country for various 
kinds of Hea-th and Heather. 

Yew Brim'le. G. P. R. Pulman gives this 
as a local name for the Dog Rose, Rosa canina, 
in the Crewkerne and Axminster district. See 
Yoe Brimble. 

Yoe Brimble. The Common Bramble, R"bus 
fruticos'(S. Mr. F. T. Elworthy says : " The 
term is specially applied to one of the long rank 
rope-like runners which are so obstructive to the 
beaters in a covert, and which are much sought 
after by broom squires for binds or tyers," 



295 

Yorkshire Fog. Soft Meadow-grass, Eolcua 
lanatus. 

Young Man's Button. The cultivated double 
variety of the Daisy, Bellis peremiis (Closworth). 

Zamigusets. a school-girl at Nettlecombe 
(correct in a number of other names) gives me this 
as a local name for the Bladder Cam.pion, Silene 
latifolia. At Kilton (not many miles distant) 
the name Sammy Gussets is given to the Early 
Purple Orchis. 

Zenvy. Wild Mustard or Charlock, Brassica 
arvensis. It was formerly known as Sinapis 
arvensis, and is said to t?Jce its local name of 
Zenvy from S4nev4, a French derivative of the 
Grgeco-Latia sinapi. 

Zephyr Flower. The Wood Anemone, 
Anemone nemorosa. See Wind-Floweb. 

Zig-Zag. (1) The Zig-zag Clover, Trifolium 
medium. 

(2) A lady at Stocl land Bristol gives me this 
as a local name for the Maple (Acer campestris) 
and Sycamoie (A. Pseudo-platanus). 

Zilgreen or Zingreen. The House-leek, 
Sempervivmn tectorum. See Selgreen. 

ZiNEGAR. The Stock, Matthiola incaria. See 
Sinnegar. 

ZiNVY. See Zenvy. 

ZoG. A Stink-horn ; a very bad-smelling 
fungus. Phallus impudicus. 

Zulu Flower. As a boy at Castle Cary I 
often heard the Field Wood-rush, Luzula cam- 
pestris, called by this name, which I assumed to 
be a corruption of Luzula. 



In bringing to a close this list of Popular 
Names of Flowers, &c., which has been appearing 
in this paper every week for the past 18 months, 
I wish once more to express my indebtedness 
to the hundreds of the helpers, both old and 
young, without whose assistance this collection 
of names could never have been compiled. It is 
literally true to say that several hundred 
readers of the four papers owned by the pro- 
prietors of the ifemZrf, and also Several hundred 
boys and girls in the schools of Somerset and the 
bordering counties, have each contxibated a 
longer Of shorter list of names ; and my share of 
the work has been simply to arrange these many 
names in alphabetical order and to note the 
districts from which they have come. From the 
first I fully realised the handicaps under which 
I should be working in attempting to compile 
a list of this kind with my very limited know- 
ledge of the subject, and before venturing upon 



296 

publication I determined to secure, if possible, 
the interest and help of a few of the best 
botanists I knew, and of experts in this 
branch of folk-speech. The response was 
most encouraging ; I received ready promises of 
heJp from everyone whom I approached, and I 
am more than gz-atefal for the generous way in 
which those promises have been fulfilled. I feel 
particularly indebted to the following ladies and 
gentlemen for the kind and valuable help they 
have been good enough to give me in the final 
preparation of the list for publication : — 

Mr. James Britten, K.C.S.G., F.L.S., Brentford, 
Editor of " The Journal of Botany," and Joint 
Compiler with Mr. R. Holland of the " Dictionary 
of English Plant Names." 

Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., P.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
D.Sc, Ph.D., Clevedon. 

Dr. Harold Downes, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
Ilminster. 

Dr. R. C. K light, D.Sc, D.I.C., Imperial 
College, South Kensington, 

Mr. \\. D. Miller, Cheddoa, Taunton. 

Mr. C. T. Onions, Old Ashmolean, Oxford, 
one of the Edit >rs of the " Oxford English 
Dictionary." 

Miss Ida M. Roper, F.L.S., Bristol. 

Dr. W. Watson, D.bc, A.L.S., Taunton School. 

I am also grateful to Miss M. J. Shute (late of 
Oare), Mr. F. W. Mathews (Bradford-on-Tone), 
and Mr. W. S. Price (Wellington) for a consider- 
able amount of help in this direction, particularly 
in connection with names used in their OAvn 
districts. 

All these have done me the favour of 
going carefully through advance proofs of my 
list as I have put it into type, and they have 
not only made many useful and interesting 
additions to it, but they have also corrected 
many errors which, but for their kind services, 
I should either have made or allowed to pass un- 
detected. 

I wish to make it quite clear that those 
who have kindly helped me in this direction must 
not be considered in a.ny way responsible for any 
faults which may be found in the list as 
I have printed it. Most of them have been good 
enough on more than one occasion to make 
valuable suggestions which I have not seen my 
way to adopt, and some of then: have criticised 
quite frankly both my method of arrangerrent 
and the inclusion of some of the names, particu- 
larly of those which I have inserted as coming 
only from a scnool-boy or school-girl in some 
village. In this matter I have followed through- 
out the policy which I laid dowa in my preface, 



297 

in which I tried to make it clear that in thus 
printing the names which it had been my privilege 
to collect, I was merely offering a contribution 
towards a more worthy glossary for our county, 
which I hope may some day be compiled by an 
abler man, who will probably find no dJflaculty in 
deciding how many of these names may be worth 
preserving. In the meantime, everyone into 
whose hands a copy of my list happens to come 
must decide for lumself the value wHich he will 
place upon names which I have allowed to appear, 
upon what he may consider doubtful authority. 

My original intention was to follow this glossary 
with an index, in which all the scientific names 
of the plants mentioned would be arranged in 
alphaoetical order, and under each would be given 
the whole of the local names for that particular 
plant which had appeared in the glossary. I am 
afraid this idea must be abandoned. The list of 
names has already extended over many more 
months than I anticipated, and such an index as 
I contemplated would occupy a column of this 
paper every week for many months yet to come. 
I cannot believe that it would be of safiicient 
interest or value to justify the large amount of 
time, money, and space which would be necessary 
to compile ana print it. One of the cnief purposes 
of such an index has to a great extent already 
been met by the many cross references which have 
been given all the way through the glossary. 

A. S. MACMIIiAN. 



QK13 M32* ^"^ °°*'""" ^"''^" '-"'"'> 
"^^liiii'iifinliJIfM^/PoP"'^^ names of flo ^®" 



3 5185 00096 1852